Emerging technologies and issues Essay

Question 1.

Explain and Compare the concern theoretical accounts, i.e. the chief agencies of gross coevals of a ) companies that offer printed street directories and B ) those offering GPS enabled in-car pilotage devices and degree Celsius ) mobile in-car pilotage services.

Business theoretical account of companies that offer printed street directories.

The most normally used printed street directories by the Australian automobilists are “UDB” , “Gregory’s” and “Melways” ( in Victoria ) . These contains the Australia Road Atlas, tourer information about peculiar metropoliss, chief attractive force inside informations and must see topographic points, chief paths, suburb streets, rhythm and walking paths, roads with National Highway markers and State Highway markers, landmarks like shopping promenades, schools and infirmaries. Some maps even offer nutrient and adjustment inside informations in their directories.

The printed street directories are chiefly aimed at automobilists, tourers and other commuters with low income and who do n’t desire to pass much to cognize the paths. These street directories help the people to hold an thought about the location where they are and to acquire to cognize the landmarks and other inside informations, such that they can go around easy. One disadvantage of the printed street directories is that the users should happen the path themselves. But it is an advantage in another manner. When a traffic block happens, they can look into for alternate path to go. The monetary value for these maps are less and low-cost.

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The people utilizing printed street directories can be categorized under Traditionalists, Old Sociables and Old Achievers who are late followings of engineering. They start utilizing the new engineering merely after it becomes a portion of people ‘s twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours lives. They are a spot frightened about the new engineering and are non frequent users of engineering merchandises. The direction manuals are complex for them. They are less interested in new engineering and are more disbelieving. ( Andersson, 2006 ) These people use printed street directories than GPS devices as they are non frequent users of engineering merchandises. The gross for the companies offering printed street directories come from these people. There are different assortment of maps like trekking maps, motor ways and some maps with more inside informations about the metropoliss. Tourists tend to purchase the elaborate 1s as they would wish to cognize more item about the metropoliss. These users buy maps for the peculiar location. Thus these companies make gross when the users buy different maps for different topographic points. The monetary value of these maps would change from A $ 15 to A $ 50.

Even though the companies doing printed maps make their printed street directories with attractive designs and colourss. Most of them have protective difficult screen and some has a transparent screen to protect it from unsmooth usage. Since they give non merely the information about Australia Atlass, but besides gives tonss of information with images, this attracts many people. These companies by and large compete with each other instead than with GPS fabrication companies. For illustration, “UDB” has been giving attractive printed street directories with tonss of information about metropoliss in Australia, and now Explore Australia has come with “Explore Australia 2010” which has detailed information about the metropoliss and new towns. It has inside informations about nutrient and adjustment and even about gift thoughts from peculiar metropoliss.

Business theoretical account of companies that make GPS devices

GPS ( Global Positioning System ) pilotage device is electronic equipment which receives GPS signals to find the current location. This has pre-installed embedded package and gives synergistic maps of some part. Some besides shows points of involvements of some parts. Most devices give, paths, bit-by-bit routing waies and most of them are in spoken signifier. It will be easy for the individual who is driving to follow the instructions and range finish. ( Wapedia, 2009 ) These devices make certain that the old street directories can be replaced wholly by them. ( PCWorld, 2008 )

There are many types of in-car GPS devices. They non merely supply turn-by-turn pilotage, but some besides synchronize the nomadic phones and let the user to do custodies free calls, drama music and picture files and some even read out the text messages in the phones. ( PCWorld, 2008 ) Since the monetary value for the GPS devices have been decreased, it has become low-cost to most people now yearss. The early followings of the engineering like Pioneers, Materialists, Educated Achievers and Educated Sociables are the chief users of these devices. Young Pioneers are interested in the new engineering and it ‘s exciting and entertaining for them. Adult Pioneers are frequently addicted to the engineering and they feel in control when they are utilizing it. Young and Adult Materialists find new engineering exciting and merriment to utilize. They besides like the new engineering and like to utilize it every bit much as they can and they would wish to be up to day of the month by get the hanging the new engineering. For Educated Achievers, the up-to-date merchandises are really of import. They are less interested in how the engineering works but they like to utilize them. Educated Sociables are besides early followings of engineering. They use the services that benefit them by salvaging clip. ( Andersson, 2006 ) These people make the highest per centum of gross for the companies which make GPS devices. The clients buy the GPS in-car pilotage devices and wage for them. Subsequently one time in a twelvemonth these devices have to be updated with the new maps and that is the clip when these companies charge the clients. Since tonss of new suburbs, roads and points of involvements come up within a twelvemonth, if the clients do n’t download the latest updates, it would be hard for them to go with the old maps in the device.

The concern theoretical account of all these companies are to supply, easy to utilize GPS devices and supply more in inside informations information about the paths and other points of involvements. Some of them even let the user to alter to voice to the voice similar to the client.

Business theoretical account of companies that make Mobile in-car pilotage services

For nomadic trailing, most of the nomadic companies started utilizing GPS receiving systems to be built in the nomadic phones. Latest smart phones and Java enabled phones use in- built or external GPS receiving system for cognizing the place of the nomadic phone. Navigation on smart phones and nomadic phones are acquiring popular in Australia. Most of the latest nomadic phone French telephones come with Google Maps package ( eg. iPhones ) and helps the user to hunt and happen paths. The nomadic phones with in-built GPS can demo the current place and clip for travel and turn-by-turn pilotage instructions. The clients should hold entree to the cyberspace to utilize this installation. There are besides some free package for pilotage for nomadic phones. “amAze” is one such free GPS pilotage package which can be downloaded and used in Windows Mobile, Java enabled Mobiles and BlackBerry. If the phone does n’t hold internal GPS receiving system, this package can be used with Bluetooth GPS. This package provides, voice counsel, merely like the GPS devices. This has some other interesting characteristics like, weather study of the finish, points of involvement, detailed map and even rotated map during the pilotage. . “amAze” claims to be the first free Mobile pilotage package in Australia. ( amAze, 2009 ) Another popular one is OVI maps by Nokia phones. Even though the package is free to download, for accessing the premium services like City Explorer, Drive & A ; Traffic Safety, the clients should pay more. Many of the car companies like Audi and Wolkswagon are besides giving in-car pilotage, which uses the client ‘s nomadic phone to entree the maps ( eg. Audi ‘s DVD-based Satellite Navigation system Plus ) .

This engineering is popular among Young and Adult Pioneers, Young and Adult Materialists.

The gross for this type of services is chiefly utilizing cyberspace through GPRS which the information is downloaded for the maps. For Nokia maps, ( OVI maps ) , the client should pay for the excess services. But for Google maps of other pilotage package like “amAze” , the clients can utilize the package freely, but for acquiring the path information, the informations should be downloaded. These pilotage services are marketed by web operators, handset sellers and assorted service suppliers. ( Berg-Insight, 2008 ) The service suppliers of the nomadic phones charge otherwise depending upon the connexions clients have. It can be either pay as you go for prepaid nomadic phones or some monthly payment for utilizing GPRS informations downloading.

The concern scheme of this type of services chiefly targets the automobilists utilizing GPS devices every bit good as other commuters, who depend on public conveyance every bit good as who prefer walking. They aim at giving real-time information about the paths to the clients. The prosaic pilotage is acquiring improved and this will assist the users to be after the paths by look intoing all manners of transit line train, ropeway, coachs, ferries, aeroplanes etc. Compared to the GPS devices, the nomadic pilotage is less dearly-won and easy to utilize. ( Berg-Insight, 2008 )

Question 2.

Make you anticipate that GPS enabled in-car pilotage would be used by more Australian automobilists by 2020 than printed street directories?

GPS enabled pilotage is widely acquiring accepted among Australian automobilists. These devices give information about the current location, lift above sea degree, distance traveled, route pilotage etc. They are portable and of low monetary value. Compared to maps, GPS in-car pilotage is user friendly and clip economy. The advantages of GPS devices over the printed street directories have increased the popularity of GPS devices. The usage of GPS devices by the twelvemonth 2020 would be much big compared to the printed street directories.

The credence of GPS enabled in-car pilotage by the Australian Motorists by 2020 than printed street directories can be validated by Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) . Harmonizing to this theoretical account there are four determiners. I ) Performance Expectancy two ) Effort Expectancy three ) Social Influence four ) Facilitating Conditions. These determiners play a important function in user credence and usage behaviour. ( Venkatesh et.al, 2003 )

  1. Performance Anticipation
  2. Harmonizing to Venkatesh et. Al ( 2003 ) , this is defined as the grade to which a user believes that utilizing this peculiar engineering or system will assist him to derive in making a occupation. There are three root concepts which support this. They are Perceived Usefulness, Job Fit and Relative advantage. This is the grade to which a individual believed that utilizing GPS would heighten the public presentation of his travel experience. Using GPS, the individual can seek for finishs, cipher the clip required for travel and acquire turn-by-turn pilotage instructions. They besides track the velocity cameras and warn the drivers. These are non achievable with printed street directories. The users have to happen the path to the finish themselves. This is besides clip devouring compared to the usage of GPS devices, as they will give address instructions to the individuals to make finish. As mentioned before, the usage of GPS devices would diminish the clip for happening the maps utilizing printed street directories. The extent to which the GPS devices can help the people in giving aid in pilotage is high compared to the printed street directories. The grade to which GPS devices have perceived is better compared to the printed street directories. GPS devices are easy to utilize, and enable to make occupation rapidly compared to the printed street maps. The behavior purpose that is influenced by public presentation anticipation will be moderated by gender and age. Already by 2010, most of the immature and old innovators, winners and materialists will be utilizing the GPS devices compared to the printed street maps. Therefore by 2020 other people in the consumer section will besides get down utilizing it. ( Venkatesh-et.al, 2003 )

  3. Effort Expectancy
  4. This is the grade of easiness in utilizing the system. ( Venkatesh-et.al, 2003 ) The GPS devices are easy to utilize and do n’t hold complicated bill of fares. They use QWERTY system for typing the references and it helps the users to type easy, as it ‘s similar to typing in keyboards. There are some GPS devices which can input address and acquire the information. Not much attempt is needed to seek and pull out information in GPS devices where as in printed maps, manual attempt is more. Peoples should seek in item in the maps for more information. For illustration, in seeking the something in the Melbourne City, a individual ca n’t acquire it straight from the Melbourne map. One should acquire the City map and hunt themselves where as in GPS devices, merely by come ining the reference we can acquire the path to the reference.

  5. Social Influence
  6. The 3rd determiner is societal influence of GPS devices over printed street directories on people. This is the grade to which society makes a individual feel that it is of import to utilize the GPS devices. ( Venkatesh-et.al, 2003 ) People get influenced by their friends and household and co-workers who use GPS devices. Peoples will besides acquire reappraisals about the GPS devices from cyberspace, magazines, intelligence documents and shopping catalogues which will assist the individuals to understand the easiness of usefulness and advantage of utilizing GPS pilotage devices alternatively of printed street directories. These all will hold a great impact on the people and act upon them in utilizing GPS pilotage devices.

  7. Facilitating conditions
  8. This is the grade to which a individual believes that the organisational and proficient substructure that exists to back up the usage of the GPS pilotage devices. ( Venkatesh-et.al, 2003 # 6 ) The new GPS pilotage devices are relatively easy to utilize. If the companies supplying GSP pilotage devices provide manuals that are easy to understand, it would assist the users to get the hang the device easy. As discussed before, the user interface of the GPS devices are easy to understand and utilize. Furthermore, as the new suburbs, towns and roads come, the GPS pilotage companies update their maps and users can download the new maps. So altogether it is easy for the users as they do n’t hold to worry much about the new paths and seek them in the printed maps.

Therefore harmonizing to the UTAUT theoretical account, by 2020 the GPS enabled in-car pilotage would be used by more Australian automobilists than printed street directories

Question 3

Make you anticipate that GPS enabled in-car pilotage would be mandated by authorities as a means to command traffic congestion in major metropoliss of Australia by 2030?

The increasing traffic congestion in Australia will coerce the authorities to do the usage of GPS pilotage devices compulsory. This would assist to diminish traffic congestion and helps in warning the drivers to drive carefully in countries where there ‘s chance of accidents.

There are many benefits in doing the usage of GPS mandatary. Peoples can utilize another path if the normal path is busy and the GPS devices can steer the drivers in utilizing the less congestions paths. The figure of larcenies of vehicles can be reduced with the aid of GPS tracking systems. Furthermore, the people will drive safely and within velocity bound, as the GPS pilotage devices warn when velocity bound is increased and approach velocity cameras. Peoples will hold a feeling that they are being monitored, so they will seek to drive safely. This will besides assist the authorities in security issues excessively. The constabulary can easy track down the felons with the aid of the GPS pilotage devices.

The GPS package fabrication companies are seeking to give existent clip information to the users sing traffic congestion and accidents to users. The “Suna Traffic- Tracking service” is one such service that has been widely accepted in the Australian Cities. This systems use GPS and FM wireless to convey the information to users. This has been implemented in metropoliss like Melbourne, Brisbane and being implemented in metropoliss like Perth, Adelaide and Canberra. It has become popular in Brisbane and Gold seashore. ( Kidman, 2009 ) The traffic informations is sourced from the traffic detectors, enquire about the vehicles, and give information about route plants, particular events like cultural activities and athleticss events. The signal from FM wireless broadcasts sing the traffic channel can be decoded by some of the GPS units and some demands particular equipments for decrypting. ( Withers, 2009 ) This is owned by RACV the motoring organisation that helps in route aid, gives proficient advice on vehicles, gives driving instructions, touring and travel tips etc. ( RACV, 2009 )

As engineering progresss, in future alternatively of digital wireless transmittal, having the traffic informations by GPS devices may be done straight and alternatively of the stored informations, people could have unrecorded informations sing the paths. Some devices may besides offer advice on when to alter lanes and give hit warning to forestall accidents and even would hold the ability to observe the driver ‘s drive forms to happen if he is falling asleep.

Furthermore, most of the vehicle fabrication companies have started giving built-in GPS pilotage devices with the new autos. Therefore by 2030, most of the autos will be holding the GPS installation that would assist the authorities to implement regulation to do it compulsory to utilize GPS.

The disadvantage of doing this mandatary is that people will lose their privateness. They will hold a feeling that person is tracking them ever where of all time they go and so many people, particularly the Traditionalists in the consumer section may non wholly hold to this. There are many proficient challenges in following this. If this is done centrally, it would be difficult to supervise and give waies for the vehicles.

Question 4

Develop two proposals of how GPS and 3G nomadic engineerings, in combination, could be applied to increase the usage of public conveyance by the commuters

This is a study about two proposals to increase the usage of public conveyance utilizing GPS and 3G nomadic engineerings. GPS pilotage is one of latest emerging engineerings that is popular. Harmonizing to Gartner ‘s Hype Cycle for Mobile devices, GPS is one of the engineerings that affect the nomadic devices market. About 29 % of the nomadic phones which will be sold in the twelvemonth 2009 are expected to hold in-built GPS. More location based services and applications are utilizing GPS. It is predicted that GPS will go a service sweetening when it is combined with other service platforms by giving the location informations provenders. ( Milanesi et. Al, 2009 ) By 2011 40 % of the nomadic French telephones will include GPS and the GPS incursion in nomadic industry will change from 50 % to 100 % .

In Australia within few old ages, the urban population addition is at a rate of 0.9 % . ( Advameg, 2009 ) This addition in population, addition in fuel monetary value, traffic congestion in metropoliss, etc is coercing the authorities to do people cognizant of utilizing public conveyance. There has been many advertisement run which promotes the usage of public conveyance in Australia. This can be increased by the usage of combination of GPS and 3G engineerings. The proposals are given below.

Proposal 1:

With the usage of GPS and 3G, construct a system which helps the commuters to cognize the shortest path utilizing public conveyance to make a peculiar finish from the current point. There is a web site in Sydney ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.131500.com.au/ ) which helps the users to acquire the information about the different train or coach paths from a location to another. But in that system, the users have to come in the location, say the nearest station or coach halt.

For illustration, if the individual has travelled from City to Preston by auto and if he wants to travel from Preston to state Weribee and he does n’t cognize which public conveyance can take him to Weribee, he can entree this application in his 3G phone and acquire the inside informations about the manner he should utilize to make the nearest point and quickest manner of conveyance. If there is a train station which is 1 kilometre off from his location and ropeway halt and coach Michigans are half a kilometre from his location, but the following train which comes in 20 proceedingss can take him to the location he wants to travel, this system would give the inside informations like, clip for travel by ropeway, train and coach, clip take by each in go uping order and the clip left for him to acquire the following vehicle. The individual can take from the list of options and choose the path. The application will give bend by bend address and text pilotage to the user.

The new system will be based on GPS and 3G engineering. The users should hold either in-built GPS in their phone or should hold a GPS device that can be accessed by their 3G phone. This system would hold both text based pilotage every bit good as address, which guides the users to make the nearest train station, tram halt or coach halt. They can attach the French telephone to acquire the address information about the paths or can read out the instructions. The system gives existent clip informations sing the public conveyance. The individuals can happen it easy and really utile to utilize it, particularly when they are lost in some topographic point and want to make some finish.

The bing 3G devices with built-in GPS aid the users in happening the maps of locations. For illustration the individuals can acquire text information every bit good as map of the location and waies to travel from one topographic point to another. Many of the commuters are utilizing it to travel about in topographic points and to seek the walking paths. But this wo n’t give information about the inside informations of public conveyance which takes them to the specified reference. The bing Google maps in 3G phones shows the train paths and ropeway paths in the maps. But the users ca n’t acquire the unrecorded information about the clip when the nearest public conveyance which takes less clip to make the finish.

This would be really utile for the commuters as the usage public conveyance is inexpensive for them. This is besides really utile for the individuals who do n’t hold their ain vehicles and depend to the full on public conveyance. Peoples can salvage fuel and parking fees in the metropoliss. By merely utilizing the new engineering in their phone they can cognize the clip to make the nearest public conveyance topographic point, travel clip and besides the path pilotage instructions both in address and text end product. One another advantage of utilizing this system is that the offense rates can be avoided. Many of the offenses occur when people wait for the conveyance in trains or tram Michigans in late darks. By utilizing the system, since they can cognize the clip that the train or ropeway or coach arrives and besides the clip to go from their location to the nearest public conveyance, they wo n’t hold to wait for a long clip till the ropeway or train to get. Therefore when the rate of offense lessenings in utilizing public conveyance in late darks, people will get down utilizing the public conveyance alternatively of ain vehicles. This non merely decreases the traffic congestion, but besides saves the fuel, and diminish the pollution of environment.

This system can besides assist the handicapped individuals to utilize the public conveyance easy. This can steer the handicapped individuals to make the point of public conveyance where there is handicapped entree. Blind people frequently get lost in the crowd, and this would curtail their freedom of travel. But with reaching of this system, people can acquire aid in acquiring pilotage information with the aid of which they will non merely acquire the freedom of travel but, can go independent.

This system can besides advice the users to take another path, if there is any accidents in their normal path which may take long clip than usual clip for making their finish. In instance of interruption downs of train or ropeway, people wo n’t hold to wait for the train for a long clip and waste clip. Alternatively they can take the surrogate path which they get to make the finish.

Even though the big investing is needed to implement the whole system, it is really deserving it. Geting all the existent clip information about the trains, ropewaies and coachs and giving this information to the nomadic devices through GPS depending upon their location is besides non an easy occupation. Taking the long term position of this proposal, puting for this proposal would be really helpful for the people in the metropoliss. Salvaging fuel monetary values, cut downing environment pollution, salvaging parking fees, cut downing offense rate, and assistance for the handicapped individuals all these do this a good proposal.

Proposal 2:

My 2nd proposal for increasing the usage of public conveyance utilizing GPS and 3G is related to security issues. Recently the offense rates in Australia have increased a batch that people are scared to utilize public conveyance in some topographic points in the dark. This proposal is to develop an application that work in the 3G nomadic phones that could direct warning or aid signals to the nearest exigency centre or police station or infirmary and they can supervise the train or ropeway and make the location and assist the people in demand.

This system can be a Java based application that can be installed in the nomadic phones and can be activated automatically by pressing a peculiar key in the nomadic phone ( like hot keys for naming exigency Numberss ) . By pressing this key, this application starts up and direct the signal to the nearest exigency centre, and sends the GPS signals to turn up the current place of the individual, will put the camera on in the train or ropeway to supervise the activities, and can give way to the constabulary to make the nearest train station or tram halt for the individual ‘s assistance. This can besides go through information to infirmaries to make the topographic point, if the individual needs any aid.

Suppose if a individual is on train traveling late dark, and some felons besides get into the same train and if he is leery about their moves, he may non hold clip to name constabulary and inform about it. Alternatively he can merely trip the application by pressing the hot key, and send signal to the nearest exigency centre. When the cameras of the train are activated, the people can be monitored and before making the following halt, this system can give information to the bulls to make at that place to salvage the individual.

This can besides be helpful for individuals in demand of medical attention. If a individual all of a sudden fell ill and there is cipher in the train or ropeway to assist him and if he is non in a status to name and speak, he can utilize the hot key to trip the application to direct the signals to the exigency centre, where they will direct medical assistance before he reach the following halt.

Like any system, there would be some proficient troubles in implementing the system. There should be dedicated waiters for treating such information. Monitoring the train or ropeway by puting the cameras on after acquiring the signal wo n’t be that easy. Since this is for exigency usage, officers ‘ in-charge should be truly watchful. If they could n’t supply proper aid in clip, there is no intent of implementing this system. Sometimes if by mistake the individual press the hot key, all the exigency systems would be set on and it would be a waste if it is merely by error. So to do this system work decently, more steps should be taken to avoid such fusss.

This system would be a immense success if implemented in Australia. This non merely helps in cut downing the offense, but can besides assist the individuals who are physically sick, and are entirely in any train or ropeway, and needs medical aid. Since the cameras will besides be set on for monitoring, and the aid would get when the train or ropeway reaches the following halt, there would be less opportunity for the felons to get away. Therefore by cut downing the offense rate and by assisting people when they are in demand particularly in such conditions, people would n’t be scared to go entirely in public conveyance. This can besides increase the usage of public conveyance by the people of Australia


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