Effects of Mentoring Programs

Effectss of Mentoring Programs on Women in Health Care Administration 11

Chapter 1


Background of the Study

By and large, wellness attention is a adult female ‘s sphere ( Borkowski & A ; Walsh, 1992 ) . An estimated 75 % of the United States wellness attention labour force is claimed by adult females. In specific occupation descriptions such as in nursing and in dental hygiene, adult females dominate by more than 95 percent relation to their male opposite numbers. Clearly, wellness attention employs a significant population of adult females. Surprisingly, the disparity in calling promotion toward managerial places between males and females that exists in concern is similarly reflected in wellness attention disposal.

Despite averments that there have been considerable additions in accomplishing gender equity in the workplace, the fact remains that adult females in the 21st century have to interrupt through the “glass ceiling” as did their earlier opposite numbers ( Adair, 2002 ) . The “glass ceiling” is a phrase that denotes the unseeable and multilayered barrier that adult females encounter as they seek to progress in their callings within the organisation. It is true that adult females are now comparable to work forces in footings of opportunities of acquiring accepted to the work force. However, the procedure of acquiring promoted is an wholly different affair. Data suggests that less than 20 per centum of places above frailty president are occupied by adult females ( Woody & A ; Weiss, 1994 ) . As of 2002, merely a really few of the CEO and presidents of private corporations were adult females, a fixture for the last 30 old ages. Furthermore, a UCLA Anderson School of Management survey besides suggests that forms in compensation among adult females have remained the same because adult females are still clustered at entry-level occupations ( as cited in Woody & A ; Weiss, 1994 ) .

At present, there are adult females busying direction places but merely a smattering of them have succeeded in accomplishing top-level places. Adair ( 2002 ) explains that there are complex and varied barriers that hinder the promotion of callings among adult females. Determining what these barriers are and explicating policies and mechanisms to destruct such barriers are now first docket in authorities and in the corporate universe. These barriers may include the trouble to pull off place and household duties with calling ends ( Haddock & A ; Rams, 1989 ) ; deficiency of organisational committedness for adult females career promotion ( Woody & A ; Weiss, 1994 ) ; structural barriers that hinder the publicity of adult females such as occupation assignment or occupation trailing ( Hamilton, 1993 ) ; and organisational civilization that excludes adult females from interacting with and being at equal terms with male directors ( Owen & A ; Tudor, 1993 ) . In a 1991 canvass commissioned by Fortune Magazine, 201 CEOs were surveyed on the chances of calling mobility of adult females in private corporations. The study found that it would take at least 20 old ages for a adult female to go CEO of a company. Majority of the CEOs interviewed besides opined that there was a really minor chance that a female would win them as Chief executive officer in the following 10 old ages. The CEOs surveyed expressed that the most powerful barriers for adult females are sometimes beyond their control such as organisational civilization and structural considerations. Sequence in top-level direction places traditionally go to the work forces. Furthermore, they opined that adult females are non placed in places that would take to the top of the corporate hierarchy. Womans are far excessively concentrated in staff and human resource places.

The chances for adult females ‘s calling promotion in wellness attention seem assuring but work forces still claim more top direction places than adult females. In footings of educational makings, about 50 per centum of alumnuss from wellness attention disposal alumnus plans are female ( Borkowski & A ; Walsh, 1992 ) . Furthermore, female alumnuss earn comparable wages with male alumnuss. Despite this, experience would bespeak that though males and females have more or less equal chances for entry in places, they have unequal chances for calling mobility in wellness attention disposal. Men assume direction duties and receive salary additions earlier than females do. As their callings advancement, the chances for promotion for females tend to worsen while those for the males tend to spread out. Like other businesss, adult females professionals in medical specialty are located in less esteemed an lower income Fieldss such as paediatricss and nursing. Female assignments to hospital directorships and public or private wellness attention corporations are few and far in between ( Woody & A ; Weiss, 1994 ) . Hence, the position of calling promotion among adult females in wellness attention is a mirror of the general state of affairs: despite the fact that females outnumber males in wellness attention, the work forces dominate the top-level hierarchy. In add-on, disparity exists with respect to the salary among work forces and adult females wellness attention decision makers. Borkowski and Walsh ( 1992 ) province that the salary spread among work forces and adult females in wellness attention disposal has widened to over $ 10,000 per twelvemonth.

In order to interrupt the “glass ceiling, ” mentoring has been a widely suggested tool in helping calling development of adult females. While mentoring has been used as a general employee development tool available besides to work forces, it is considered particularly helpful to adult females as they get less support and brush more barriers to career mobility than work forces ( Noe, 1988 ; Ragins & A ; Cotton, 1999 ) . Blake-Beard ( 2001 ) suggests that the drive force behind the constitution of mentoring plans for adult females is because they face more interpersonal, household, and organisational barriers.

Surveies suggest that the interpersonal nature of the mentoring relationship make it alone ( Kalbfleisch & A ; Davies, 1993 ) . Kram ( 1983 ) says that mentoring features a relationship where the wise man ( sometimes called don, patron, or teacher ) provides encouragement and advocate to a less experient individual known as the mentee or protege . The mentoring relationship in the workplace is basically a combination of the professional relationship and the personal relationship. Within this relationship are several phases of “coming together and coming apart, ” and someplace along the procedure, familiarity may be experienced on both sides ( Kram, 1983 ) . A wise man is said to hold a two-pronged map. One map is calling development which involves sponsorship, protection, supplying visibleness to others, and turn outing disputing occupation assignments. Another map is psychosocial support which involves the development of increased feelings of competency and self-identity within the organisation. By supplying a protege support on these two facets, mentoring is said to contributed to the mentee ‘s assurance, resonance, decision-making accomplishments, and a better apprehension of organisational civilization and construction ( Burke, 1984 ) .

Mentoring relationships are said to bring forth positive calling results. This explains why more and more private companies are now set uping their ain mentorship plans as a human resource development scheme ( Noe, Greenberger, & A ; Wang, 2002 ) . In fact, one of the standards for choosing the “Best Companies to Work For” include the presence and strength of a company ‘s mentoring plan ( Raabe & A ; Beehr, 2003 ) . Earlier surveies on mentoring suggest a correlativity with managerial mobility ( Roche, 1979, as cited in Scandura, 1992 ) . One of the earliest factorial analysis conducted by Kram ( 1985 ) found that mentoring enhanced work public presentation. Hence, this survey expects that the extent to which directors experience a mentoring relationship consequences to greater calling mobility and more positive calling results. Scandura ( 1992 ) defines career mobility in three separate steps: a ) wage ; ( B ) publicities or rate of promotion ; and c ) supervisory public presentation and rating. Several surveies have so suggested that the multiplex benefits of a mentoring plan for employees include addition in occupation satisfaction ( Mobley, Jaret, Marsh & A ; Lim, 1994 ) ; higher rate of promotion ( or publicity ) ( Dreher & A ; Ash, 1990 ) , and greater compensation in footings of wage, benefits, and fillips ( Dreher & A ; Ash, 1990 ) .

It is asserted that the constitution of mentoring relationships is more of import to adult females ‘s calling development than to work forces ‘s ( Ruben & A ; Halperin, as cited in Ragins & A ; Cotton, 1999 ) . In order to progress to top-level executive places, adult females need to undergo mentoring as a manner of seeking calling and psychosocial support. In fact, the present state of affairs high spots this instance. Walsh and Borkowski ( 1992 ) study that adult females wellness attention directors were more inclined to hold wise mans than male directors.

Mentoring plans operate under the construct of a senior professional promoting or helping in the calling development ends of a fledgling. Mentoring plans could either be of a formal or informal nature. Formal mentoring relationships occur when wise man and mentee are assigned into the relationship by third-party engagement ( Murray, 1991 ) . Informal mentoring relationships occur spontaneously and as a consequence of motive and common designation of calling development demands. Surveies have suggested that formal and informal mentoring relationships produce different results among mentees. Raggins and Cotton ( 1999 ) see it important that the two types of mentoring be distinguished because the sorts of mentoring maps provided in each differ. Previous surveies have by and large favored informal mentoring relationship as a greater subscriber to positive calling mobility, outcomes, and promotion ( Raggins & A ; Cotton, 1991 ; Chao et al. , 1992 ) . Mentees under informal mentoring relationships are more likely to describe higher salary addition and higher rates of promotion than those under formal mentoring plans ( Raggins & A ; Cotton, 1991 ) . Although it is clear that formal and informal mentoring relationships differ in the manner of constitution and its length, there remains really small empirical research to analyze the difference in formal and informal relationships in bring forthing calling results for proteges for the continuance of the mentoring relationship. Raggins and Cotton ( 1999 ) province that it is a error for many organisations to merely reason without empirical footing that formal mentoring is merely every bit good or every bit effectual as informal mentoring when it comes to heightening calling development among employees. Kram and Bragar ( 1992 ) likewise warn organisations non to offer formal mentoring plans as replacement to employees.

The support for formal mentoring relationships have gained land and are really more popular among organisations. Corporations spend one million millions of dollars on formal mentoring plans and preparations to profit prospective directors ( Stromei, 1999 ) . Empirical research has besides been conducted to turn out that formal mentoring reaps the same positive results as informal mentoring relationships. Weinberg and Lankau ( 2010 ) conducted a longitudinal evaluative survey of several formal mentoring plans and found that when formal mentoring relationships become long-run, it leads to the dissipation of cross-gender differences and greater psychosocial support.

Given these findings, it is unsure which type of mentoring relationship is more effectual in bring forthing positive calling results. This survey is peculiarly concerned with how the effects of mentoring relate to the calling mobility and possibility of interrupting the “glass ceiling” among adult females wellness directors. Soon, the literature on the differences in result of informal versus formal mentoring relationships is scarce particularly as it relates to adult females wellness attention decision makers. If formal mentoring relationships are so less effectual than informal mentoring relationships, so wellness attention corporations and organisations may non be helping adult females directors meaningfully in calling promotion if they provide merely formal mentoring chances.

Based on these premises, this survey was conceptualized. The survey aims to look into the effects of formal and informal mentoring relationships on the calling mobility and promotion of adult females in wellness attention disposal and place possible differences in barriers that these adult females directors encounter in the class of the mentoring relationship.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this survey is to analyze the effects of mentoring plans on mid-level and senior-level female directors in assorted wellness attention organisations. First, it intends to find the barriers that adult females wellness attention directors face in their calling promotion. Second, it aims to measure whether or non mentoring support has contributed to their calling mobility. Last, it seeks to analyze whether important differences exist in the calling results of adult females involved in informal and formal mentoring relationships. Specifically, the research jobs are herewith presented:

1. What is the profile of adult females wellness attention decision makers in footings of managerial degree and type of mentoring plan received?

2. What are the barriers to career mobility as perceived by adult females wellness attention decision makers?

3. What is the degree of calling mobility among the adult females wellness attention decision makers in footings of:

a ) wage additions ;

B ) publicities ; and

degree Celsius ) supervisory public presentation, evaluations, and parts?

4. Make adult females wellness attention decision makers who are mentees of formal mentoring plans report similar barriers in calling promotion compared to those who are mentees of informal mentoring?

5. Make mid-level adult females wellness attention directors report similar barriers compared to senior-level wellness attention directors?

6. Does a correlativity exist between the type of mentoring plan received by adult females wellness attention decision makers and their degree of calling mobility?

Purposes of the Study

This survey aims to measure the consequence of formal and informal mentoring plans on the calling mobility of adult females directors in wellness attention scenes. The survey returns to carry through a quadruple intents, which are:

1. To analyze whether or non adult females in healthcare disposal who report being informally mentored place the same sensed barriers to career promotion as adult females who reported being officially mentored.

2. To analyze whether adult females directors in mid-level places identify the same sensed barriers toward calling promotion as directors busying senior-level places at the clip of the mentoring relationship.

3. To find whether a important and positive correlativity exists between the degree of calling mobility and the degree of mentoring counsel for adult females in healthcare disposal.

4. To find whether a positive correlativity exists between the degree of calling mobility and a formal mentoring plan for adult females in healthcare disposal.

5. To find whether mentees in formal mentoring plans experienced significantly stronger calling mobility than mentees in informal mentoring plans for adult females in healthcare disposal.


This survey is founded on several premises. First, the survey assumes that mentoring is related to career results. Due to its nature as a purposeful relationship that aims to convey about single development and growing, theories related to mentoring hold linked the procedure to career success ( Kram, 1985 ) . There are many specific procedures that could explicate why mentoring can convey about mentee success ( Dreher & A ; Ash, 1990 ) . Mullen ( 1994 ) posits that mentoring is a procedure where information is exchanged and cognition is acquired. In footings of supplying meaningful and operable work-related cognition, career support that comes from mentoring allows persons to entree societal webs and cognition depositories that can non be provided by formal channels of communicating ( Dreher & A ; Ash, 1990 ) . Deriving entree into these societal webs provides the mentee with the locale to show her accomplishments and endowments to powerful decision-makers within an organisation. accomplishments Since the calling constituent of mentoring prepares the mentee for calling promotion, logic would propose that the mentee should accomplish greater calling results than those without wise mans.

Another premise made in this survey is that informal and formal mentoring relationships differ in footings of their consequence on calling promotion. As Kram ( 1985 ) suggests, whatever differences formal and informal mentoring have, they are non to be treated as “trivial.” Because informal mentoring assumes a more self-generated nature, mentor-mentee relationships that are produced with this type of mentoring are more motivated and sustainable. Since wise man and mentee foresee common aims and are able to back up each other without outside intercession, greater attempt is exerted by wise mans to guarantee that the mentoring relationship works, that it leads to the calling success of the mentee. This premise finds support in many literature that identify important differences between formal and informal mentoring based on the sum and extent of mentoring provided and its impact on the calling results of the mentee ( Ragis & A ; Cotton, 1999 ) . Applied in the present survey, the calling results of female wellness attention directors involved in formal and informal mentoring relationships should hold noticeable differences.


The present survey purposes to analyze the consequence of formal or informal mentoring experiences of adult females in calling success and to place sensed barriers to career promotion among those in in-between direction and senior direction places. As presented in Chapter 3, the survey is descriptive-correlational in nature. It aims to depict the perceptual experiences of 35 female wellness attention directors busying mid-level and senior-level places on the barriers that prevent them from progressing to the top-level direction or executive places. It besides intends to analyze whether the type of mentoring plans adult females wellness attention directors experience could be attributed to peculiar calling results such as higher wage additions and higher rate of promotion or publicity.

The first restriction is the sample size. While a bigger sample may be more desirable to the purposes of the present survey, costs and practicableness issues limit the sample choice to merely 35 ( 35 ) . The 2nd restriction is ethnicity. The survey does non try to analyze ethnicity as a variable for analysis. While it intends to include female directors who are of minority descent, a differentiation is non made to research whether White or minority adult females wellness attention directors would differ in their perceptual experiences and their calling results as a consequence of mentoring. The possibility of widening the design to include the ethnicity variable is a good chance for future research work.


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