Effect of chromolaena and pathenium as green manure Essay

The consequence of chromolaena and Parthenium as green manure and their compost on consumption and food usage efficiency of rice on Typic Paleustalf in Aldur small town, Chickmagalore taluk and Chikmagalur territory, Karnataka. Two degrees of Parthenium and chromolaena as green manures and their compost were evaluated. Application of RDF + 7.5 tones of Parthenium and chromolaena compost significantly increased the paddy output over same degree of Parthenium and chromolaena as green manure.

1. Introduction

Recently a noticeable diminution in productiveness in many of the intensively cultivated countries has been observed. The output declined is attributed to dirty debasement through alimentary and loss of dirt quality. It is evident that sustainability of harvest production system in future will chiefly depend to a big step on the adequateness and balanced supply of foods. The present experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of application of works foods combination with or without organic manure on alimentary consumption and food usage efficiency of rice.

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The present field test was started at husbandman ‘s field at Aldur small town, Chickmagalur taluk, Chickmagalore territory, Karnataka province on 2006 under rain fed status. The dirt of the experimental site is Typic Paleustalf. The initial belongings of the experimental site was: pH 5.38, EC 0.04 dSm-1, entire organic C 0.98 % , NH4+-N 61.10 mg kg-1, NO3- N 10.0 milligram kg-1, Brays-P 6.71 milligram kg-1 and NH4OAc-K 68.91 mg kg-1. The C per cent of Parthenium and chromolaena were 39.30 and 38.32 severally. The 10 interventions with three reproduction in a randomised block design are as follows:

Design: Randomized block design

No. of interventions: 10

No. of reproductions: 3

Crop: Rice

Assortment: Sharavathi

Recommended dosage of fertiliser ( RDF ) : 100: 50: 50 ( N: P2O5: K2O )

Plot size: 6 m x 6 m


T1: Control

T2` : Recommended dosage of fertiliser ( RDF )

T3: RDF + Parthenium as green manure @ 5.0 t/ha ( RDF + PG1 )

T4: RDF + Parthenium as green manure @ 7.5 t/ha ( RDF + PG2 )

T5: RDF + Parthenium compost @ 5.0 t/ha ( RDF + PC1 )

T6: RDF + Parthenium compost @ 7.5 t/ha ( RDF + PC2 )

T7: RDF + Chromolaena as green manure @ 5.0 t/ha ( RDF + CG1 )

T8: RDF + Chromolaena as green manure @ 7.5 t/ha ( RDF + CG1 )

T9: RDF + Chromolaena compost @ 5.0 t/ha ( RDF + CC1 )

T10: RDF + Chromolaena compost @ 7.5 t/ha ( RDF + CC2 )

Deliberate measures of compost and green manures were applied to the secret plans as per the interventions and were exhaustively assorted with the dirt. Fertilizers were applied as per inside informations of interventions through fertilisers viz. , urea, diammonium phosphate and muriate of potassium hydroxide to provide N, P2O5 and K2O. In all the fertiliser interventions, full P2O5 and K2O were applied basally. Nitrogen was applied in two splits 50 per cent at seting and 50 per cent at panicle induction phase. Paddy seedlings were transplanted, the harvest was irrigated. Soil samples and works samples were collected after crop from each secret plan. Dirt samples were analyzed for available N [ 5 ] available P [ 3 ] and available Potassium [ 5 ] . Plant samples were oven dried, grinded into all right pulverization and it was used for analysing N, P and K content. The N content was determined by the microkjeldhal method [ 12 ] . The P and K contents were determined after the samples were digested with triacid mixture. The P content was determined by Vanadomolybdo phosphorous xanthous coloring material method and optical density was recorded at 430 nanometer with spectrophotometer [ 12 ] . The K content was determined by utilizing digital fire photometer [ 12 ] . The consumption of N, P and K by rice works was computed from the expression given below.

Alimentary content ( % )

Alimentary consumption ( kg/ha ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ten dry weight ( kg/ha )


The evident food usage efficiency was worked out as follows

Apparent food usage efficiency ( % ) =

Consumption in treated secret plan – consumption in control secret plan X 100

Fertilizer dosage


Grain and straw output

The lowest grain output of 25.77 q ha-1 was recorded in control and highest ( 45.16 q ha-1 ) with the application of RDF + chromolaena compost @ 7.5 t ha-1 ( Table.1 ) . The output addition is due to conjunctive application of RDF and organic manures which could be reasoned out that combined application of organic and inorganic foods beginnings increases the handiness of N, P and K in dirt and in bend increases the figure of tillers, panicle and other growing attributes as a consequence of better consumption of foods from dirt [ 16 ] . This consequence is besides in close conformance with the findings of several workers on the use of other green manures in rice production [ 6 ] and [ 11 ] . [ 17 ] reviewed the efficiency of the drawn-out manurial patterns in constructing up the dirt birthrate and output of rice in flaxen loam and flaxen clay loam dirts. Organic affair increased the handiness and unavailable works foods by heightening the biochemical activity of micro-organisms.

Lowest grain output was recorded in control this was rather natural that the built-in dirt available foods were non sufficient to run into the harvest demand under the intervention. The straw output was greatly improved by the application of RDF + chromolaena compost @ 7.5 t ha-1. The superior public presentation of the grain output was observed in the same intervention it is rather natural. Addition in straw output was chiefly due to more figure of tillers and works tallness. The consequences are in close conformance with the findings of several workers in the use of other green manures in rice production [ 6 ] and [ 11 ] .

NPK consumption

In general, the heavy backdown of foods from dirts and its success depends mostly upon excess sum of fertiliser commensurate with the alimentary consumption. Increase in grain and straw output was greatly influenced by application of foods showed extremely important positive correlativity. ( Table 1 ) . Application of RDF along with chromolaena compost @ 7.5 t ha-1 ( T10: RDF + CC2 ) recorded highest entire NPK consumption, followed by higher degree of compost along with RDF. The higher NPK uptake utilizing waste land weeds as green manure, fertiliser and their combination was reported by [ 15 ] , [ 13 ] and [ 14 ] . Higher consumption with application of fertiliser interventions and the split application of N compared to organics entirely might be due to greater handiness of foods at early growing phases of harvest [ 8 ] . Whereas application of organics entirely immobilized the available foods temporarily at early phases of harvest growing [ 10 ] , [ 1 ] and [ 7 ] . The addition in P consumption could be attributed to the increased use of native P added through enriched composts due to organic acids produced during the decomposition of organic affair. Similar consequences were obtained by [ 9 ] and [ 2 ] . The increased K consumption might be due to the release of K from the organic manures and besides due to the action of organic acids which helped in the release of mineral edge indissoluble K. These consequences are in understanding with [ 4 ] add-on of compost @ 5.2 metric metric tons resulted in the extraction of 5 times more K by millet harvest when compared to command.

Food usage efficiency

Application of RDF + chromolaena compost @ 7.5 t ha-1 recorded highest entire NPK usage efficiency ( 32, 12 and 31 per cent ) followed by RDF + chromolaena compost @ 5.0 t ha-1 ( 33, 16 and 30 per cent ) Due to application organic stuffs in combination with recommended dosage of fertiliser, non merely increased output and alimentary handiness and their consumption but besides increases alimentary usage efficiency.


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