Effect Of Nacl On Physiological Parameters Of Rice Biology Essay

Abstraction

Rice workss were exposed to increasing concentrations ( 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter ) of NaCl. Fresh weight, dry weight of the treated seedlings decreased. Decreasing of works growing depended on lowering of available CO2 which was caused by stomatous closing and besides on the linear effects of leaf H2O and osmotic potency, comparative foliage H2O content, and biochemical components such as photosynthetic pigments, soluble saccharides, and proteins. increasing concentrations of NaCl resulted in addition and lessening of Na+ and K+ ions severally. NaCl salt caused for increasing both peroxide content and lipid peroxidation. Seedlings which recovered for 24 H showed lower peroxide and MDA content.

Keywords: Rice, NaCl, Salinity

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Introduction

Salt is going a serious job in several parts of the universe. The saline country is three times larger than land used for agribusiness [ 1 ] . Salinity is one of the cardinal environmental factors that limit harvest growing and agricultural productiveness. Entire country under salt is about 953 million hour angle covering about 8 per cent of the land surface [ 2-3 ] . Several physiological tracts, i.e. , photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen arrested development and saccharide metamorphosis have been observed to be affected by high salt [ 4 ] .

Rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) is one of the most of import harvests in the universe and is the primary stable nutrient for over two billion people. With the rapid growing in population consuming rice and the deteriorating dirt and H2O quality around the Earth, there is an pressing demand to understand the response of this of import harvest towards these environmental maltreatments. With the ultimate end to raise rice works with better suitableness towards altering environmental inputs, intensive attempts are on worldwide using physiological, biochemical and molecular tools to execute this undertaking. Abiotic emphasis is the chief factor negatively impacting harvest growing and productiveness worldwide. Rice workss are comparatively susceptible to dirty salt as an abiotic emphasis [ 5-6 ] .

Salt alters a broad array of metabolic procedures in turning workss and induces alterations in contents and activities of many enzymes [ 7-10 ] . As a effect of ion instability and hyperosmotic emphasiss, which are primary effects of salt emphasis, secondary emphasiss such as oxidative harm may happen. Limited CO2 arrested development due to emphasize conditions leads to a lessening in C decrease by the Calvin rhythm and lessening in oxidised NADP+ to function as an negatron acceptor in photosynthesis. When ferrodoxin is over reduced during photosynthetic negatron transportation, negatrons may be transferred from PSI to oxygen to organize superoxide groups ( O2E™ ) by the procedure called Mehler reaction, which triggers concatenation reactions that generate more aggressive reactive O species ( ROS ) . Any instability in the cellular oxidation-reduction homeostasis can be called as an oxidative emphasis and consequences in the production of ROS because of the univalent decrease of O. Salt emphasis increases the rate of production of ROS such as superoxide extremist ( O2A? ) , hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2 ) , hydroxyl extremist ( E™OH ) , alkoxyl extremist ( ROE™ ) and singlet O ( 1O2 ) formation via enhanced escape of negatron to O. It is already known that these cytotoxic ROS, which are besides generated during metabolic procedures in the chondriosome and peroxisomes, can destruct normal metamorphosis through oxidative harm of lipoids, proteins, and nucleic acids [ 11-12 ] . Lipid peroxidation, induced by free groups, is besides of import in membrane impairment [ 13-14 ] .

Salt appears to impact two works procedures: H2O dealingss and ionic dealingss. During initial exposure to salt, workss experience H2O emphasis, which in bend reduces leaf enlargement. During long-run exposure to salt, workss experience ionic emphasis, which can take to premature aging of grownup foliages. The job is compounded by mineral lacks ( Zn, P ) and toxicities ( Fe, Al, organic acids ) , submerging, deep H2O and drouth [ 15 ] . Thus the photosynthetic country available to back up continued growing is reduced [ 16 ] . Reduced photosynthesis with increasing salt is attributed to either stomatous closing, taking to a decrease in intracellular CO2 partial force per unit area, or non-stomatal factors [ 17 ] . There are groundss demoing that salt alterations photosynthetic parametric quantities, including osmotic and leaf H2O potency, transpiration rate, leaf temperature, and comparative foliage H2O content ( RWC ) . Salt besides affects photosynthetic constituents such as enzymes, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Changes in these parametric quantities depend on the badness and continuance of emphasis [ 18 ] and on works species [ 9 ] .

Harmonizing to Yeo and Flowers chlorophyll content of salt stressed rice can be described as a map of the leafs Na content [ 19 ] . Sodium chloride accretion in the foliage laminae reduces net photosynthesis and growing [ 20 ] . Sodium consumption to the rice works is greater under low than under high air humidness [ 21 ] , The response of transpiration to salt stress under different air humidness degrees differs among rice cultivars harmonizing to their overall opposition to salt and their opposition scheme [ 22 ] , and besides depends on the external salt concentration. The comparative foliage chlorophyll content of non stressed field adult rice is lower than moderate salt stressed workss. [ 23 ] . This consequence could be due to a decrease in leaf country, which has been discussed as an adaptative scheme of salt-stressed workss to cut down transpiration and therefore the consumption of Na into foliages [ 5 ] . The nitrogen concentration per unit leaf country in salt-stressed workss, nevertheless, will be higher than in non-stressed workss and therefore the net-photosynthesis can besides be expected to be higher, at least every bit long as the Na accretion in the foliage blades corsets within the bounds of the workss tissue tolerance to sodium

Starch accumulates in foliages as a impermanent modesty signifier of C and is the chief constituent of dry mass accumulated in mature foliages, whereas sucrose is transported to different variety meats where it is used by workss. The last measure in the photosynthetic production of saccharose is catalysed by the sucrose phosphate synthase ( SPS ) [ 24-25 ] which converts hexose phosphates to sucrose. Drawn-out H2O emphasis which limited photosynthesis led besides to loss of SPS activity, e.g. , in foliages of Phaseolus vulgaris [ 26 ] , whereas in quickly stressed Spinacia oleracea leaves a stimulation in SPS activity was observed [ 27 ] . A alteration in kinetic belongingss and the visual aspect of a new signifier of SPS has been noticed in murphy tubers after low temperature intervention [ 25 ] . Sucrose breakdown inside the tissues is accomplished by acerb saccharase or sucrose synthase [ 28 ] . Metamorphosis of sugars is adversely affected in workss turning under saline conditions [ 10 ] .

The present probe was undertaken to analyze the alterations in the content of amylum and sugars, Na+ and K+ concentrations, comparative H2O content ( RWC ) photochemical efficiency and negatron transportation rate and the sum of photosynthetic pigment and protein, every bit good as growing parametric quantities under assorted concentration of NaCl.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

2-1. PLANT MATERIAL AND SALT TREATMENT

Rice seeds ( Oryza sativa curriculum vitae. Tarom Azmoon. ) were surface sterilized with 1 % Na hypochlorite and washed thrice exhaustively in distilled H2O and so absorb in H2O for 48 H at room temperature. The besotted seeds were so put in fictile pots filled with vermiculite saturated with Hoagland alimentary solution [ 29 ] . After sprouting seedlings were grown in the pots filled with vermiculite saturated either with Hoagland alimentary solution ( control ) or alimentary solution supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeters NaCl for 8 yearss. The solutions renewed after every 2 yearss. Seedlings were grown in a growing chamber under controlled environmental conditions with comparative humidness of 70-85 % , temperature 24 A± 2EsC and a photoperiod of 16 H in a photosynthetic photon flux denseness of 250-350 Aµmol m-2 s-1.

2-2. MEASUREMENT OF PLANTS HEIGHT, FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT AND ROOT WATER STATUS

The length of each seedling was measured after 13 yearss ( the seeds had been soaked in H2O for 5 yearss prior to the sowing ) . The fresh weight of each culm with its foliages was taken, and so the samples were oven-dried at 80A°C and the dry weight was taken.

To find comparative H2O content ( RWC ) , four workss from each intervention were indiscriminately selected and the method described by Whetherley and Turner was fallowed [ 30-31 ] . About 0.1 g leaf sample was cut into smaller pieces and weighed to find initial weight ( Wi ) . The foliage samples were so floated in freshly de-ionized H2O for 12 H and weighed thenceforth to find to the full bombastic weight ( Wf ) . The sample was oven-dried at 80EsC for 3 yearss and the dry weight was obtained ( Wd ) . The comparative H2O content ( RWC ) was determined utilizing the undermentioned expression: RWC = ( Wi – Wd ) ( Wf – Wd ) -1 i‚? 100.

2-3. SUGAR ESTIMATION

For sugar extraction samples ( 1 g ) were ground with liquid N, and the sample pulverization was extracted twice with 5 milliliters of 80 % ( v/v ) ethyl alcohol at 80EsC for 5 min. After centrifugation at 3000A·g for 5 min, samples were washed twice with H2O at room temperature. Each sample was resuspended with 3 milliliters H2O and boiled for 2 h. Entire sugars were estimated calorimetrically utilizing phenol sulfuric acid method described by Dubois [ 32 ] and cut downing sugars by Nelson-Somogyi method as described by Oser [ 33 ] .

2-4. PIGMENT ESTIMATION

Fresh samples of foliages were analyzed for pigment contents. Photosynthetic pigments were extracted with 80 % propanone as described by Brouers et Al. [ 34 ] . The salt treated and untreated foliages ( 1.0-1.5 g ) were ground to a all right pulverization in liquid N utilizing a howitzer and stamp. The pigments were extracted with 3 cm3 of cold 80 % propanone. The propanone infusions were centrifuged at 30 000A-g for 10 min and the ensuing pellet was extracted with cold 80 % propanone. This operation was repeated 3 times. The consecutive supernatants were pooled and clarified by centrifugation at 40 000g for 5 min. The optical density spectra of the infusions were measured and the entire sum of pigments was determined with equations recommended by Brouers et Al. [ 34 ] .

2-5. TOTAL PROTEIN ESTIMATION

Protein infusions of works stuff prepared by a method somewhat modified from the one described by Boddi et Al. [ 35 ] . The foliages were land at 95A°C in an extraction buffer of 10 % ( v/v ) glycerin, 4 % ( w/v ) Na dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) , 0.3 M dithiothreitol, 0.001 % bromophenol blue and 250 millimeter Tris-HCl, pH 6.8. The proteins were quantified by a colorimetric check for protein finding utilizing the Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay kit based on the well-documented Lowry check ( Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA ) . The soaking up values were read at 750 nanometer with a Perkin Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS spectrophotometer.

2-6. MEASUREMENT OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT Rate

The Maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 ( Fv/Fm ) was determined by chlorophyll fluorescence, measured with a Chlorophyll Fluorometer ( PAM-2000 ; Heinz-Walz, Effeltrich, Germany ) harmonizing to the maker ‘s instructions and the experimental protocol of Genty et Al. [ 36 ] , was fundamentally used in this experiment. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured in dark adapted foliages. The minimum fluorescence degree ( F0 ) in the dark adapted province was measured by the measurement modulated visible radiation, which was sufficiently low ( & lt ; 0.1 I?mol m-2 s-1 ) non to bring on any important variable alteration in fluorescence. The maximum fluorescence degree ( Fm ) was measured by a 0.8 s saturating pulsation at 8000 I?mol ( photon ) m-2 s-1. The measurings of F0 were recorded with the mensurating beam set to a frequence of 0.6 kilohertzs, whereas Fm measurings were performed with the mensurating beam automatically exchanging to 20 kilohertz during the saturating flash. The maximum quantum output of PSII photochemistry ( Fv/Fm ) and the negatron conveyance rate ( ETR ) was calculated utilizing fluorescence parametric quantities determined in foliages.

2-7. Appraisal OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION LEVELS

Tissue was homogenized in 5 % trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) and the homogenate was used for the finding of H peroxide ( H2O2 ) degrees by method described by Sagisaka [ 37 ] . The reaction mixture contained TCA ( 50 % ) , ferric ammonium sulfate ( 10 millimeter ) , potassium thiocyanide ( 2.5 M ) and works infusion and the optical density was read at 480 nanometer. The degree of lipid peroxidation in the tissues was determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid ( TBA ) reactive metabolites chiefly malondialdehyde ( MDA ) accretion as described by Heath and Packer [ 38 ] . Tissue ( 0.2 g ) was extracted in 5 milliliter TBA ( 0.25 % ) made in 10 % trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) . Extract was heated at 95°C for 30 min and so rapidly cooled in ice. After centrifugation at 10,000g for 10 min, the optical density of the supernatant was measured at 532 nanometer. Correction of nonspecific turbidness was made by substracting the optical density value taken at 600 nanometer. The degree of lipid peroxidation is expressed as Aµmol of MDA formed

Consequence

Elongation surveies showed that salt emphasis had a important consequence on the lengths of seedlings ( Fig. 1 ) . Seedling grown in the alimentary solution supplied with 25 and 50 millimeter excess salt were shorter, 82.5 % and 61.2 % of the control severally. They could, nevertheless, develop their secondary foliages. Seedling grown in the alimentary solution supplied with 100 and 200 millimeter excess salt were much shorter, 49.3 % and 10 % of the control severally. They could non even develop their secondary foliages. Seedlings could barely growing at salt higher than 200 millimeter. ( Fig. 1A ) .

Salt emphasis had cut downing consequence on leaf country of seedlings. The leaf countries of salt treated seedlings with 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter salt decreased to 79 % , 40.7 % , 28.7 % and 3 % of untreated seedlings, severally ( Fig. 1B ) . In add-on, increased salt degree caused decrease in leaf comparative H2O contents ( RWC ) was reduced from 71 % in the control workss to 67 % , 64 % , 60 % and 58 % in the workss treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter salt, severally ( Table 1 ) .

The weight of workss has been affected by salt emphasis. Both fresh and dry weights of culms with foliages were reduced with increasing salt. Fresh weight of seedlings reduced to 89.7 % , 84.6 % , 69.6 % and 42.2 % of non treated 1s when grown in Hoagland solution supplied with 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter salt, severally. In add-on dry weight of seedlings treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter salt, decreased to 91.5 % , 86.3 % , 76.6 % and 41.2 % , severally ( Fig. 2 ) .

Carbohydrate composing of seedlings was altered by salt emphasis. The sums of sugars were affected by different concentration of NaCl. Decrease of entire sugar content was singular at higher concentrations. Entire sugar in the treated seedlings reduced to 45.4 % . Reducing and non-reducing sugars both exhibited a significantly ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) diminishing tendency with increasing salt and decreased to 46.5 % and 43.6 % in treated seedlings with 200 millimeters salt ( Table 1 ) .

The consequence of NaCl on the photosynthetic pigments, protein, and soluble saccharide contents in the foliages were examined. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly in the salt treated seedlings ( Fig. 3 ) . As figure 3A shows chlorophyll B was more sensitive than chlorophyll a. in the treated seedlings with 200 millimeter salt. Chlorophyll a and B decreased to 44.1 % and 27.3 % of control, severally. The ratio increased from 1.40 in the control to 2.35 at the highest salt tested ( Fig. 3A ) . Salt had besides a important consequence on carotenoid contents. Carotenoid contents in seedlings treated with 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeters were 78.7 % , 69.0 % , 60.0 % and 39.3 % of control workss, severally ( Fig. 3B ) .

The alterations in PSII photochemistry were studied in dark adapted foliages by utilizing the Mini PAM fluorometer. As Figure. 4A shows no important alterations occurred in the maximum quantum output of PSII ( Fv/Fm ) measured in the dark adapted foliages between control workss and salt-stressed workss in both species. The measurings of ETR besides observed no important alterations in salt treated seedlings ( Fig. 4B ) .

Entire protein has besides been examined. The soluble protein contents decreased with increasing salt. Decreasing the entire protein was non intensive ( P & gt ; 0.2 and P & gt ; 0.05, severally ) when seedlings treated with 25 and 50 millimeter salt. Addition of salt to 100 millimeters and specially 200 millimeter resulted in more intensive lessening ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) of entire protein ( Fig. 5 ) .

Addition in NaCl concentrations showed a unvarying addition in Na+ ion and lessening in K+ ion in stressed seedlings. Upon taking NaCl, there was a lessening in content of Na ions and an addition in potassium ion content. The Na+/K+ ratio increased significantly with the increasing NaCl concentrations. Increasing the Na+/K+ ratio in the seedlings which recovered for 24 H, nevertheless, was more bit by bit ( Fig. 6 ) .

The harm by NaCl to cellular membranes due to lipid peroxidation as indicated by the accretion of the malondialdehyde ( MDA ) degrees and the consequences showed that MDA degree was significantly increased with lifting NaCl concentrations. Recovered samples showed lower content of MDA ( Fig. 7 ) . Treatment showed important addition in H2O2 content, nevertheless, recovered roots showed lower content of H2O2 ( Fig. 7 ) .

Discussion

One purpose of this survey was to analyze whether salt influences the seedlings morphological and biochemical belongingss. Rice was chosen for this probe because it has non been explored every bit much as for illustration wheat and barley [ 39 ] . Rice is besides one of the universe ‘s major harvests, so a bulk of the human population demand rice for their day-to-day nutrient consumption [ 40 ] .

The consequences of present survey demonstrate growing decrease of seedlings when expose to increased in salt degree. The tallness, leaf country and were decreased ( Fig. 1 ) . This might partly be attributed to the lower leaf H2O potency and a decrease in comparative foliage H2O content ( Table 1 ) , which resulted in loss of turgor, which in bend causes stomatous closing and bounds CO2 assimilation and decreased photosynthetic rate. This consequence agrees with the findings of Perez-Alfonsa, Sibole, Sultana and Pattanagul and Thitisaksakul [ 41-44 ] . A pronounced growing decrease was besides reported earlier to rice seedlings exposed to salt stress [ 45 ] .The consequences showed a lessening in the RWC in salt treated seedlings ( Table 1 ) . It is known that salt emphasis affects both leaf growing and H2O position [ 7, 46 ] . The osmotic consequence ensuing from dirt salt may do perturbations in the H2O balance of the works and suppressing growing every bit good as arousing stomatous closing and cut downing photosynthesis [ 47 ] . Plants respond by agencies of osmotic accommodation, usually by increasing the concentrations of Na+ and ClA? in their tissues, although such accretion of inorganic ions may bring forth of import toxic effects and cell harm and demobilize both photosynthetic and respiratory negatron conveyance. This limited osmotic accommodation was non sufficient to avoid H2O emphasis in the treated workss, and therefore there was a lessening in the roots H2O content after salt emphasis. Wilson et Al. ( 1989 ) indicated that osmotic accommodation accounted for lessenings in the fresh weight/dry weight ratio, additions in apoplastic H2O content and direct solute accretion [ 48 ] .

This survey shows that photosynthetic pigments, sugars and protein concentrations of foliages were reduced by salt. A lessening in Chl and tetrapyrroles content with the addition of NaCl was besides reported by Khan [ 49 ] . The consequences obtained in this survey are in understanding with those of Azooz et Al. [ 50 ] , Dager et Al. [ 51 ] .and Jaleel et al. [ 52 ] . A lessening in chlorophyll concentration in salinized workss could be attributed to increased activity of the chlorophyll-degrading enzyme chlorophyllase [ 53 ] . Ion accretion in foliages besides adversely affected chlorophyll concentration [ 19 ] . The lessening in carotenoids under salt emphasis leads to debasement of I?-carotene and formation of zeaxanthins, which are seemingly involved in protection against photoinhibition [ 54 ] . As salt adversely influenced the photosynthetic procedure, photosynthetic production ( e.g. sugar ) was inhibited. Kerepesi et Al. and Sultana et Al. besides found that sugar contents of foliages decreased in seedlings under NaCl emphasis [ 41, 55 ] .

The addition in Na+ ion content and lessening in K+ ion consumption disturbs ionic instability as observed in most species exposed to salt emphasis. Due to high consumption and accretion of Na+ and antagonastically low consumption, translocation and accretion of K+ and besides enhanced K+ outflow under salt emphasis could stamp down growing by diminishing the capacity of osmotic accommodation and turgor care or by suppressing metabolic activities. The decline of K+ concentration in tissue may besides be due to direct competition between K+ and Na+ at plasma membrane, suppression of Na+ on K+ conveyance procedure in xylem tissues and/or Na+ induced K+ outflow from the roots. High Na+ accretion in salt-sensitive foxtail millet cultivar, in tomato roots and rice roots have been reported to ensue in an enhanced membrane harm, electrolyte escape and oxidative harm [ 13 ] .

The maximal quantum output of PSII ; Fv/Fm is tantamount to the intrinsic photochemical efficiency of PSII. A lessening in this ratio is closely associated with exposure to high light strength [ 56 ] . Fv/Fm measuring of the salt treated seedling with different salt concentrations showed no important alterations compare to command. They were all in the same scope 0.81-0.83 ( Fig. 4 ) . Valuess between 0.8-0.85 are normally considered as non-stressed workss. That means Fv/Fm is non sensitive plenty to salt emphasis.

These informations are, nevertheless, opposite to another study where general lessening of Fv/Fm is detected with the addition of salt concentration exposed to workss [ 57 ] . The lessening in Fv/Fm was expected to be an index to measure the harm in chloroplasts, particularly in thylakoid membranes, under salt [ 58 ] .

ETR can be an index to measure the photosynthetic activity of works foliages [ 59 ] . ETR is the existent rate of negatron flow, is derived from the quantum output of PSII and considered as one of the photosynthetic parametric quantities which show the efficiency of photosynthesis [ 60 ] . There is a relationships between the negatron conveyance rate ( ETR ) measured by pulse amplitude modulated ( PAM ) fluorometer and the rate of O2 production and C arrested development. A singular additive relationship was reported between the rate of O2 production and C arrested development to ETR [ 61 ] . Thus alterations in ETR shows that O2 production and C arrested development has been affected by salt. Measurements did non, nevertheless, show any important ETR alterations on used rice assortments affected by salt.

Cellular membranes damaged by NaCl due to lipid peroxidation. The consequences showed that MDA degree was significantly increased with lifting NaCl concentrations. Salt intervention seedlings besides showed important addition in H2O2 content. There are studies that salt disrupts membrane permeableness is by peroxidation of the lipid membrane. Salinity besides increases the content of H2O2 and induces oxidative emphasis in works tissues [ 13 ] . Membrane hurt under salt emphasis is related to increased production of extremely toxic reactive O species [ 46 ] . Lipid peroxidation measured as the sum of MDA is produced when polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membrane undergo oxidization by the accretion of free O groups. Lipid peroxidation is ascribed to oxidative harm and is frequently used as an index of increased harm [ 46, 62-63 ] . The station emphasis recovered seedlings showed lesser accretion of MDA compared to stressed seedlings demoing the ability of the workss to retrieve to some extend the harm caused during the stressed conditions.

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Table fable:

Table 1 Effect of different concentrations of NaCl on entire sugar ( TS ) ( mg g-1 FW ) , cut downing sugar ( RS ) ( mg g-1 ) , non-reducing sugar ( NRS ) ( mg g-1 ) and comparative foliage H2O content ( RWC ) ( % ) in the foliages of rice.

FIGURE LEGENDS:

Figure 1. Picture ( A ) and diagram ( B ) of alterations in tallness and leaf country of rice seedlings subjected to NaCl salt ( 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter ) emphasis. Data presented on panel B are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 2. Fresh ( FW ) and dry weights ( DW ) of rice seedlings subjected to NaCl salt ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) emphasis. Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 3. Effectss of NaCl on chlorophyll ( A ) and carotenoid ( B ) contents of rice foliages subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) . Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 4. Optimum quantum output ( Fv/Fm ) ( A ) and ETR ( B ) of foliages of 12-day old rice. Plants were fed by solution incorporating different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) Leaves were placed in the dark adapted province for 30 min leting the reaction centres to be re-oxidized. Fv/Fm ratio is the norm from five replicates. Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 5. Effectss of NaCl on entire protein contents of rice foliages subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) . Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 6. Changes in the concentrations of Na ( Na+ ) , K ( K+ ) and the Na+/K+ ratio in rice workss subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) ( A ) and after 24 h recovery in alimentary solution. Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 7. Changes in malondialdehyde ( MDA ) ( A ) and H2O2 ( B ) degrees in rice seedlings subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) ( S ) and after 24 h recovery in alimentary solution ( R ) . Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Tables:

Table 1 Effect of different concentrations of NaCl on entire sugar ( TS ) ( mg g-1 FW ) , cut downing sugar ( RS ) ( mg g-1 ) , non-reducing sugar ( NRS ) ( mg g-1 ) and comparative foliage H2O content ( RWC ) ( % ) in the foliages of rice.

NaCl ( millimeter ) TS RS NRS RWC

0 96.85 A± 2.26 58.24 A± 2.06 38.56 A± 2.19 71.05 A± 2.08

25 90.04 A± 2.31 55.22 A± 2.24 35.25 A± 1.90 67.10 A± 1.39

50 74.38 A± 1.70 47.20 A± 1.52 28.00 A± 2.31 64.22 A± 1.42

100 57.19 A± 3.09 36.62 A± 2.28 20.78 A± 3.10 60.39 A± 1.37

200 44.13 A± 2.13 26.98 A± 1.44 17.33 A± 1.96 58.08 A± 1.37

Figures:

Figure 1. Picture ( A ) and diagram ( B ) of alterations in tallness and leaf country of rice seedlings subjected to NaCl salt ( 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 millimeter ) emphasis. Data presented on panel B are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 2. Fresh ( FW ) and dry weights ( DW ) of rice seedlings subjected to NaCl salt ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) emphasis. Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 3. Effectss of NaCl on chlorophyll ( A ) and carotenoid ( B ) contents of rice foliages subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) . Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 4. Optimum quantum output ( Fv/Fm ) ( A ) and ETR ( B ) of foliages of 12-day old rice. Plants were fed by solution incorporating different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) Leaves were placed in the dark adapted province for 30 min leting the reaction centres to be re-oxidized. Fv/Fm ratio is the norm from five replicates. Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 5. Effectss of NaCl on entire protein contents of rice foliages subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) . Vertical bars indicate average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 6. Changes in the concentrations of Na ( Na+ ) , K ( K+ ) and the Na+/K+ ratio in rice workss subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) ( A ) and after 24 h recovery in alimentary solution. Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

Figure 7. Changes in malondialdehyde ( MDA ) ( A ) and H2O2 ( B ) degrees in rice seedlings subjected to different concentrations of NaCl ( 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 millimeter ) ( S ) and after 24 h recovery in alimentary solution ( R ) . Data presented are average A± SE ( n = 3 ) .

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