Entrepreneurial Orientation And Inclination Among Management Essay

An enterpriser is one who has an unusual foresight to acknowledge possible chances in the market. He is a alteration agent who possesses certain humanistic disciplines and accomplishments of making new economic endeavors. He is a individual with exceeding penetration into the society ‘s demands and abilities to carry through them. An enterpriser possesses a complex personality. Certain personality features make him rather different from an ordinary homo being. Some of the features possessed by enterpriser are inborn and some are acquired through the procedure of socialisation. Among other factors education plays an of import portion in organizing the overall personality of an enterpriser. Management instruction no uncertainty builds the attitude and Fosters inclination towards entrepreneurship which helps in fixing pupils to go enterprisers. This attitude and strength shapes the orientation of budding enterprisers in the approaching hereafter. In this context, the purpose to make a house and the leaning to move ( Krueger, 1993 ) are considered as the chief forces that make the creative activity of a house possible.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Entrepreneurial Orientation And Inclination Among Management Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Purpose is related with the attitudes, more concretely refering the sensed desirableness and feasibleness ( Gatewood, Shaver, & A ; Gartner, 1995 ). Everybody is endowed with entrepreneurial abilities, which needs to be suitably groomed and developed ( Alain Fayolle, 2010 ). So bearing this thought in head, entrepreneurial abilities can be taught, nurtured and fostered through entrepreneurial instruction and preparation. Career chances chosen by persons are a map of household committednesss and flexible work patterns employed by administrations designed for employees of administrations to achieve work life balance. Family committednesss play an of import function in taking entrepreneurship as a calling option ( Mustafa F. Ozbilgin, & A ; Ayala Malach- Pines, 2007 ).

Although much research has non been conducted on adult females entrepreneurship, but, one can certainly state that the major ground for adult females get downing their concerns in developed states is chance motive while in less developed states, adult females turn into enterprisers motivated by necessity. Latin America and Asia have higher rates of entrepreneurial activity for adult female than Europe and US ( Candida G. Brush et Al, 2010 ). This paper strives to research the entrepreneurial orientation and disposition amongst direction pupils.


Entrepreneurship has ever been associated with people who want to be on their ain and who want to be the determination shapers and one ‘s ain foreman. Many surveies have been conducted around the Earth to research the features of an enterpriser. Schumpeter ( 1934 ) describes the psychological science of an enterpriser motivated by “ the dream and the will to establish a private kingdomaˆ¦the will to suppress, the urge to contend, to turn out oneself superior to others, to win for the interest, non of the fruits of success, but of success itself ”

Harmonizing to Teng ( 2007 ), the cardinal features of corporate entrepreneurship are: ( 1 ) invention ; ( 2 ) strategic redevelopment ; ( 3 ) creative activity of new houses ; ( 4 ) presuming hazards ; ( 5 ) proactiveness ; and ( 6 ) aggressive fight. In order to run into the mundane challenges of entrepreneurship an enterpriser needs to possess certain qualities. These qualities can be unconditioned or learnt. Among the assorted attacks put down in this respect by assorted researches, the trait and behavioural attack hold great significance. The trait attack which searches for differences between the enterpriser and other persons, takes involvement in both familial and socioeconomic facets, and aims at placing possible enterprisers from an appraisal of personal features ( Hull et al., 1980 ; and Baumol, 2002 ), motivations ( Carter et al. 2003 ) and entrepreneurial orientation ( Miller, 1983 ).

Noticeable characteristics among these are preparedness to presume hazard ( Knight, 1921 ; Shane, 2003 ; Mullins and Forlani, 2005 ), creativeness ( Hills et al., 1999 ), need for accomplishment and strong impulse to construct ( McClelland, 1961 ), certitude ( Shane, 2003 ; Forbes, 2005 ), every bit good as exposure for fiscal wages ( Shepherd and DeTienne, 2005 ). Miller ( 1983 ) and Cauthorn ( 1989 ) besides draw a similar list of traits like hazard pickings, proactiveness, and innovativeness, all found in assorted combinations. Hisrich et Al. ( 2005 ) conclude that all definitions contain similar impressions, such as newness, forming, making, wealth, and hazard pickings. Veciana as quoted in Franco et Al. ( 2010 ) besides gives a psychological profile of the enterpriser, whose personal features most frequently scrutinized are: ( a ) power demand evinced in both power limitation to others, desire of independency and quest for more power ; ( B ) necessity of self realisation ; ( degree Celsius ) thrust to accomplish benefit and aspiration ; ( vitamin D ) want for heightening the consequences of his or her actions and feelings of duty therefore ; ( vitamin E ) temperament to take high hazards: and ( degree Fahrenheit ) personal appeal and leading.

Another characteristic attributed to the enterpriser is his desire for independency and liberty ( Eggars, 1999 ; and Rossi as quoted in Franco et al., 2010 ). Harmonizing to the behavioural attack, the enterpriser ‘s behaviour is a consequence of abilities, experience, and knowledge acquired from a acquisition procedure ( Lee and Tsang, 2001 ). These influences and active responses are seen as more relevant than personal properties ( Chandler and Jansen, 1992 ). Franco and Haase ( 2009 ) figure out entrepreneurship as a ceaseless acquisition procedure aimed at the designation of new or continued concern chances. The above treatment consequences in the preparation of the undermentioned aim:

Objective 1: To measure the features that direction pupils perceived as of import for being an enterpriser.

Several surveies around the universe have been conducted to set up a relationship between gender and entrepreneurial disposition, although, the consequences are non unidirectional. The UK Global Entrepreneurship Report ( GEM UK 2001 ) says that work forces are around two and a half times more likely to be an enterpriser than adult females. The peak age group at which people start concerns is 35-44 for work forces and 45-54 for adult females – which suggests that holding kids may be a factor. Womans are comparatively more likely than work forces to believe that they will make no occupations in the following five old ages. Work force are about twice every bit likely to believe that they have the accomplishments to get down a concern as a adult female.

All these facts indicate some clear differences in factors which affect the attitudes and motives of adult females – and hence clear deductions for the type of support and support which adult females require to acquire started. Females have a strong familial influence and zero shared-environmental influences on their inclination to go enterprisers. In contrast, males show zero familial influence, but a big shared-environmental influence. Extraversion and neurosis mediate the familial influences on adult females ‘s inclination to go enterprisers, whereas extroversion mediates shared-environmental influences on work forces ‘s inclination to go enterprisers. ( Zhen Zhang et al., 2009 ). A research conducted by Soetanto et Al. ( 2010 ) says that there is no grounds that old ages in the instruction, gender and academic accomplishment have a positive influence on pupil ‘s determination sing entrepreneurship. The above treatment consequences in the preparation of the undermentioned aim:

Objective 2: To measure the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial disposition of direction pupils.

Entrepreneurial purpose and entrepreneurial attitudes are besides greatly influenced by anterior experiences. Any entrepreneurial activity moulds the enterpriser ‘s cognition in some country ( Minniti and Bygrave, 2001 ) and it is by agencies of a acquisition procedure that the enterprisers develop their competences in response to outlooks about the hereafter and past experiences ( Reuber and Fischer, 1999 ). Besides there are surveies that reveal that many concern laminitiss have old concern experience before get downing up their ain houses ( Davidsson et al., 1994 ; and Storey, 1994 ). Detecting and happening chances involves cognition which the enterpriser uses to find his determinations, and he frequently derives this cognition from former information and experiences ( Shane and Venkataraman, 2000 ; Ireland et al., 2005 and 2009 ).

There is strong grounds that parents become function theoretical accounts for their kids ( Soetanto et al., 2010 ). If parents are enterprisers, their values have a strong influence on their kids ( Hisrick and Peters, 1995 ). Get downing new concerns is an of import activity encouraged by authorities policy and considered indispensable for employment, invention, and economic growing. Extant research has shown that turning up in a household concern environment provides people with household capital ( societal, human, and fiscal ) that gives them a comparative advantage in get downing a new venture ( Chang et al., 2009 ). The above treatment consequences in the preparation of the undermentioned aim:

Objective 3: To measure whether household background has an impact on entrepreneurial orientation of direction pupils.

In the epoch of globalisation, there is a turning concern about entrepreneurial development among pupils, so as to accomplish faster economic development. Entrepreneurial development, no uncertainty, is of great significance as enterprisers are the accelerators of industrial development lending to employment coevals, sweetening of per capita income, gross to the Government in the signifier of revenue enhancements and responsibilities ( Popli and Rao, 2010 ).

In a state, like India, where the economic system is still in the development phase entrepreneurship can turn out to be a accelerator for economic advancement, occupation creative activity and societal accommodation. Beth Huetter ( 2007 ) argues that India being the 4th largest economic system in the universe ( GDP of $ 4.04 trillion ), India could go a critical force in the planetary economic system, if equal steps are taken to fix its coevals next. Invention and creativeness are needed to be nourished to heighten entrepreneurial activity among the coevals next. Indeed, the really construct of the enterpriser has evolved with acknowledgment of the function of invention and the cognition society.

Drucker ( 1993 ) argues that ‘not introducing ‘ is sufficient motivation for the diminution of any organisation. India needs enterprisers in big Numberss to capitalise on new chances and to make occupations. As per the estimations of McKinsey & A ; NASCOM, by twelvemonth 2015, 110-130 million Indians will be seeking for occupations, including 80-100 million looking for their first occupations ( Popli and Rao, 2010 ). As a affair of fact, the Indian direction instruction, as it exists today in most of the establishments, has small relevancy to the industrial and social demands of the state ensuing in big scale unemployment among qualified immature direction alumnuss and wastage of cherished human resources ( Popli, 2010 ).

A figure of surveies have been conducted to look into the thought procedure of pupils ‘ with regard to entrepreneurship. Bhandari ( 2006 ) conducted a survey to cognize the purposes of a group of university pupils in India after the completion of their college instruction: He concluded that, of the 18 independent variables, merely two ( fortune and to take other people ) were found to hold important relationships with the dependant variable ( to get down your ain concern ). Opportunity to take other people, to be one ‘s ain foreman, to set advanced thoughts into pattern, finding, personal challenge and non-business instruction were found to be the factors perceived to act upon entrepreneurship. Douglas and Shepherd ( 2002 ) found that attitudes to independence, hazard and income are related to the person ‘s purpose to be self employed. Similarly, Douglas and Fitzsimmons ( 2005 ) found grounds that attitudes to ownership, independency and income were related to the person ‘s purpose to prosecute in entrepreneurial behaviour. In a survey by Lynn ( 1991 ), fight and rating of money were the most of import variables which influence the determination of self employment. Besides, harmonizing to Storey ( 1994 ) the demand to be one ‘s ain foreman or to hold independency is the most important factor which motivates entrepreneurial purpose among people.

From the position of pupils, get downing a new house is a complicated determination due to high uncertainness and perceived hazard. Many surveies have revealed that entrepreneurial purpose could be in influenced from two beginnings, internal and external. Internal factors include a strong motive and personal features of pupils while external factors cover the external environment that may back up or impede entrepreneurial purpose among pupils ( Soetanto et al., 2010 ). A deficiency of initial investing is perceived as the chief barrier of pupils in get downing their ain concern.

Following to it is the uncertainness in the market. Another barrier is a deficiency of counsel in get downing a new venture. It means that the university has to set more attempt non merely in heightening entrepreneurial purpose and actuating the pupils, but besides in giving a clear counsel on how to get down a house ( Soetanto et al., 2010 ). Most universities focal point on instruction, educating and fixing their pupils to be workers in the industrial or managerial universe. Furthermore, there is a deficiency of comprehensive policy in back uping the academic entrepreneurship. Apart from universities, other histrions such as authorities or the bing industries have paid really small attending and therefore given small support to the issue of academic entrepreneurship ( Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1997 ).

In a study ( The Hindu-Business Line ) India was reported to be the 2nd most entrepreneurial state – after Thailand – with a mark of 17.9 per cent among 37 surveyed states. But there are a batch of hindrances in entrepreneurship. Beth Huetter ( 2007 ) points out that entrepreneurship in India is slow to take off for many grounds, one of them being deficiency of support. Many people complain that Government policies are still excessively complicated and that there is non adequate money to travel around. For many old ages, predominating attitudes were besides a important challenge. Entrepreneurship was seen as hazardous in India, and it was considered safer to acquire a occupation with the Government or an established corporate house.

The above treatment consequences in the preparation of the undermentioned aim:

Objective 4: To look into the environmental factors that creates barriers for budding enterprisers.


The survey was carried with the following aims:

To measure the features that direction pupils perceived as of import for being an enterpriser.

To measure the relationship between gender and entrepreneurial disposition of direction pupils.

To measure whether household background has an impact on entrepreneurial orientation of direction pupils.

To look into the environmental factors that creates barriers for budding enterprisers.


The survey was conducted in direction colleges of Ajmer and Jaipur metropolis. For informations aggregation both primary and secondary beginnings was used. For roll uping primary informations, a structured questionnaire was prepared which was filled by 300 direction pupils ; convenience trying method was used to make the respondents. The sample profile is summarised in Table 1 below.

Table 1 about here

Management pupils responded on dichotomous options and 5-point Likert graduated tables wherein they responded on inquiries refering to business of parents, qualities/traits of an enterpriser, qualities/ traits which they themselves possess and environmental factors which they perceive as a hinderance for promising enterpriser. The gathered information was so analysed by utilizing statistical package bundle SPSS 17.


Features of an enterpriser as perceived by direction pupils

It was interesting to larn what characteristics/ traits direction pupils perceive as of import for being a successful enterpriser. Table 2 exhibits the responses of the direction pupils.

Table 2 about here

Management pupils conceptualise that a successful enterpriser should be future oriented. He should be foresighted in the sense that he should be able to capture chances in the environment which other people are unable to detect. He should be able to foretell future events about concern more accurately than other people. Optimism and regard for feedback and larning from experience was rated 2nd and 3rd severally. Students graded inventive as last, this was attributed to the fact that they think enterprisers ‘ chief function relates to initiative taker and organizer ; and originative thoughts can come from his/ her employees, clients etc.

On the other manus, when pupils were inquired related to traits they think they themselves possess, they graded good organizer as highest. Students besides perceive that they avoid hazard which is major failings. This can be ascribed to the fact that they are more interested in the influx of regular income. Table 3 reveals the response of the direction pupils sing the personality traits they possess for being an enterpriser.

Table 3 about here

Relationship between gender and entrepreneurial disposition of direction pupils.

Table 4 gives an penetration in the entrepreneurial disposition among genders. Chi-square is used to analyze whether gender affects the entrepreneurial disposition. To avoid any biasness 150 males and 150 females were taken as respondents.

Table 4 about here

The deliberate value ( 10.141 ) is found to be greater than the critical value ( 3.841 ). Therefore, we can deduce that there exists a important difference between the entrepreneurial dispositions among genders. The findings on gender footing show that about 62 % male respondents are inclined to entrepreneurship in comparing to merely 44 % female respondents. Figure 1 nowadayss graphical presentation of the sum-up of responses. The consequences are in unison with the study which besides show that Men are more likely to be an enterpriser.

Figure 1 about here

Relation between household background and entrepreneurial orientation

To analyze the co-relation between the two variables i.e. household background and entrepreneurial disposition, Karl Pearson ‘s coefficient of correlativity was used. To acquire a clear image the information was bifurcated on the footing of gender so as to cognize the co-relation individually on both the genders. Table 5 gives a summarised position of the responses.

Table 5 about here

It was interesting to detect that correlativity between household background and entrepreneurial disposition was found.782, therefore a positive co-relation between the two variables. Similar tendency was noticed in instance of females besides where it was more positive.839. This implies that if one of the parents is an enterpriser the kid is more likely to develop a strong disposition towards running his/her ain concern. Thus the research supports the past surveies done by Hisrich & A ; Peters ( 1995 ) and Chang et Al. ( 2009 ).

Environmental factors as barriers

Table 6 shows the sensed barriers of pupils in get downing their ain venture.

Table 6 about here

A great bulk of pupils believe legal formalities as a chief hurdle to get down their ain concern. Lack of particular installations and superior image was besides ranked high as barriers for budding enterpriser. Interestingly, job of finance was ranked last. This can be attributed to the installations provided by the Bankss and the venture capitalists that are ready to put in new ventures


The paper recommends that direction instruction should be reformulated in the visible radiation of altering times and should take some concrete stairss to back entrepreneurship among pupils. Bearing in head the fact that private colleges are affiliated to authorities universities which may or may non offer formal plans on entrepreneurship, the paper suggest some plans should be initiated by the colleges themselves which may move as value add-on for pupils and construct self – assurance and inventive divergent believing which will further actuate pupils to get down their ain concern. Colleges should besides promote the entrepreneurial spirit among pupils by agencies of concern program competition, symposium, workshops, stables in carnivals and trade shows, guest talk by enterprisers. The class course of study and the instruction teaching methods should be designed in such a manner that the results and aims striven from the bing topics of direction instruction should develop entrepreneurial attitudes. The plans must be such designed that pupils get success factors of entrepreneurship like constructing assurance, self esteem and develop positive attack and motive in them. Case surveies, experiential exercising and practical activities must be assimilated in the classs so that the pupils are able to incorporate the accomplishments and abilities learnt for entrepreneurial development.

Students should be imparted vocational preparation which shall assist them better their proficient accomplishments. Regular chances of interaction with existent clip enterprisers should be provided to the pupils. Industry- establishment interfaces should be organised and internships and unrecorded undertakings should be conducted for the pupils. Management games, simulations and concern program competitions should be organised on a regular basis. Colleges and universities should hold strategic tie ups with little graduated table industries and endeavors. Entrepreneurs can move as wise mans for few pupils which shall assist them to cognizing tactics of entrepreneurship. The pupils should besides be taught about the authorities policies which help the promising enterprisers to foster their dreams.


Following restrictions were faced by the research workers during the survey: –

The consequences of the survey can non be generalized as the survey was confined to premier concern schools of some selected metropoliss of Rajasthan.

Point of mention dramas an of import function in rating of coveted and existent state of affairss and point of mention may be different for direction pupils of different topographic points hence it may be hard to compare the informations of different schools.

The consequences of the survey conducted to place entrepreneurial disposition and orientation among direction pupils but the consequences do non picture right what the pupils truly aspire.

To bring on direction pupils to make full the responses was itself a cumbrous procedure as they ever wanted the procedure to acquire over shortly.


The survey revealed that respondents accept an enterpriser to be a visionary who is able to anticipate jobs which his/her concern is likely to confront and maintain himself/herself prepared for these events. They besides assume that an enterpriser should be unfastened to suggestions and should trust on the acquisition and wisdom that he gets from the past experiences. Successful entrepreneurs continuously modify ends on the footing of the feedback they receive from the environment. The respondents besides opined that direction instruction is non ever necessary for being a successful enterpriser. This can be attributed to the fact that non all direction colleges offer specialized courses/ plans on entrepreneurship. The analysis besides suggests that males are more inclined to entrepreneurship than females.

Though females show lower leaning towards entrepreneurship but modern-day tendencies do demo that females are easy but certainly taking their paces towards self employment. Family background does hold an impact on future chases of their kids. The survey indicates that pupils of ego employed parents do follow their parents and do future enterprisers. Students whose parents owned a concern demonstrated the highest penchant for self-employment. The survey gives an penetration in the barriers which are perceived by the pupils as barriers for enterprisers. Legal formalities are believed to be major hinderance in gazing a new venture. There are factors which impede the entrepreneurial orientation of budding enterprisers viz. budding enterprisers confront high competition and they find it hard to gestate a concern thought that can happen.


Ajzen, I. ( 1991 ). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 ( 2 ), 1-63.

Bandura A ( 1986 ), The Social Foundations of Thought and Action, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Baron, R., & A ; Markman, G. ( 1999 ). The function of enterpriser ‘s behavior in their fiscal success: Evidence for the benefits of effectual societal accomplishments. Paper presented at the Babson Kaufmann Entrepreneurial Research Exchange, Babson Park, MA, US.

Baumol W ( 2002 ), The Free-Market Innovation Machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism, Oxford University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Beth, Huetter ( 2007 ), “ India rise ” SPIE Professional.

Bhandari, N ( 2006 ), “ Purpose for Entrepreneurship among pupils in India ”, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol.15, No.2.

Bird, B. ( 1988 ). Implementing entrepreneurial thoughts: The instance for purpose. Academy of Management Review, 13 ( 3 ), 442-453.

Boyd, N. G., & A ; Vozikis, G. S. ( 1994 ). The Influence of Self-Efficacy on the Development of Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions. Entrepreneurship Theory & A ; Practice ( summer ).

Carter N M, Gartner W B, Shaver K G and Gatewood E J ( 2003 ), “ The Career grounds of Nascent Entrepreneurs ”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 13-39.

Cauthorn R C ( 1989 ), Contribution to a Theory of Entrepreneurship, Garland Publishing, New York.

Chandler G N and Jansen E ( 1992 ), “ The Founder ‘s Self-Assessed Competence and Venture Performance ”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 223-236.

Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & A ; Crick, A. ( 1998 ). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish enterprisers from directors? Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 295-316.

Davidsson P, Lindmark L and Olofsson C ( 1994 ), “ New Firm Formation and Regional Development in Sweden ”, Regional Studies, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 395-410.

De Noble, A., Jung, D., & A ; Ehrlich, S. ( Eds. ). ( 1999 ). Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: The development of a step and its relationship to entrepreneurial action. Babson Park: United states: Babson College.

Douglas, E. J., & A ; Fitzsimmons, J. R. ( 2005 ). Entrepreneurial Intentions towards Individual versus Corporate Entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the SEAANZ 2005, Armidale, NSW

Douglas, E. J., & A ; Shepherd, D. A. ( 2002 ). Self-employment as a calling pick: attitudes, entrepreneurial purposes and public-service corporation maximization. Entrepreneurial Theory and Practice ( Spring ), 81-90.

Drucker P ( 1993 ), Post-Capitalism Society, Harper Business, New York

Eggars J H ( 1999 ), “ Developing Entrepreneurial Growth ”, Ivery Business Journal, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp.76-81.

Entrepreneurship study ranks India at No. 2. The Hindu-Business Line, Internet Edition, Bangalore Bureau, July 16, 2003.

Etzkowitz H and Leydesdorff L ( 1997 ), Universities in the Global Economy: A Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations, Cassell Academic, London.

Fishbein, M., & A ; Ajzen, I. ( 1975 ). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An Introduction to theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Forbes D P ( 2005 ), “ Are some enterprisers more cocksure than others? ” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 20, No. 5. pp. 623-640.

Franco M J and Haase H ( 2009 ), “ Entrepreneurship: An Organizational Learning Approach ”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 628-641.

Franco Mario, Haase Heiko and Gomes Filomena ( 2010 ). “ The Influence of Entrepreneurial Attitude on Business Cooperation Decisions: Proposal for a Structural Model

Gatewood, E. A Shaver, K. and Gartner, W.B ( 1995 ). A ” A longitudinal Study of Cognitive Factors Influencing Startup Behaviors and Success at Venture Creation. ” A Journal of Business Venturing 10: 371-391

Hills G E, Shrader R C and Lumpkin G T ( 1999 ), “ Opportunity Recognition as a originative Procedure ”, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1999, pp. 216-227.

Hisrick R D and Peters M P ( 1995 ), Entrepreneurship: Start, Developing and Pull offing a New Enterprise, Irwin, Homewood, Illinois.

Hisrich R D, Peters M P and Shepherd D A ( 2005 ), Entrepreneurship, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York

Hull, D. J., Bosley, J., & A ; Udell, G. ( 1980 ). Regenerating the Hunt for Heffalump: Identifying possible enterprisers by personality features. Journal of Small Business, 18, 11-18.

Ireland D, Covin J and and Kuratko D ( 2009 ), “ Gestating Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy ”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, pp. 1042-2587.

Ireland R, Reutzel C Webb C J ( 2005 ), “ Entrepreneurship Research in AMJ: What has Seen Published, and What Might the Future keep? ” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 556-564.

Knight F ( 1921 ), Risk, Uncertainty, and Net income, Houghton Mifflin, Boston

Krueger, N. 1993. Impact of anterior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptual experiences of new venture feasibleness and desirableness. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18 ( 1 ) :5-21

Lee D Y and Tsang E W ( 2001 ), “ The Effectss of Entrepreneurial Personality, Background and Networks Activities on Venture Growth ”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 38, No.4, pp. 583-602.

Lynn R ( 1991 ), The Secret of The Miracle Economy: Different National Attitudes to Competitiveness and Money, the Social Affairs Unit, London.

Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. B., & A ; Baron, R. A. ( 2002 ). Inventors and New Venture Formation: the Effectss of General Self-Efficacy and Regretful Thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory & A ; Practice ( winter ), 149-165

McClelland D C ( 1961 ), The Achieving Society, Van Nostrand, Priceton, New Jersey

Miller D ( 1983 ), “ The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types if Firms ”, Management Science, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 770-791.

Minniti M and Bygrave W ( 2001 ), “ A Dynamic Model of Entrepreneurial Learning ”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 5-16.

Mullins J W and Forlani D ( 2005 ), “ Missing the Boat or Sinking the Boat: A Study of New Venture Decision-Making ”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 47-69.

Popli, G. S. “ A Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation & A ; Inclination for Entrepreneurial Carrier of Management Students in India: An Empirical Analysis ” ( March 29, 2010 ).

Popli G.S. and Rao, D.N. “ A Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation & A ; Inclination for Entrepreneurial Career of technology Students ” ( January 1, 2010 ).

Reuber A R and Fisher E M ( 1999 ), “ Understanding the Consequences of Laminitiss Experience ”, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 30-45.

Schumpeter J A ( 1934 ). Theory of Economic Development: An Enquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle, Harvard University Press, New York.

Shane S ( 2003 ), A General Theory of Entrepreneurship: The Individual-Opportunity Nexus, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK.

Shane S and Venkataraman S ( 2000 ), “ The Promise of Entrepreneurship as Field of Research ”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 217-226.

Shepherd D A and DeTienne D R ( 2005 ), “ Prior Knowledge, Potential Financial Reward, and Opportunity Identification ”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 91-112.

Soetanto D P, Pribadi H and Widyadana G A ( 2010 ), “ Detreminant Factors of Entrepreneurial Intention Among University Students ”, The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 & A ; 2, pp. 23-37.

Storey D J ( 1994 ), Understanding the Small Business Sector, Routledge, London.

Teng B S ( 2007 ), “ Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities through Strategic Alliances: A Resource based Approach toward Competitive Advantage ”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 44, No.1, pp. 119-42.


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out