Electromagnetic moving ridges are perturbations caused by the oscillation of charged atoms. It consists of two parts. an electric field and a magnetic field hovering perpendicular to each other. The moving ridge is self-sufficient. and propagates at a way perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetic field. There is a whole spectrum of electromagnetic moving ridges. The 1s with the longest wavelengths ( scope: 1 cm-1km ) are the wireless moving ridges. After the wireless moving ridges. microwaves have the following longest wavelength ( scope: 1mm-10cm ) .
Then. we have the infrared moving ridges ( scope: 1µm-1mm ) . followed by visible radiation ( scope: 400nm-700nm ) . ultraviolet beams ( scope: 1nm-100nm ) . X raies ( scope: 0. 1nm-10nm ) . and gamma beams. which have the shortest wavelengths amongst the different electromagnetic radiations ( scope: 0. 01nm-0. 1nm ) . B. How you determine the temperature. composing. and gesture of an object from its visible radiation spectrum? Different elements emit and absorb light moving ridges otherwise. Hence. when viewed through a spectroscope. different elements will hold different spectral forms.
The object’s composing is obtained from observing which spectral lines are present or absent. We can besides find the denseness of the object depending on the sum of lines present in the spectrum. The more lines and the more uninterrupted the spectrum. the denser is the stuff. On the other manus. the temperature of the object will impact the forms spectral lines emitted by the object. If objects have high temperatures. their spectral lines will be broader. that is. it is spread over more frequences than if it had lower temperature.
To find temperature. Finally. the Doppler Shift tells us the gesture of the object. whether it is traveling off or toward us. and with what velocity. When the ascertained object is traveling toward us. the spectral lines we observe occur at shorter wavelengths when we compare it to those measured in the research lab. This is called “blueshifted. ” On the other manus. if the object is traveling off from us we observe the lines to happen at longer wavelengths. In this instance we say that the lines are “redshifted. ” The sum of switching will find the velocity of gesture. degree Celsius.
In what manner do uranologists deduce that the Sun’s energy comes from atomic merger reactions? How do we cognize it does non come from chemical combustion? Even though both atomic mergers and chemical reactions result in the release of energy. atomic mergers release much more energy than chemical reactions. This is due to the nature of each reaction. Given that the energy that the Sun produces is highly high. it is impossible that chemical reactions are fuelling it. for if that were the instance. so the Sun will non be bring forthing adequate energy to prolong life on Earth.
If it were chemical reactions powering it. it would be bring forthing approximately one-millionth of the energy it is bring forthing now. d. Explain how the Sun produces energy by atomic merger. Because of the sum of affair nowadays in the Sun. it is in danger of go offing. What keeps this from go oning. nevertheless. is the atomic merger that occurs in its nucleus. which is so hot because of the force per unit area from its mass that is being pulled inwards by gravitation. In the nucleus. H karyon are forced to come together. This merger creates helium-4 and energy.
Since the ensuing He-4 atoms are less monolithic than the initial H atoms that fused together. the losing mass is what was transformed into energy. This is best explained by the most celebrated equation in Physics. E=mc2. which states the equality of mass and energy. e. When we look at stars in the sky. we see a broad scope of brightness. Explain the factors that would do one star appear brighter than another. There are two factors that affect the brightness of stars in the sky. The first 1 is the built-in feature of the star. which dictates how perfectly bright or aglow it will be.
The 2nd factor that affects the manner we see stars is their distance from the Earth. The farther they are. the dimmer they would look. This is because the visible radiation they emit would necessitate to go through through interstellar affair that could scatter. absorb or reflect the visible radiation in different waies. f. Compare the Sun with other stars. The Sun is called such by virtuousness of its place. that is. it is in the centre of the solar system. Technically. nevertheless. the Sun is besides a star. It differs from other stars in its size. temperature. age. and colour. The Sun is a dwarf star. about 4.
5 billion old ages old. and is classified as “yellow. ” which means that it has an mean temperature of about 6000 K. Hotter stars are classified as bluish-white. while ice chest stars are ruddy. g. See a star at the upper portion of the chief sequence ( label it Star A ) and a star in the lower portion of the chief sequence ( label it Star B ) . Which is: 1 ) Larger? Star A 2 ) More aglow? Star A 3 ) More monolithic? Star A 4 ) Hotter? Star A h. Compare the life spans of low mass stars and high mass stars. Explain why they are different. The life span of low mass stars is longer than the life spans of high mass stars.
The ground for this is that the higher the mass of the star. the more H is needed to undergo merger to maintain the star from fall ining under its ain gravitative force. I. What would an fanciful terrestrial perceiver see as the Sun runs out of H? If life is confined to Earth when this happens. would life die from heat or from cold? Explain. As the Sun runs out of H fuel. it will get down devouring He. This leads to the Sun increasing in radius. finally turning it into a ruddy giant. When this happens. the Sun will turn so big that it can steep the Earth.
Life on Earth would die from utmost heat. When the He runs out. nevertheless. the Sun will shrivel to a white midget. The ground for this is that the Sun is excessively little to go on firing elements larger than He. J. What sort of stars finally become white midget? What sort finally become supernovae? What will be the ultimate destiny of the Sun? Why? A white midget is an highly heavy star. with the mass of the Sun and the size of the Earth. It is composed of the leftovers of leading affair. which is largely carbon and O. In order to turn into a white midget. stars need to hold a size of about 0.
07-10 times that of the Sun. On the other manus. a supernova is formed when a monolithic star consumes all of its atomic fuel and therefore prostrations under its gravitative field. Because of the high gravitative force that causes its prostration. the dead star all of a sudden explodes. A star that is about 8-10 times more monolithic than the Sun will stop its life as a supernova. The ultimate destiny of the Sun is to go a white midget. The ground for this is that the Sun is non really monolithic to turn into a supernova. therefore missing the critical mass that would do it to fall in under its ain weight.