Electrical Safety in Construction Sites Essay

ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN 1 CONSTRUCTION NATIONAL SAFETY DAY 2007 Environment, Health And Safety Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 The Times Of India March 9, 2007, Page 3 2 Page 3 has become popular for the society & fashion info Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN 3 CONSTRUCTION NATIONAL SAFETY DAY 2007 Environment, Health And Safety Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Electrical Safety Shock 4 • Electrical Shock • Fire originating from Electricity Fire • Due to motion powered by Motive Power Electricity, (tools) • Environmental safety

Environment influence: Lighting, Signs, Detection Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Construction Work • • • • Labour Intensive, Majority Unskilled 5 More widespread than manufacturing industry Relatively Unregulated, Unorganised, Less concern for workmen safety Lack of training and enforcement or rules & regulations Floating or constantly changing work place, even within the same project Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Safety from Electrical Shock Causes of Shock, Contact, Leakage, Fault 6

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Wiring regulations not followed, terminations, joints, undersized, wrong type of insulation Temporary Installations, defective & aged equipment Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 7 Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 contact with overhead powerlines: Stay on equipment. Don’t touch equipment and ground at the same time. Keep others away. Warn everyone not to touch the equipment or its load. Break contact. If possible, break contact by moving the equipment clear of the wires. Call local utility. Jump clear.. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 A tower crane was lowering a concrete bucket to be filled by a truck. The wind blew the hoist line and bucket into overhead powerlines. A worker trying to pull the bucket back was electrocuted. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 9 A worker was changing the bulb in a light fixture that had been incorrectly wired (polarity was reversed). He inadvertently touched the metal base of the bulb while it was in contact with the socket. He received a severe shock and later died in hospital Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 0 A worker was painting a building from a boom-type powered elevating work platform. He backed up without checking how close he was to a powerline. The machine touched the line. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 11 A driver raised the box on his dump truck to spread gravel under a powerline. When the box contacted the line, he got out of the cab to see what had happened. His foot touched the ground while his hand was still holding the door. He was electrocuted instantly 12 Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007

Eavestrough installer carrying aluminum ladder was electrocuted when it touched powerline. Worker involved in residential demolition working from ladder contacted powerline. Worker using boom truck to install hydro pole anchors contacted overhead wires. Worker moving aluminum ladder contacted overhead powerline. 13 Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Current & Duration combined have the effect, Mild Shock Trip setting for ground fault circuit interrupter Muscle Contractions Victim cannot let go Severe Shock Breathing difficult – possible respiratory arrest 3mA 30mA 00mA 14 ;300mA Also depends on the part of the body thro which the current has flown. Heart Stops pumping Increasing probability of death Enough current to light a 100-watt bulb ;1 A Electric Shock The effect of electric shock on the human body is determined by three main factors: 1. 2. how much current is flowing through the body (measured in amperes and determined by voltage and resistance) the path of current through the body and Karnataka State Safety Institute 3. how long the body is in the circuit. JNB/March 2007 Electricity & Fire originating from electricity Common causes: – To cause a fire just about 40 watts+waste is sufficient. 15 • • • • • • • • Bad or undersized wiring or Overload. No fuse or circuit breaker. Damaged or aged insulation or Internally broken conductor due to repeated bending and use of twisted joints & multi sockets+wrong plug. What is needed: Earth leakage circuit breaker, Proper wiring & its timely replacement. Proper sockets & plugs. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 16 Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Problems of Temporary Electrical Installations • Controls & Wiring exposed to Vehicle movement, Material movement – Relocation & additions as work progresses – No standard method of assessment of deterioration due to abrasion, mechanical loads, dust, water 17 • Power generation at work site – Problems arise out of availability of more than one source • Hoists, site transportation – horizontal & vertical. • Nuisance tripping of Earth leakage circuit breakers • Temporary Zone 0, Zone 1 conditions from activity Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Problems of Temporary Electrical Installations • Grounding or Earthing 18 Proper earthing is essential for electrical safety – Condition in construction sites require frequent changes – Major tools & particularly hand tools depend on earthing for protection by sensing leakage • Flexible cords – Are a necessity for operation of tools • Codes recommend limiting length of cord. • Should be discarded after prescribed period of use, unless a proven laboratory test is performed at intervals • Karnataka State Safety Institute Zone 1 conditions from activity Temporary Zone 0, JNB/March 2007 19 Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007

Safety of Electrical Workmen in Construction • Absence of or ignoring standard operating20 procedures for fault rectification – Trying to work without shut down in the interest of productivity – Bypassing protection devices – Non declaration of AUTHORISED person – Site communication system & integration – Non compliance to use of safety gloves, tools etc. , – Lack of documentation of installations & associated precautions, both Management & Employee. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Status: • • • • • • • • • 26% E out of total of 165 accidents per 1000 workers!!!

Construction employs 10 million people; 73% unskilled!!! Construction safety technical subject. Factory & Boilers – Technical Labour commissioner non-technical; 21 Large number of construction sites & governments not interested in increasing manpower. Self regulation by industry is necessary, as has been expressed. Example: Changes in contract forms – One-sided Legacy to FIDIC or CIDC Similar changes can be brought by industry with acceptability by government. Regulation or rules necessary from government for keeping a level equitable platform among different players.

WTO (India signed in 2006) may also come into play. Vague, but logic based restrictions have come from time to time Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 • Wrong to say Contractors not interested in safety & welfare of workers. – Cost of Accidents —loss of work, reputation. – Loss of worker morale & reduced productivity. – Today there is shortage of labour – (attrition ? ) Reaction to New Rules 22 • Expectations – – – – – Should not become inspector raj. Effective delivery of the committed objective. Worker migratory problems are multi-dimensional Geographic, Trade vise, seasonal.

Essential – training & certification, skill upgradation should all be linked to give status. JNB/March 2007 • Enforcement by self assessment Karnataka State Safety Institute Provisions in NBC 2005 NBC 2005 has a comprehensive coverage Electrical Safety & Overall Safety 23 – Electricity rules require licensed workmen. – Related safety aspects are protection from Noise, Pollution, Excavation, Compressed air systems – Fire protection in high rise under construction Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Construction Industry & Manufacturing Industry Factory practices should be adopted in construction sites also 4 • Marked passages for workers & equipment. • Proper marking of electrical outlets, layout, protection scheme, power limitations in circuits. • Electrical equipment for construction sites to be of better standards than those for permanent installations. Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Training, Bill Boards 25 • Site information publicity – formal & informal – push information • World wide Best Practices modified to suit Indian Conditions & Culture. • Notices, Barrier tapes, Vulnerable are notices, Posters • Encourage & Awards, Celebrate every successful safe week.

Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 Staff Views Program • Give employees freedom to speak out their fears & overconfidence 26 – Train to correct perceptions – Unskilled labor from agricultural sector to be given brief training in handling electrical tools & to respect instructions • Energy Efficiency, Automation are today affordable & cost effective in many large construction sites • Karnataka State Safety Institute Quality, Certification, Opportunity 2007 JNB/March Thank you Karnataka State Safety Institute JNB/March 2007 27

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