Measuring blood pressure has been an evolutional process in medical history. The results of a blood pressure can be indicative of many things. It plays a very important role in the health care management of individuals. Exercise is a great way to manage blood pressure levels and to keep them within optimal range. However, immediately after exercise it can be slightly elevated. Pulse pressure, heart rate and mean arterial pressure are also considered. The results varied depending on the individual and their history. The class average was right around the optimal blood pressure range.
Blood pressure and heart rate do increase immediately after exercise; but the diastolic number does decrease somewhat. With that being said, it is a great way to become, and stay, heart healthy. Introduction Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood against blood vessel walls, is highest in the aorta and large elastic arteries, and decreases as the arteries branch and blood travels further from the heart. Blood pressure monitoring is extremely important because it is a representation of how healthy the heart is. Blood pressures that are either too high or low can lead to detrimental situations.
High blood ressure can lead to a stroke, heart attack, congestive heart failure, kidney damage, and eye damage. Low blood pressure can lead to dizziness or fainting spells. Low blood pressure is typically an indicator of some other issue. For example, extreme blood loss or heart concerns. Systolic blood pressure measures the amount of pressure that blood exerts on vessels while the heart is beating. Diastolic blood pressure measures the pressure in your vessels between heartbeats. The systolic pressure is the top number value in a blood pressure.
The diastolic pressure is the bottom number value in a blood pressure.. Measuring blood pressure can be traced back to 1733; Reverend Stephen Hales observed blood pressure in animals by using an invasive procedure that was inappropriate for humans or to use in a clinical setting. It was then discovered, in 1855, that the arterial pulse could be stopped temporarily and then released by placing an inflatable cuff on the upper arm by Karl Vierordt. sounds. A young, inexperienced doctor named Rene Laennec had a female patient who happened to be large chested.
To avoid any embarrassment he created a long paper tube, and realized that he could hear Just the same with it. As a result, the nvention of the stethoscope occurred. A stethoscope is a tool used by medical professionals to be able to hear internal sounds of the body. To measure blood pressure there are a couple things required. A sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cufO and a stethoscope. The blood pressure cuff will measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The cuff has a pressure gauge attached to an inflatable rubber cuff that is connected by a pump .
The pump is then used to inflate the rubber cuff to a pressure greater than systolic pressure . That pressure being put on the artery allows it to flatten, and stop blood flow in the artery. The stethoscope is then placed on the brachial artery in the antecubital (bend in elbow). Pressure is gradually released by opening a valve. When blood pressure is greater than the pressure in the cuff, the artery opens and blood flow returns . The person taking the blood pressure will then listen for korotkoff sounds which are caused by the turbulent flow of blood that can be heard until blood flow returns to normal.
The first sound heard is the systolic pressure, and the second sound heard is the diastolic pressure. It is measure in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) According to the American Heart Association, a normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Hypertensions is the medical terminology for high blood pressure. Prehypertension blood pressure readings, according to the AHA, are 120 – 139 systolic or 80 – 89 diastolic. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stage 1, according to the AHA, is 140 – 159 systolic or 90 – 99 diastolic.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stage 2 is 160 or higher systolic or 100 or higher diastolic . Hypertensive Crisis, when Emergency care needed, is a systolic reading higher than 180 or a diastolic higher than 110. Pulse pressure, mean arterial ressure (MAP) and heart rate are some other things that can be measured after checking a blood pressure. Mean arterial pressure is a person’s average blood pressure. The formula for finding the MAP of an individual is MAP= 1/3 x systolic blood pressure + 2/3 x diastolic blood pressure.
Pulse pressure is the pressure that is felt when feeling the pulse. Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), the pressure difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is the pressure change to create the pulse, which is the pulse pressure . Pulse Pressure equals systolic blood pressure minus diastolic blood pressure. Heart rate can be measured by palpating the radial (located on the wrist) and counting for 60 seconds. That value obtained is the number of heartbeats per that 60 seconds. This experiment will measure how exercise effects blood pressure.
Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, pulse pressure, and MAP will be measured at rest and immediately after exercise. There will be a subject chosen. Then there will be someone who will measure the blood pressure and heart rate. Someone will also be the recorder and timer. It is important that the subject not have heart problems and should be in good health. In my opinion, immediately after exercise systolic and diastolic BP will increase; immediately after exercise pulse pressure will increase; immediately after exercise MAP will increase.
This is true because the heart rate will increase which causes vasoconstriction; resulting in increased blood pressure. Materials and Methods experiment 2 a stopwatch will be required in addition to the BP cuff and stethoscope. Ensure that the earpieces are cleaned with an alcohol swab. Also, ensure that the BP cuff is completely deflated. Place the cuff on the arm. If there is an arrow on the cuff, t needs to be pointing directly to the brachial artery (found in the bend of the elbow). The bottom of the cuff should be 1 inch above the elbow.
Close the valve on the rubber bulb; insert earpieces from stethoscope. Place the large bell of the stethoscope over the brachial artery. After this is in place, inflate the cuff to 160 to 180 mm Hg. Slowly release the air from pump using the valve. Listen carefully for the first sound, systolic reading. The second sound is the diastolic reading. In experiment 1, each person at the table will take 2 systolic and 2 diastolic blood ressure readings. This will equal a total of 8 readings. These readings will be recorded on a table. It is important that the subject rest for 5 minutes prior to experiment.
All individuals will obtain the average reading, of all the blood pressures that were taken, for systolic and diastolic pressure. The average amount is obtained by adding 5 systolic blood pressures and dividing them by 5, do the same for the diastolic average. This average amount will be what is used to calculate pulse pressure (pulse pressure equals systolic blood pressure minus diastolic blood pressure). The average amount will also be used to calculate MAP (MAP= 1/3 x systolic blood pressure + 2/3 x diastolic blood pressure).
All these results will also be recorded on the table. In experiment 2, there will be a subject, a person to measure BP and HR, and a person who will be the recorder and the timer. For this experiment to be accurate, the subject should not have heart problems and should be in good health. For measuring the BP and HR at rest, the subject will stand still for 2-3 minutes, at rest. At this time, measure the systolic and diastolic BP, results will be ecorded on table. The number of heartbeats will be measured for 15 seconds; multiplied by 4 to obtain a heart rate.
It will be recorded on the table as well. Pulse pressure is obtained by subtracting diastolic BP from systolic BP. Mean arterial pressure is obtained by the following formula, MAP= 1/3 x systolic blood pressure + 2/3 x diastolic blood pressure. Next, in experiment 2, the subject will run in place for 1 and h minutes. Directly following exercise, the systolic and diastolic BP will be measured. This result will then be recorded on the table. The heart rate will also be btained immediately after exercise by the same method as mentioned in the previous paragraph.
This result will be record in the table as well. Pulse pressure and MAP will be obtained using the same method as mentioned in the previous paragraph. Lastly in experiment 2, the blood pressure, MAP and PP will be obtained two minutes post exercise. These values will be obtained using the previously mentioned methods and formulas. Results Experiment 1 When referring to figure 1, the resting blood pressures varied quite a bit. There were also some that are taking medications for blood pressure; which plays a factor n results.
There were a couple of values (taken in the right arm) where the systolic diastolic numbers that did exceed the normal rage, which is greater than 80 mm Hg. Resting Blood Pressure Figure 1 Subject Name Age sex Meds for BP Right Arm BP Left Arm BP Amount of Exercise per week Katelyn 18 Yes 116/74 mm Hg 115/82 mm Hg O times per week Dani 26 No 112/80 mm Hg 114/78 mm Hg 5 times per week Lora 35 125/60 mm Hg 110/80 mm Hg 1 time per week James yes, HX of HTN 132/80 mm Hg 130/82 mm Hg 4 times per week When looking at figure 2, the class table averages were all within normal limits.
Also when looking at fgure 2, our group was number 5 on the table. It appears that there is a trend with the systolic ranging from 119-128 mm Hg (see figure 2). The trend for the diastolic value ranged from 41-54 mm Hg (see figure 2). Figure 2 Group Systolic Diastolic Pulse Pressure MAP 119 mm Hg 73 mm Hg 46 mmHg 88 mmHg 2 128 mm Hg 78 mm Hg 50 mmHg 95 mmHg 3 118 mm Hg 77 mm Hg 41 mmHg 90 mmHg 4 64 mm Hg 54 mmHg 82 mmHg 5 120 mm Hg 43 mmHg 91 mmHg Total 121 mm Hg 74 mm Hg 47 mmHg Experiment 2 When referring to figure 3, it appears that James’ blood pressure was above normal at rest.
Also when looking at figure 3, it is apparent that his HR is within a but diastolic decreased (refer to fgure 3). James’ heart rate also increased after running in place, as seen in fgure 3. As a result, the PP increased (fgure 3). When looking at figure 3, it can be seen that immediately after exercise his diastolic was significantly lower than at rest. As a result, his MAP was lower. James was back to his at rest blood pressure and MAP 2 minutes post exercise, as seen in fgure 3; his pulse remained slightly elevated. Effect of Exercise on BP James (Individual) Figure 3 Blood Pressure Heart Rate
Mean Arterial Pressure At Rest 140/90 mmHg 90 bpm 107 mmHg 1. 5 minutes after exercise 1 50/60 mmHg 124 bpm 2 minutes after exercise 110 bpm Most of the blood pressures and heart rates at rest, as seen in figure 4, are within normal limits; with the exception of a coupe values. According to figure 4, all blood pressures and heart rates increased after exercise. As seen in figure 4, 2 minutes post exercise all blood pressures and heart rates did decrease. Mean arterial pressures varied depending on the systolic and diastolic values, as seen in figure 4. Effects of Exercise on Blood Pressure-Class Averages
Figure 4 Blood Pressure at Rest Heart Rate at Rest MAP at Rest BP after Exercise HR after Exercise MAP after Exercise BP 2 min post Exercise MAP 2 min post Exercise 110/74 mmHg 70 bpm 86 mmHg 150/81 mmHg 120 bpm 106 mmHg 132/62 mmHg 100 bpm 85 mmHg 128/89 mmHg 68 bpm 102 mmHg 162/82 mmHg 84 bpm 115 mmHg 136/82 mmHg 80 bpm 100 mmHg 98/78 mmHg 84 mmHg 130/90 mmHg 103 mmHg 110/68 mmHg 72 bpm 115/63 mmHg 65 bpm 80 mmHg 123/65 mmHg 112 bpm 112/53 mmHg 60 bpm 73 mmHg 140/90 118,’79 mmHg 92 mmHg 143/76 mmHg 126/71 mmHg 89 mmHg Discussion The hypothesis stated that exercise will cause an increase in blood pressure, ulse pressure, MAP and HR.
According to the experiment only part of this hypothesis is true. Exercise will increase blood pressure and heart rate immediately after exercise. Exercise will also cause pulse pressure to increase as well, when measured immediately after exercise. The MAP did increase in some individuals when measured immediately after exercise. However, the MAP decreased in some individuals, when measured immediately after exercise. The MAP value depends on what the diastolic value was. In experiment 1, the variation of blood pressure values depended on age.
It also epended on sex, height, weight, health issues and amount of exercise per week. Body position plays an important factor in blood pressure measurements. The blood flow changes (increases or decreases) when standing, sitting or lying. Which means either vasoconstriction or vasodilation; you end up with varying blood pressure values depending on the bodys position, as a result. In experiment 2, standing for the blood pressure at rest will cause the blood pressure to already be increased. This is due to increased blood flow through the body when standing. When exercising, the heart is working and pumping harder.
As a result, blood pressure will increase because of vasoconstriction. When the body is has rested, the blood pressure and heart rate begin to decrease due to the relaxation of the heart causing vasodilation. During exercise, the systolic pressure increases progressively as the cardiovascular system attempts to deliver more oxygen to the working muscles. The diastolic pressure should stay about the same, or decrease slightly, thanks to the dilated blood vessels in the working muscles that help heat escape . When you start increasing systolic blood pressure. Works Cited Allen, Connie and Valerie Harper.
Laboratory Manual For Anatomy and Physiology 4th edition. Hoboken: Johnson Wiley & Sons Inc. , 2011. Print. American Heart Association . http://www. heart. org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/ AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-Blood-Pressure- 4 April 2012. Article. 10 November 2013. Fitzgerald, Chelsea. http://www. ehow. com/about_5472130_importance-blood- pressure-taking. html. 1999. Article. 10 November 2013. Raymond, Diane. http:// www. livestrong. com/article/27512-blood-pressure-change-during-exercise/ #iXZZ21sFb0YQb. 18 October 2009. Article. 7 November 2013.