Enables knowledge sharing and learning Essay

Chapter 1


1.1 Introduction

In the university, academicians need to develop stuffs and scholarly publications. The research stuffs consists of articles published in magazines, paper presented at conferences, documents published in diaries and etc. These research stuffs and publications which are knowledge intensive can be gaining controls and maintained in depositories, so that it enables cognition sharing and acquisition.

Knowledge sharing is an activity through which cognition is exchanged among people, a community and organisation. These activities are by and large supported by cognition direction systems which are defined as “IT-based systems developed to back up and heighten the organisational procedures of cognition creative activity, storage/retrieval, transportation and application” ( Alavi and Leidner, 2001 ) . The elements of a cognition direction system consist of the organisation, rational capital, information direction and engineering.

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Due to quickly altering engineerings, user now desire and anticipate content in movable signifier, which can be utilized in assorted digital environment where it can be manipulated as they desired. Therefore, the creative activity of digital depositories for cognition sharing in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ( UTM ) is a turning demand.

1.2 Problem Background

UTM publications consist of activity that involved in publication articles, research documents in diaries, showing documents at conferences and etc. This research stuff is the “intellectual output” of the UTM. UTM need to hive away and retain their rational assets. They besides need to do the work seeable and available to others within and outside the university. There is a demand to portion all this cognition created by the academicians in UTM.

There is a turning demand to measure the quality of publications in the university. Academicians are expected to maintain update of developments in their Fieldss of specialisation by appealing in original research and scholarship, affecting in activities of professional societies and to read the latest research surveies produced by their co-workers. There is ever a new issue to discourse, farther analysis to be done or another subject to confabulate.

The thought of digital depositories has been grasp the imaginativeness of academicians who had a vision of cognition sharing through unfastened entree system. The benefit of digital institutional depositories is expected as addendum to the scholarly communicating procedure and as index of the quality and measure of the rational end product of university. Hence, by making digital institutional depositories for UTM, it could assist in forming, structured and secured scholarly academicians ‘ publications.

1.3 Problem Statement

The job statement for this research is:

“How to develop Institutional Repositories ( IR ) that promotes knowledge sharing? ”

1.4 Undertaking Aims

The aims of the undertaking are:

  1. To analyze current depositories execution and its strength and restriction.
  2. To suggest a model for developing IR that could undertake academicians ‘ involvement in sharing cognition to the depositories.
  3. To plan and develop IR based on proposed model.
  4. To prove IR functionality based on user credence.

1.5 Project Scope

  1. This research will be done for UTM depositories ; therefore it will follow the bing theoretical account.
  2. To analyze that focal point on cardinal challenge of academicians involvement and behavior to the depositories.
  3. To analyze that focal point on cardinal challenge in advancing cognition sharing.
  4. The development of a digital depository for pull offing publications of UTM academicians.

1.6 Importance of the Undertaking

The development digital depository of UTM will function a meaningful index of the university academic quality whereby it will capture, continue and circulate corporate rational capital. It is imperative that the cognition that is built is captured so that it can be of public-service corporation to other academicians and UTM itself.

The development of digital depository will concentrate on enabling sharing and acquisition and provides an penetration on the figure of publications by module, lectors and the capable countries of the publications.

1.7 Drumhead

As for the sum-up, this chapter provides a brief overview about the undertaking and general information related. The background and statement of job has been discussed in this chapter to give a foreword of the undertaking every bit good as to explicate the principle of suggesting the undertaking. The aims, Scopess and the importance of this undertaking have besides been stated. By developing the undertaking successfully, the aims and purposes of the undertaking could be achieved.

Chapter 2


2.1 Introduction

This chapter examines relevant literature in the country of research survey. By holding in deepness apprehension on the research countries, research worker will be able to carry on and show the research survey easy. This chapter begins with reexamining cognition, followed by cognition direction, cognition sharing, digital depositories, institutional depositories, conference direction and terminal with a treatment on how the research will be developed based on the old work. The necessities that covered in this chapter are shown on the Figure 2.1.

2.2 Knowledge

Data, information and cognition are the three footings that are used interchangeably in pattern. Data is defined as natural facts while information is considered as structured and organized informations. Knowledge differs from information in that it resides in people and it is ever personal. It can be conceptualized as meaningful and value added information which has been filtered by human heads. In comparing, cognition has the highest value, the greatest relevancy to determinations and actions, and the greatest dependance on context and requires the maximal sum of human engagement compared to informations and information ( Grover & A ; Davenport, 2001 ) .

There are multiple cognition definitions proposed in the literature and it is besides has been expressed in the different positions. Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary defines cognition as the facts, information, apprehension and accomplishments that a individual acquired through experience or instruction. Knowledge has been defined by Alavi and Leidner ( 2001 ) as a “justified personal belief that increases an person ‘s capacity to take effectual action.”

In their well-known book, Davenport and Prusak ( 1998 ) define cognition as “a unstable mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and adept penetrations that provides a model for measuring and integrating new experiences and information. It originates in and is applied in the heads of apprehender. In organisations, it frequently becomes embedded non merely in paperss or depositories but besides in organisational modus operandis, procedure, patterns, and norms.” Meanwhile, harmonizing to Nonaka and Takeuchi ( 1995 ) definition of cognition is considered as a dynamic human procedure of warranting personal belief toward the truth. Harmonizing to these writers, information is the “flow of messages” , and cognition is created when this flow of messages interacts with the beliefs and committednesss of its holders.

2.2.1 Classification of Knowledge

Based on the work of Polanyi ( 1962, 1967 ) and Nonaka ( 1994 ) , they explained that there are two chief classs of cognition in organisations: tacit and explicit. Tacit knowledge chiefly resides in people ‘s heads and it is comparatively hard to be expressed, codified and documented. Basically, silent cognition is “knowing how” and includes penetrations, intuition, intuitions, which are frequently built by experience and hard to formalise and portion ( Connell, Klein, & A ; Powell, 2003 ) . In contrast, expressed cognition is that which has been articulated, codified and formalized in some electronic or physical signifier. Explicit cognition, on the other manus is “knowing about” ( Connell, et al. , 2003 ) . Explicit cognition transportation is comparatively common happening such as proprietor ‘s manual attach toing the purchase of an electronic merchandise. The manual contains knowledge on the appropriate operation of the merchandise. Tacit cognition, nevertheless, needs to be converted into expressed cognition in order for this sharing to take topographic point. The transportation of silent cognition into expressed cognition ( within the person ) and the transportation of expressed cognition people ( within or between organisations ) are the two actions underlying Knowledge Management Theory.

Another major differentiation of cognition is cultural cognition ( Blackler, 1995 ; Snowden, 2000 ; Choo, 2002 ) . Cultural cognition is defined as premises, beliefs, and values of people ( Choo, 1998 ) . However, many categorizations have besides emerged, but they are all an extension of these basic categorizations.

Another better apprehension is by looking at ( Blackler, 1995 ) in which they categorizes knowledge into five types ; embrained, embodied, encultured, embedded and encoded.

  • Embrained cognition refers to single conceptual accomplishments or cognitive abilities. Cognition is the human capacity to comprehend, construe and ground about environmental or organisational stimulations and meta-cognition is the capacity to believe about thought ( Carayannis, 1999 ) . This is the abstract cognition of personal penetration, theoretical account, and system thought, and shared visions in a general history of organisational thought.
  • Embodied cognition is the ability to transport out peculiar actions with the organic structure. Such cognition is acquired by making and is rooted in specific contexts. This is known as practical thought or adumbrate cognition of a state of affairs instead than abstract regulations.
  • Encultured cognition refers to the procedure of accomplishing shared apprehension in groups, organisations and societies. Cultural significance systems are closely related to the procedure of socialisation and socialization. Such apprehension are likely to depend to a great extent on linguistic communication and hence to be socially constructed and unfastened to dialogue.
  • Embedded cognition is a 2nd class of shared cognition that is reflected in modus operandis. Embedded cognition is decomposable in system footings, in the relationship between, for illustration engineerings, functions, formal processs, and emergent modus operandis.
  • Encoded cognition which refers to the explicit cognition represented in the written linguistic communication like books and digital information from databases and web sites. However, information encoded by decontextualised, abstract symbols is necessarily extremely selective in the representation it can convey.

2.2.2 Knowledge Model

Knowledge flows consist of procedures, events and activities through which informations, information, cognition and meta-knowledge are changed from one province to another. The analysis of cognition flows described in this research is based chiefly on the General Knowledge Model. The theoretical account categorizes cognition flows into four primary activity countries: creative activity, keeping, transportation and use.

Knowledge Creation

This comprises activities connected with the entry of new cognition into the system, and includes cognition development, find and gaining control.

Knowledge Retention

This includes activities that preserve cognition and let it to stay in the system one time introduced. It besides includes those activities that maintain the capableness of cognition within the system.

Knowledge Transfer.

This refers to activities related with the flow of cognition from one party to another. This includes communicating, interlingual rendition, transition, filtrating and rendering.

Knowledge Utilization.

This includes the activities and events connected with the application of cognition to concern procedures.

Knowledge is an elusive resource that exists within the head of the individual. Knowledge is straight related to understanding and is gained through the reading of information. Knowledge enables us to construe information that is derived from informations. The apprehension of significance is framed by the percipient ‘s cognition. Therefore, information can be added to knowledge to increase what is known. Hence it can be seen that cognition is subjective and can merely shack within the head of the person.

2.3 Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management ( KM ) has been defined as “the procedure by which an organisation creates, gaining controls, and uses cognition to back up and better the public presentation of the organisation ( Kinney, 1998 ) .” KM could besides be referred as a broad aggregation of organisational patterns and attacks associated with generating, capturing, reassigning know-how and other content relevant to the organisation ‘s concern. The term “knowledge management” is suggested to be used to depict a procedure to pull off cognition since it involves incorporating the elements of thought and feeling as to uncover the cardinal misinterpretation of the nature of cognition.

There are diverse Fieldss proposing the sum of involvement KM stimulates. Human resource, client service, concern scheme, organisational behaviour, instruction, political relations and diplomatic ties, all these countries benefit from the leveraged findings and existent clip experimentation of cognition direction ( Lim Ang Lean, 2003 ) . It is good recognized today that cognition is one of the most competitory resource for the dynamic planetary concern environment ( Sharif, 2005 ) . In fact, in recent old ages companies have strongly focused on forming making, reassigning, seeking, sharing cognition under the roof alleged Knowledge Management ( Hildreth, 2002 ) . On the other manus, big sum of publications on assorted positions and dimensions of cognition direction have been generated by the multidisciplinary academic universe such as doctrine, sociology, computing machine scientific disciplines ( Davenport, 1996, Davis, 2002 ) .

Knowledge direction is the systematic, expressed, and deliberate edifice, reclamation and application of cognition to maximise the endeavor ‘s cognition related effectivity and returns from its cognition assets ( Wigg,1997 ) . Bhatt ( 2001 ) refers to knowledge direction as a procedure of cognition creative activity, proof, presentation, distribution, and application. These five stages in cognition direction allow an organisation to larn, reflect, unlearn and relearn, to construct, keep, and refill its core-competencies. Chong et Al. ( 2000 ) has identified KM as “a procedure of leveraging and jointing accomplishments and expertness of employees, supported by information technology” . However, Hibbard ( 1997 ) states that engineering plays a really critical function in cognition direction, but engineering on its ain can non do cognition direction happen. Knowing which engineerings to choose and how to deploy them begins with an apprehension of merely what cognition direction is.

In order to advance better apprehension of KM attacks, Hansen, Nohria, and Tierney ( 1999 ) have defined two different schemes that organisations adopt in pattern ; codification and personalization. Codification refers to the attack in which cognition is extracted from people, codified and captured in depositories so that it can be accessed and reused. It can be seen as a method to retreat cognition from the individual who possesses it, so that it remains in an organisation. On the contrary, personalization focal points on cognition sharing via person-to-person contacts and duologues. Human interaction is exploited to get cognition that remains inside the head of an person. In drumhead, KM can be understood as a formalistic and active attack to pull off and optimise cognition resources in an organisation.

2.3.1 Knowledge Management Model

In placing the constructs of cognition direction, SECI Model ( Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1999 ) has been adopted which clearly shows on how the cognition being managed and transferred.

This theoretical account is based on four manners of constituents Socialization, Externalization, Internalization and Combination. It changed depends on the Tacit and Explicit matrix as shown in the figure. As mentioned the earlier phase, silent cognition is unstructured and intangible, and normally comes in the signifier of direct personal communicating. Explicit cognition is in the structured signifier and codifiable.

Socialization ( silent to tacit )

Socialization is a procedure of change overing new tacit cognition through shared experience. The term socialisation is involves the sharing of silent cognition between persons and used to stress that silent cognition is exchanged through joint activities – such as being together, passing times, and life in the same environment, instead than through written or verbal direction. Therefore in a certain sense, tacit cognition can merely be shared if the ego is freed to go a larger ego that includes the silent cognition of the other.

Externalization ( silent to explicit )

Externalization requires the look of silent cognition and its interlingual rendition into comprehendible signifier that can be understood by others or in other word, externalisation is the procedure of jointing silent cognition into expressed cognition. When silent cognition is crystallized, therefore leting it to be shared by others, and it becomes the footing of new cognition. During the externalisation phase of the knowledge-creation procedure, an single commits to the group and therefore go one with group. Therefore, self-transcendence is a cardinal to group integrating and transition of silent cognition into expressed cognition.

Combination ( expressed to explicit )

Combination involves the transition of expressed cognition into more complex sets of expressed cognition. In this phase, the cardinal issues are communicating and diffusion procedures and the systemization of cognition.

Internalization ( expressed to tacit )

Internalization is the procedure of incarnating expressed cognition into silent cognition. Through internalisation, expressed cognition created is shared throughout an organisation and converted into silent cognition by persons. This requires the single to place the cognition relevant for one ‘s ego within the organisational cognition. That once more requires happening one ‘s ego in a larger entity. Learning by making, preparation and exercises allow the person to entree the cognition kingdom of the group and the full organisation.

Knowledge creative activity is a uninterrupted procedure of dynamic interactions between tacit and expressed cognition. Such interactions are shaped by displacements between different manners of cognition transition, non merely through one manner of interaction. Knowledge created through each of the four manners of cognition transition interacts in the spiral of cognition creative activity. In the spiral of cognition creative activity, the interaction between tacit and expressed cognition is amplified through the four manners of cognition transition. Knowledge created through the SECI procedure can trip a new spiral of cognition creative activity, spread outing horizontally and vertically across organisation. It is a dynamic procedure, get downing at the single degree and spread outing as it moves through communities of interaction.

2.3.2 Knowledge Management Component

Applehans et Al ( 2001 ) described cardinal constituents in a cognition direction system as follows:


Peoples are the 1 that green goods and usage cognition and it will be the footing for action.


The flow of informations, information, and cognition is of import to the success of the concern.


This is the proficient substructure that enables the gaining control, storage and bringing of content to those who need it when they need it.

Borghoff and Pareschi ( 1998 ) utilized a general model for Knowledge Management Architecture consist of four portion as in the Figure 2.4:

Knowledge depositories and libraries

They are the tools for managing depositories of cognition in the signifier of paperss.

Communities of cognition workers

They are the tools to back up communities of pattern in work such as forming workspaces for communities for on-line treatments and distributed work.

The flow of cognition

Tools for back uping the interaction between tacit cognition, expressed cognition and metaknowledge ; that is, that combines the three parts above.

Knowledge mapmaking

Tools for function and categorising cognition, from nucleus competency in a company to single expertness ; what we can mention to as “metaknowledge” .

2.4 Knowledge Sharing

KM tools can be divided into three viz. Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Dissemination. However, the proposed model is concentrating on cognition sharing aspect hence Knowledge Sharing ( KS ) will be explained in this portion.

Knowledge sharing involves the transportation or airing of cognition from one individual, or group to another. Davenport and Prusak ( 1998 ) depict the chief activities involved in cognition sharing as transmittal and soaking up. The transmittal activity includes efficaciously sending and right showing cognition to the possible cognition receivers, and the soaking up activity is the effectivity of cognition usage by the receivers. The term cognition sharing implies the giving and having of information framed within a context by the cognition of the beginning. The information received framed by the cognition of the receiver. Even though based on the cognition of the beginning, the cognition received would non be indistinguishable as the procedure of reading is subjective and is framed by our bing cognition and our individuality ( Miller, 2002 ) .

Sharing cognition is defined as the sharing of both inexplicit and expressed cognition, every bit good as any signifier of cognition located someplace on the continuum between both of them ( Wenneker, et al. , 2002 ) . Real sharing involves chance for feedback, credence of review, willingness to prosecute in deep duologue, and the outlook of reciprocality. Sharing requires a degree of trust. It is a two manner procedure and signifiers an built-in portion of relationship edifice.

Knowledge sharing means a committedness to inform, translate and educate interested co-workers. It is an active hearing and acquisition procedure, non a technology- driven Panacea. The key to sharing is assisting the other party appreciate your context, which is hard unless the context can be constrained. An apprehension of the construct of cognition sharing is of import because an organisation ‘s achievement depends on its cognition sharing scheme. Five major points emerging from the reappraisal of cognition sharing by Vorakulpipat & A ; Rezgui ( 2008 ) can be summarized as follows:

  • IT can enable both expressed cognition and, to a lesser extent, tacit cognition sharing.
  • Human interaction is the simplest attack to sharing cognition within an organisation.
  • KM schemes may be adapted to suit with organisational civilization.
  • Motivation – , e.g. pecuniary wagess, acknowledgment, and praise – can carry people to portion cognition.
  • Trust is an of import factor in enabling cognition sharing.

2.4.1 Knowledge Sharing Tools

Knowledge and information can leak in all kinds of ways and at all kinds of times. To do certain that indispensable cognition is retained by an organisation requires, a scope of techniques can be applied, from traditional information direction tools such as shared thrusts, every bit good as more modern techniques such as web logs and digital depositories. Donald, et Al. ( 2003 ) listed few tools for cognition sharing.

Institutional depositories

It captures the cognition that lies within a peculiar community, such as college or university, and that crosses over many professional and discipline-based communities of pattern.

Learning Management System

It includes digitized class content from module stuffs on platforms.

Community of pattern

It exists throughout academe, in academic and administrative support country like registration services and human resources.

Individual Weblogs ( web logs ) and knowledge weblogs ( klogs )

They are created by persons in communities of pattern. As the power of communities of pattern grows, the parts of person ‘s members through web logs will be officially recognized as an of import cognition plus.

Electronic Mail ( E-Mail )

Electronic mail or electronic mail is used for the exchange of messages between persons anyplace in the universe. Email enables people to direct and have written communications to the other computing machine users handily and rapidly. It can present messages within proceedingss, even the computing machines on the other side of the universe.

2.4.2 Factors Facilitate Knowledge Sharing

There is a scarceness of research specifically in the country of cognition sharing between persons in organisations. Empirical grounds has merely begun to bring out some of the complex kineticss that exist in procedures related to knowledge sharing. Based on a reappraisal of theory and research related to knowledge sharing, the following have been identified as the major factors that influence knowledge sharing between persons in organisations: the nature of cognition, motive to portion, chances to portion and the civilization of the work environment as shown in Figure 2.5.

Nature of Knowledge

As explained earlier, cognition exists in both silent and expressed signifiers. However, with the increasing acknowledgment of the importance of cognition in organisations, different types of cognition have besides begun to be valued otherwise within organisations. These two features of the nature of cognition, tacitness and explicitness of cognition, and the value attributed to knowledge hold a important influence on the manner cognition is shared within organisations.

Motivation to Share

Harmonizing to Stenmark ( 2001 ) , people are non likely to portion cognition without strong personal motive. Knowledge is “intimately and inextricably jump with people ‘s self-importances and occupations” and does non flux easy across the organisation ( Davenport et al. , 1998 ) . Motivational factors that influence knowledge sharing between persons can be divided into internal and external factors. Internal factors include the sensed power attached to the cognition and the reciprocality that consequences from sharing. External factors include relationship with the receiver and wagess for sharing.

Opportunities to Share

Opportunities to portion cognition in organisations can be divided into formal and informal in nature. Formal chances include developing plans, structured work squads, and technology-based systems that facilitate the sharing of cognition. Bartol and Srivastava ( 2002 ) referred to these as “formal interactions, ” and Rulke and Zaheer ( 2000 ) called them “purposive larning channels”-those that are designed to explicitly get and circulate cognition. Informal chances include personal relationships and societal webs that facilitate acquisition and the sharing of cognition ( Brown & A ; Duguid, 1991 ; Nahapiet & A ; Ghoshal, 1998 ) . Rulke and Zaheer referred to these informal chances as “relational acquisition channels.”

Culture of the Work Environment

The factors described above are of import to understand the mode in which cognition is shared between persons. However, all of these factors are influenced by the civilization of the work environment – the civilization of the fractional monetary unit and/or the civilization of the organisation at big. Organizational civilization is progressively being recognized as a major barrier to effectual cognition creative activity, sharing, and utilizations ( De Long & A ; Fahey, 2000 ; Leonard – Barton, 1995 ; Pan & A ; Scarbrough, 1999 ) . Organizations are basically cultural entities ( Cook & A ; Yanow, 1993 ) , and hence, irrespective of what organisations do to pull off cognition, the influences of the organisation ‘s civilization are much stronger ( McDermott & A ; O’Dell, 2001 ) .

2.5 Digital Depositories

As per Oxford English Dictionary, depository is defined as a “vessel receptacle, chamber, etc. in which things are or may be placed, deposited or stored” . Meanwhile as per Wikipedia, “A depository is a cardinal topographic point where information is stored and mined. A depository can be a where multiple databases or files are located for distribution over a web or a depository can be a location that is straight accessible to the user without holding to go across a network” ( en.wikipedia/wiki/Repository ) .

A digital depository is defined as a topographic point to shop, entree, and continue digital objects. A digital object might be an electronic diary article, a digitized image of a exposure, numeral informations, a digital picture, or a complete book in digital signifier. A flexible digital depository should let hive awaying all types of digital objects along with the appropriate descriptive and administrative metadata.

The steadfast definition of the term “digital repositories” has been an issue that generates many treatments and there is about certain that understanding for a common definition would non be achieved. One of the chief grounds for this uncertainness is that digital depositories are chiefly characterized by the type of content that makes available and by the grounds that necessitate its creative activity and functionality. However, few intuitional definitions are given as follows:

  • A Digital Repositories is a aggregation of digital entities that are capable to the undermentioned three operations: interpolation, omission and retrieval. This abstractive and simple definition evidently provides a minimum set of demands for any digital depositories.
  • A Digital Repositories is an organisation that has the duty for long-run saving of digital resources, every bit good as for doing them available to communities agreed on by the manufacturer and the direction authorization of the depositories ( CCSDS, 2002 ) .
  • A Digital Repositories is an archive that aims at the saving of digital information for entree and usage by a Designated Community and satisfies specific demands ( CCSDS, 2002 ) .

2.5.1 Functions and Duties

In order to be successful, digital depositories depend upon activities by a scope of stakeholders. The success in this context means that the depositories receive regular sedimentations of mark stuff. The stuff received should be decently curated so that it can be faithfully re-used and it can be located and retrieved. Few functions and duties are stated as follows ( JISC ) :

  • Datas Godheads should be given clear guidelines on bring forthing re-usable resources. This means making well-documented informations resources that respect right of first publication which can be re-used without important farther permissions being required.
  • Appropriate depositories architecture should be implemented by informations conservators, including bibliothecs, archivists and IT staff. It should scalable and flexible to run into the alterations over clip.
  • The depositories must be promoted to possible depositors within the establishment and the possible benefits of sedimentation made touchable to guarantee that depositors ‘ work loads are non unduly increased.
  • Some depositories may profit from mandated sedimentation of certain types of stuffs ; reenforcing the position of the depositories in policy is besides desirable.
  • Mechanisms for attesting the depositories should be considered to set up trust in the depositories, promote sedimentation, and better long-run chances.

With clearly defined policies sing functions and duties combined with effectual communicating of the possible benefits to all stakeholders, will assist guarantee that depositories and the services they comprise are feasible for both the short and long-run.

2.5.2 Types of Digital Repositories

Two types of digital depositories are briefly explain as follows:

Institutional Repositories ( IR )

An institutional depository is a web-based database ( depositories ) of scholarly stuff. It is institutionally defined as depend upon the each establishment. It could be cumulative and ageless ( a aggregation of record ) . The institutional depositories collect shops and disseminate digital resources and long term preserves these digital stuffs. An institutional depository is a set of services that an institute/university offers to the members of its community for the direction and airing of digital stuffs created by the establishment and its community members.

Digital Library

The term digital library is huge, covers many and different applications and has been used interchangeably for systems, like digitized aggregations, e-journals platforms, web databases, library web sites, etc. Furthermore the current electronic publication concern theoretical accounts enrich the DL engineering taking to supply powerful information entree options to the users. However despite the polymorphic nature of DLs, one characteristic is stable: information proviso through networked systems ( Tsakonas, 2008 ) .

2.6 Institutional Depositories

Since, this research is concentrating on IR, the inside informations on IR is explained as follows. Institutional depositories are defined as “digital aggregations that gaining control and continue the rational end product of a individual or multi-university community” ( Crow, 2002 ) . An institutional depository shops and makes accessible the educational, research and associated assets of an establishment while some depositories focus on peculiar topic spheres. Most of the presently established institutional depositories are ‘e-prints ‘ depositories which provides unfastened entree to the research outputs of a university or research establishment. However, the content of the IR does non necessitate to be limited to e-prints but could potentially include research informations, larning stuff, image aggregations and many other different types of content.

There are two challenges presently confronting academic establishments that could be answered by IR. First, they reform scholarly communicating by exciting invention in a disaggregated publication construction. Second, they serve as touchable indexs of an establishment ‘s quality, therefore increasing its visibleness, prestigiousness, and public value ( Crow, 2002 ) . Therefore, constitution of IR particularly in the development states will guarantee that national research becomes mainstream and they will lend on an equal planetary cognition pool.

The maps of IR should be design and develop as follows:

  • Printing and file awaying scholarly work of an establishment locally
  • Enabling long-run saving of scholarly work
  • Facilitating members an easy and rapid manner to print and file away their research locally
  • Supplying an incorporate position of and move as a individual entry point to scholarly work of an establishment
  • Supplying wider handiness, visibleness and distribution of the scholarly work of an establishment
  • Acting as a self-evaluation tool for the direction.

Conference Management is portion of IR. It assists the common undertakings when forming a conference. In general, 3 major groups function been divided viz. Program Committee Chair, Program Committee or Reviewer and Author. The former function is responsible for scheduling of call for documents, paper assignment to Reviewers, and concluding determination on paper credence while Program Committee or Reviewer is responsible for reexamining documents and directing the consequences back to Program Committee Chair. Author is responsible for subjecting abstract and full paper to the conference, every bit good as registering for the conference attending. In add-on to the users described above, there is a System Administrator or Cyber Chair who co-ordinates between those three groups of users.

Conference direction systems typical maps and work flows include having paper entries ( PDF upload, aggregation of bibliographic metadata ) . Then, they collect referees ‘ subject penchants, struggles of involvement and delegating referees to documents. Next, the map are to circulate entries to referees, roll uping reappraisals, supervising reappraisal coverage and sharing reappraisals among the plan commission every bit good as guaranting independency of reappraisals supplying a per-submission treatment forum for the referees. At the terminal, conference direction will rank reappraisals and put credence threshold and study referees ‘ remarks and plan commission determination to writers and roll uping concluding accepted versions.

2.7 Discussion

Partss of literature reappraisal mentioned supra have been given equal basic theory, chances and challenges to carry through this undertaking. The research worker has discussed all related information needed in order to acquire near with the two chief constructs viz. knowledge sharing and institutional depositories. The literature survey and findings by other researches help to understand the overview of cognition, knowledge direction and cognition sharing every bit good as institutional depositories in footings of definition, types, constituent and tools. All information collected will assist in planing IR model that header with the limitation of current IR.

In order to supply sharing cognition for IR, research worker demands to spread out information and cognition on Knowledge Sharing and factors that influence the part on it. By implementing the factors learnt in the development, a useable system could be developed consequently to the demands. Planing the IR interface is non merely for sharing the cognition but besides to guarantee the system is easy to utilize and attractive. Therefore, it could undertake the stakeholders which in this instance in academicians ‘ involvement.

All the information acquired leads to the initial reply for the job statement which is “How to develop Institutional Repositories ( IR ) that promotes knowledge sharing? ”

Chapter THREE


3.1 Introduction

This chapter will discourse in inside informations the methodological analysis that is used in this research. There are several methodological analysiss that are used as different research methodological analysiss are utile for different research activities and normally complement each other to light different facets of the whole image. The chosen methodological analysis will supply a systematic process to steer through the procedures to accomplish the research aim and will give a clear description on how the research will be done.

For this research, multi-methodological attack addressed by Nunamaker et Al in 1991 has been chosen as a research methodological analysis. This attack is concern to carry on Information System ( IS ) research which integrated theory edifice, system development, experimentation and observation. It is utile to analyze assorted facets of systems development procedures and environments. This multi-methodological attack to IS research consists of four research schemes: Theory Building, Experimentation, Observation, and Systems Development that provides a map for constructing systems that test premises and instance surveies as necessary elements. Each stage notify each other. A series of undertakings that based on this theoretical account are described in following subdivisions.

3.2 A Research Framework

3.3 Theory Building

The theory edifice is an activity of development of new thoughts and constructs, new methods, or theoretical accounts. By making analysis in this activity, new research hypothesis will be suggested therefore guide rating. The appropriate mention subjects for new attacks and thoughts will be studied and clear research inquiry will be justified. The research job provides a focal point for the research throughout the development procedure. Literature survey and analysis will be carried out therefore awaited solution for Knowledge Sharing in UTM Institutional Repository ( IR ) . This stage included the probe and the apprehension of IR and its map every bit good as design guideline. The research worker besides examined some other subjects related to extra attacks. The range of the research will be determined in this stage. Nunamaker et Al. ( 1991 ) emphasized that every research worker of IS technology foremost needs to find and restrict the range of their research. During this stage, the system demands for Knowledge Sharing in UTM Institutional Repository have been defined.

3.4 System Development

This stage will be conducted in Dissertation 2. Basically, in system development procedure, design specifications will be used as an lineation for the execution of the system. In this stage, the research worker will plan a model for development of Knowledge Sharing in UTM Institutional Repository. The demands and specifications will be specified to suggest the design theoretical account that could lodge the academicians ‘ involvement to the depository. Throughout this phase, the research worker will develop a paradigm based on the results from the old phase. The system will be developed based on Object Oriented ( OO ) attack.

3.5 Observation and Evaluate the System

The proposed interface will be tested by the research worker through usability proving to guarantee that the system achieve the aims listed in the theory edifice stage. Questionnaire will be used as a tool to acquire the user feedbacks one time the testing is done. The observation will be conducted during the proving procedure.

3.6 Justification for taking Multi-methodological Approach as Research Methodology

The grounds of taking the attack are stated below: –

  • This attack is flexible and synergistic between each stage. The phases can continually be revisited or can be left out of the procedure.
  • This methodological analysis is easy to utilize and understand by the research worker since it applied the basic construct of research procedure in system development. The basic construct of research procedure consists of building a conceptual model, developing system architecture, analysing and planing the system, edifice ( paradigm ) the system and observing and measuring the system.

3.7 System Requirement

Two classs of system demands are package demand and hardware demand. The demands will be alter from clip to clip based on execution stage.

3.7 Undertaking Agenda

A structured work programming is of import to guarantee the undertaking will follow the program. The research worker is utilizing Microsoft Project to build the Gantt chart therefore the advancement of each work could be monitored.

3.8 Drumhead

In this chapter, the research methodological analysis that has been chosen by the research worker has been identified which is the Multi-methodological attack. This attack has been adapted from the methodological analysis proposed by Numanaker et.al ( 1991 ) that consists of theory edifice, system development, and observation in finishing the development of the system.

Chapter 4


4.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on findings in the literature reappraisal whereby the critical success factors for IR and knowledge sharing are listed in the signifier of tabular array. The bing tools for IR have been analysed and a new proposed model is designed.

4.2 Findingss on IR ‘s critical success factor

From the research conducted, there are several characteristics need to be included in developing IR in order to guarantee the success of it. These indexs are shown in the tabular array 4.1.

4.3 Findingss on Knowledge sharing critical success factor

Since this research is focused on the cognition sharing of IR, the critical success factors for it is listed. Therefore the bing tools provided could be analysed in order to guarantee it carry through the standards. Table 4.2 shows the critical success factors for cognition sharing.

4.4 Current System Analysis

4.4.1 Existing tools for developing IR

There are many bing tools for developing IR provided in the market but the three tools or package chosen below are the tools that are unfastened beginning and widely used.

The tools have been analysed based on the study prepared by Catalyst for Tertiary Education Commission of New Zealand entitled Technical Evaluation of selected Open Source Repository Solutions. The chief characteristics have been selected and measure in comparing all the three tools. They had rated the characteristics tested in the scope of 0-4 as follows.

0 – Failed

1- Poor

2- Fair

3- Good

4- Excellent

4.4.2 Comparison of critical success for IR factors with the bing IR tools

In order to find the success of the bing tools of IR, hence they have been compared with the critical success factors. The consequence is shown in the tabular array 4.4.

4.5 Findingss on Proposed IR Model

Since the earlier table shows that some of the needed success factors did non fit with the bing tools, hence a new model is proposed. This is done by comparing the IR success factors with the success factors of cognition sharing. However, merely a few standards that are selected in cognition sharing and IR. They are the standards that are indispensable for developing IR that promotes knowledge sharing.

4.5.1 Organizational Structure and Functions

The success of IR will be higher if it is supported by organisational construction that is academician and concern unit.

4.5.2 Organizational Culture

The senior leading demands to put on cognition sharing precedences, strong leading and investing support. It is importance to understand the cultural differences between single workers.

4.5.3 Physical Environment

In order to advance cognition sharing in accomplishment of IR, physical environment plays an of import function.

4.5.4 Measurement

The public presentation of each writer should be measured for acknowledgment.

4.5.5 Training

In easing cognition sharing and bettering employee ‘s accomplishments, preparation should be provided. The more apprehension of the usage and importance of IR, the more engagement from the staff.

4.5.6 Motivation

In acquiring support from the employees, a wages system could actuate them in sharing cognition.

4.5.7 Trust

By holding right of first publication, employees could swear their work wo n’t be copied.

4.5.8 Communication

Effective communicating will take to fast acquisition in concern.

The relationship of critical success factors of IR and with cognition sharing ‘s success factors is shown in the tabular array 4.5.


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