Effects of Overtime on Project Team Effectiveness Essay

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Definition

Harmonizing to the Malaysia Employment Act 1955, Section 60A ( 3 ) , defines overtime as “the figure of hours of work carried out in surplus of the normal hours of work per day” . If any work is carried out after the spread over period of 10 hours, the whole period get downing from the clip that the said spread over period ends up to the clip that the employee ceases work for the twenty-four hours shall be deemed to be overtime.

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Overtime can hence be defined as any figure of hours transcending the normal figure of hours per twenty-four hours stipulated in an employee’s work contract. Overtime can be either voluntary or compulsory. The building industry in Malaysia is one of the few industries where compulsory overtime is used to be able to run into deadlines stipulated by clients.

The altering range, demands, and clip force per unit area of undertakings requires overtime and long dashs. As committednesss to an execution day of the month are established, the undertaking squad is left to absorb the extra clip required to turn to undertaking issues, new demands and restraints. The excess burden requires the undertaking squad to put extra resource hours in order to accomplish the mark execution day of the month.


Presents, measure surveyors have to work overtime with increasing frequence in building industry. There are several causes of measure surveyors ever working overtime.

One of the most common grounds for employees to work overtime is a labour deficit within the company. This can be a consequence of other employees losing clip because of unwellness, childbearing or holiday, or because the company can non afford to engage adequate labour to finish all of the work to be done. Salaried employees are frequently forced to work unpaid overtime because of corporate retrenchment and other cost-cutting steps. Some salaried employees report routinely working an excess 20 hours or more a hebdomad without overtime compensation.

Another ground employees are asked to work overtime is to cover with unexpected altering and revised of the drawings. Therefore, as a measure surveyor we need to re-measure all the revised plants and it is taken long clip period to make full the revised drawing demands. This can hold a cascading consequence through in the squad works that rely on parts from different parts of undertaking. Company that need to educate employees in new processs besides may offer overtime hours during the preparation period to let preparation to go on while besides maintaining the concern to the full staffed.

Measure Surveyors frequently work overtime during busy periods such as pre-tender phase. At tonss of undertaking demand to transport out such as cost estimation, taking off, readying for measures of measures, preliminary stamp estimation, cost program, stamp papers and so on. It is may non be able to carry through within the deadline period by the squad that merely hold two or three members and besides they are managing more than one undertaking at the same clip. There are uneconomic for the company to engage more new staff at that clip to run into the undertaking deadline agenda. Therefore, overtime is needed to equilibrate between the work loads and deadline by the undertaking squad.

From an employee position overtime provides both an chance to gain more income and a loss of free clip. Many employees jump at the opportunity to do more money, but others may be tired after a long twenty-four hours and desire to travel place to pass clip with their households. Forced overtime for salaried employees is an unwelcome portion of many callings. The forty-hour hebdomad, which was a criterion in many countries during the last half of the twentieth century, has been replaced with a longer expected on the job period for many professions.

3.0 Discussion

Overtime can hold good effects and negative effects toward undertaking squad effectivity.


The intent of the working overtime largely are due to a tonss of occupation was given and deadline was set. Therefore, employees are requires to widen their on the job clip to go on and finish their high work loads. This is good to the employee because forces working on overtime do non necessitate extra preparation. Since there are a tonss of occupation to make, so at the average clip employee are larning much more things compare to the others which do non work overtime. While making the occupation, employees can larn a batch of things like job resolution and the manner to pull off and set up occupations and clip agenda to finish undertaking within the needed period. Through this difficult period, employees does non necessitate any extra preparation to better their working accomplishments since they was learnt it while the active period with their work loads in overtime. Therefore, employees are familiar with any job work outing state of affairs and can run the undertaking swimmingly without any limitation and deficiency of accomplishments to carry through the undertaking in the short clip period. Efficiency and effectivity of the squad can be achieved through overtime.

On the other manus, this sort of cross-functional preparation non merely can better public presentation, but it besides can increase chances for calling mobility and promotion among the employee base and perchance relieve the demand for changeless overtime.

Overtime hours can hold good effects on worker productiveness when scheduling extra hours enables you to take advantage of economic systems of graduated table. It takes clip to put up laptop, drawings and necessary paperss and information at the terminal of a displacement, and to clean and shut down at the terminal of a work twenty-four hours. The longer the displacement, the smaller the per centum of clip spent at these extra undertakings relative to the entire sum of work that must be done. Therefore, it is helpful to the undertaking squad particularly at the undertaking feasibleness survey phase and stamp phase. A tonss of plants need to transport out at that period to trail the deadline for unfastened stamp. Overtime may switch much longer clip to carry through all the undertakings in meet the deadline or possibly earlier than the day of the month required by client. This may demo the undertaking squad effectivity in complete the undertaking within the needed period.

Although it makes intuitive sense that employee productiveness would worsen as employees become fatigued due to working overtime hours, and although that phenomenon has been borne out by surveies, the relationship between overtime and productiveness is more complex than a direct correlativity. Extra variables come into drama, such as continuity and impulse. Productivity is besides affected by company-wide substructure issues, such as the trouble of keeping a supply concatenation when production is ramped into overdrive. The determination to schedule overtime hours should take into history whether there will be plenty added productiveness to warrant increased paysheet disbursals. Most employees want to work some overtime to supplement their income.


Research proves that overwork, brought about by sustained overtime lowers productiveness, increases weariness degrees, and causes wellness issues for workers. The excess money received from overtime rewards is ephemeral and comes at the cost of work-life instability and harm to wellness. Many societal jobs arise from long on the job hours, for illustration, the possible break of household life, sleep disfunction, and workplace wellness and safety hazards.

Workers who work regular overtime hours are prone to be tired, with good ground. Harmonizing to Randolph Thomas and Karl Raynar, a building crew that was the topic of a survey following the relationship between overtime and productiveness grew more productive as work hours began to near a full-time agenda. The crew ‘s productiveness declined as they began working overtime, and continued worsening as overtime hours increased. The more back-to-back hebdomads they worked overtime, the less productive they were.

The quality of an employee ‘s work is n’t the lone variable impacting his productiveness when he works overtime hours. When a company tries to acquire more done in less clip, it must implement a scope of schemes to accomplish this aim. For illustration, all of the necessary stuffs must be available, or workers gaining overtime rewards will merely be standing around waiting for supplies to get. In order for scheduled overtime to hold any good consequence on productiveness, a company ‘s other systems must besides be working swimmingly.

There is a direct relationship between motive and productiveness, and an opposite relationship between motive and figure of hours that an employee plants, one time that figure exceeds 10 to 20 per centum above a typical work hebdomad. McConnell ‘s research shows that employees who are non motivated have low productiveness rates, irrespective of the figure of hours that they work. He advises that the best manner to keep employee motive when agenda demands call for long hours is to make an environment where employees work excess by pick instead than by irresistible impulse.

Working extended hours continually leaves less than sufficient clip for non-work activities such as domestic jobs, passing quality clip with household, and more, finally doing a work life instability. In our company, most workers are require to widen their working hours particularly those squad which are managing most undertaking. Therefore they sacrifice of possible clip or energy for place and household life activities. Therefore the consequence of overtime is that workers report being excessively tired to make the jobs several times a month instead than merely twice a month or lupus erythematosus. When employees work excessively much overtime, the chance to do more money becomes less of import than the opportunity to pass clip with household or merely loosen up without worrying if there is still work left to be done. Employees who work overtime particularly inordinate overtime believe the excess hours should ensue in a finished undertaking or a clear desk. No affair how much overtime employee work, nevertheless, they are bound to experience overworked at some point. Employees who believe they ‘re overworked can do mistakes, exercising hapless judgement and bring forth lessened work and at the terminal the undertaking squad effectiveness bound to worsen and uneffective.

Employees who want to do more money at any cost might make overtime by procrastinating work during the normal work twenty-four hours ; they claim they need overtime to complete their day-to-day undertakings. In this instance, employee public presentation can turn out to be much lower than normal. The effectivity of the squad and the employee himself can non be achieve due to their intent of the overtime non because of they want motivate himself to done the more efficient and effectual but is because of the excess wage for the on the job overtime.

The fiscal state of affairs of compulsory overtime workers is more likely to be declining in both absolute and comparative footings and doing dissatisfaction. Relative to voluntary overtime workers, compulsory overtime workers feel that their fiscal state of affairs has worsened during the past few old ages. Furthermore, compulsory overtime workers consider their comparative incomes to compare unfavourably to those with voluntary overtime workers. Voluntary overtime workers, on the other manus, are more satisfied with their fiscal state of affairs and betterments than workers with no excess hours. Working overtime voluntarily enhances the outlook that they will have a fillip or excess wage when the occupation goes good, but those on compulsory overtime anticipate this less than those who work overtime voluntarily. However, workers with overtime hours are more satisfied with their employee benefits, although compulsory overtime workers significantly less so than non-mandatory overtime workers.

Peoples who work extended hours face burnout, and lose focal point. They besides lose their ability to concentrate and get down doing errors, straight haltering productiveness. Alternatively, a good night’s slumber and re-starting work fresh allows for working at a much faster gait, bettering end product.

If employee public presentation is n’t marked by fatigue and an overpowering feeling of being overworked, the effects of overtime can attest themselves in other ways that are related to public presentation. Problems merely may be the consequence of the inability to concentrate after seting in so many hours on the occupation. However, hapless public presentation besides could be due to employees who deliberately rush through their occupations without paying attending to public presentation criterions and outlooks. Although they may non deliberately strive for hapless public presentation, their work merchandise may be of lower quality because they do n’t desire to continuously work overtime at the disbursal of their households and personal involvements outside of work.

Drawn-out hours of work additions emphasis degrees and leads to serious wellness upsets such as cardiovascular diseases, besides the public presentation issues resultant from low productiveness. The net consequence is low morale, which causes farther depression. A turning organic structure of grounds suggests that long working hours adversely affect the wellness and well-being of workers. Surveies have associated overtime and drawn-out work agendas with an increased hazard of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, weariness, emphasis, depression, musculoskeletal upsets, chronic infections, diabetes, general wellness ailments, and all-cause mortality. Several reappraisals and meta-analyses have been published sum uping these research findings. Systematic reappraisals by and large have concluded that long on the job hours are potentially unsafe to workers’ wellness.

Harmonizing to the theoretical theoretical account proposed by Michel Shuster and Susan Rhodes in 1985, overtime and long hours of work are presumed to impact the hazard of workplace accidents by precipitating assorted intermediary conditions in affected workers, such as weariness, emphasis, and sleepiness. The tract associating a demanding work agenda to the intermediary status and finally to a workplace accident can be mediated by a assortment of single and environmental factors, including personal features, for illustration, age, gender, wellness position, occupation experience ; occupation factors for illustration, strength of work, exposure to jeopardies ; and organisational factors for illustration, overtime policy, supervising. All these are the overtime factors that lead to the workers hurts and unwellnesss effect.

 Figure 1

Figure 1: Conceptual theoretical account of the relationship between demanding plants agendas and occupational hurts and unwellnesss

Segmented work responsibilities frequently are an unexpected consequence of employees working overtime. Employees who regularly work overtime may go territorial and want to be the lone 1s responsible for executing their occupation responsibilities because they benefit from overtime rewards. Even though it is good as employees responsible to their occupation but if they become territorial and can non collaborate with others team members, therefore there is no point for the undertaking effectivity. If others team member can non understand the manner and advancement of the undertaking being hander, they can non go on their occupation and taking even long clip to finish the occupation. At the terminal, undertaking end product became inefficient and uneffective.

4.0 Decision

Overtime enables you to efficaciously pull off higher work loads without increasing staffing degrees. It besides provides your employees with a beginning of auxiliary income without holding to distribute their trueness to other employers. When used decently, overtime can go a really powerful tool for run intoing workload demands while minimising costs and maximising employee compensation and satisfaction. However, overtime that is out of control can take to higher costs, lower quality, low employee morale and increased employee turnover.

Parkinson’s Law states that work expands to make full in clip available for completion. This manifests the truism that people tend to work at their productive best, concentrating deeply and non wasting clip on interruptions or distractions when the clip to finish the work is short. This explains why people normally meet tight deadlines when they remain unable to finish the same work when no such deadline exists. Overtime extends the clip available to finish the work, and by using Parkinson’s Law, all overtime does is spread out the clip available to complete work, which by committedness and dedication could be completed during normal work hours.

Although some surveies do non happen any association between overtime and productiveness, or province that a direct association remains hard to set up owing to the intercession of many other complex factors, the negative association remains reasonably well-established.

5.0 Mentions


  1. A E Dembe, J B Erickson, R G Delbos, S M Banks. ( 2005, March 8th ) .The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational hurts and unwellnesss: new grounds from the United States. Retrieved May 7th, 2015, from Occupational & A ; Environmental Medicine: hypertext transfer protocol: //oem.bmj.com/content/62/9/588.full
  2. Gartenstein, D. ( 2011, January 29th ) .Relationship Between Overtime & A ; Productivity. Retrieved May 7th, 2015, from Chron: hypertext transfer protocol: //work.chron.com/relationship-between-overtime-productivity-2952.html
  3. Internatinal Labour Organization. ( 1957, June 1st ) .MALAYSIA EMPLOYMENT ACT 1955. Retrieved May 7th, 2015, from NATLEX: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/48055/66265/E55mys01.htm
  4. Lonnie Golden & A ; Barbara Wiens-Tuers. ( 2007, May 23rd ) .Overtime Work and Family Consequences. Retrieved May 7th, 2015, from Social Sciences Research Network: hypertext transfer protocol: //papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? abstract_id=988203
  5. Scheid, J. ( 2011, June 27th ) .How Does Working Too Much Overtime Affect Employees?Retrieved May 7th, 2015, from Bright Hub: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brighthub.com/office/human-resources/articles/120237.aspx

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