ENV 201 - Pollution and Prevention

Question Answer
What is the operational definition of climate? A general description of the average temperature and rainfall conditions of a region over the course of a year
The carrying agent of a disease is commonly defined as… vector
Lyme disease is carried by… Borrelia burgdorferi which essentially serves as vector or carrying agent
To a large extent Lyme disease is viewed as a… cycle where forest ecosystems where a species (ex: mouse) control the growth of disease by introduced pests (ex: moths). Unfortunately, mouse destroys forest habitat (ex: eat acorn from oak trees)
Toxicity assessment to assess the toxicity of chemical substances using rats, mice, and guinea pigs as surrogates for humans who might be exposed to the substances is primarily defined as… Animal Testing
3 tenets of environmental hazard are defined as follows: 1. injury, disease, or death to humans
2. damage to personal or public property
3. deterioration or destruction of environmental components
The probability of having a certain disease or injury is defined as.. . risk
The number of cancers that might develop due to exposure to different doses of a chemical is commonly defined as… Dose Response Assessment
Compare and contrast Morbidity and Mortality 1. Morbidity is the incidence of disease in a population and community used to trace a particular disease or illness
2. Mortality refers to the incidence of death in a population; the cause of death could be kept using records.
Lethal hazards are often… outcome of purely voluntary behavior (smoking and drug use)
Two ways to examine environmental hazards are defined as follows: 1. Lack of access to resources
2. Exposure to hazards in the environment
Cellular changes that result in uncontrolled growth are primarily defined as… cancer formations
Environmental hazards associated with please and short term benefit are… cultural hazards
Compare and contrast leading causes of mortality in developing and developed countries for 1998… Infectious diseases are prominent in the developed countries while cancer and diseases of the cardiovascular system predominate in the developed countries
World biggest killer according to WHO poverty
Most of deaths in developed countries are from… degenerative diseases
US income distribution and life expectancy… US has great gap between wealthy and poor while life expectancy is 21st out of 157 countries in the world
The most obvious example of personal pollutant… smoking
Smoking classification by EPA… ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) is a Class A human carcinogen
Late 1997 top tobacco companies reached… uring late 1998 —> 46 state a 206 billion dollar settlement
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Adopted in 2003 and put into effect – a global treaty that aims to reduce the spread of smoking with the use of various strategies .
Able to be consumed and broken down to natural substances such as carbon dioxide and water via biological organisms especially decomposes —– degradable material
Sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the organism… pollutant
Protozoan parasite that contaminated water supply in Milwaukee Wisconsin in 1993… Cryptosporidium parvum
The non expert evaluation of risk which fails to comply with agreement of experts has a common term…. risk perception
Iron Oxide formation which takes place slowly over decades is governed by the following chemical reaction: 4 Fe + 3 O2 —> 2 Fe2O3
Atmospheric composition: 78 % nitrogen
21 % oxygen
0.03 % carbon dioxide
1 % argon
many trace elements
Demonstrates changes in atmospheric pressure through changes in the height of a mercury to prevent column that initially the glass tube barometer
Cigarette smoke primarily damages… cilia
Heavy metal extracted from vehicle exhausts and industrial processes: lead
Secondary pollutant produced from the interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight: ozone
Dust, soot, metal particles from industrial processes, and so on: particulate matter
high nitrogen content in drinking water primarily due: nitrates
Incomplete combustion of fuels leads to: carbon monoxide exhaustion
Insulation chemicals found indoors variety of asbestos
Power plants exhaustion of engines && fixed combustion processes nitrogen oxides & sulfur oxides
The percentage of environmental causes of cancers is nearly: 25-28 % according to WHO organization

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