Environmental

information expressed with numbers.
quantitative data
the variable that is manipulated.
independent variable
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resulted in alteration and destruction of natural systems.
advances in agriculture
testable proposition that explains an observed phenomenon or answers a question.
hypothesis
study of organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment.
ecology
must be designed with sustainable goals.
solutions to environmental problems
Geothermal energy, wind, and solar radiation
renewable environmental factors
cumulative total and kind of living things on earth.
biodiversity
means consuming resources without compromising future availability.
sustainable development
can be acquired in the detailed examination of personal interviews or observations.
qualitative data
A study’s results are deemed worthy of acceptance into the body of scientific knowledge if they are published in journals, which use the ______________ process
peer review
current population of the US
320 million
The current population of the world
7.2 billion
connect positive regions of one molecule to negative regions of another molecule.
hydrogen bonds
smallest components of elements that still maintain the chemical properties of the element.
atoms
negatively charged particles.
electrons
elements with the same atomic number but with different atomic masses.
isotopes
elements or molecules with a charge.
ions
composed of amino acids.
proteins
synthetic polymers.
plastics
glucose + oxygen ➡️ Water + carbon dioxide + energy.
cellular respiration equation
would have a pH+ Lower than pure water.
acidic precipitation
River water held behind a dam is best described as a form of ________
potential energy
Undersea earthquakes and volcanic eruptions may produce a __________
tsunami
result from energy released from movement at plate boundaries and faults.
earthquakes
type of rock formed when magma or lava cools.
igneous rock
Coal, oil, and natural gas
fossil fuels
When you burn a log in your fireplace you are converting _________ to ____________ energy
chemical to thermal
rock that has undergone heat or pressure that causes it to change form.
metamorphic rock
all of the interacting species in an area, combined with the physical factors influencing them.
ecosystem
True/False: species on earth today are but a fraction of all species that ever lived.
True
a group of individuals of a sing species that live and interact in one area.
population
the two processes that determine the world’s current biodiversity.
extinction and speciation rates
found only in one place on the planet.
endemic species
the functional role of a species in its community.
niche
tend to increase by exponential growth.
unregulated populations
include the effects of disease, predators, and food on a single species within a community.
Density-dependent factors
A number of coyotes move into an area and begin to eat a population of small harvest mice. After several years, the harvest mice are much speedier runners than before the coyotes came.
directional selection
An example would be cold weather causing the lake to freeze.
density-independent factor
the major factors that determine a population’s growth rate.
Growth rate, death rate, emigration, and immigration
the maximum sustainable population that a given environment can support.
carrying capacity
A biome in the eastern US, north Central Europe, and eastern china; characterized by stable precipitation and seasonal temperature variation, and is dominated by deciduous trees
temperate deciduous forest
describes the region west of the Mississippi; characterized by limited precipitation, think organic soils and extreme temperature variation in winter and summer.
Temperate grassland
describes the Pacific Northwest of the US and Nagasaki; characterized by heavy rainfall and relatively stable temperatures. Habitat has moist mossy interiors and many coniferous trees.
Temperate rainforest
describes the biome bordering the Mediterranean Sea; characterized by wet winters and warm dry summers. Dominated by shrubs and dependent on fires.
Chaparral
describes an equatorial zone with moderate precipitation that fluctuates seasonally; characterized by warm temperatures year round. Often has numerous deciduous trees.
Tropical dry forest
describes Cario, Egypt, and northwest Mexico; characterized by sparse rainfall year-round and much variation in temperature.
desert
characterized by long cold winters, relatively cool summers, and moderate precipitation dominated by coniferous trees.
Boreal forest
an invasive exotic species that clogs water intake pipes cat factories, power plants, and watergate treatment facilities.
zebra muscles
individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource.
Intraspecific species
Zooplankton populations in Lake Erie and the Hudson River have declined up to 70% since the arrival of zebra muscles because
zebra muscles prey on zooplankton.
feed on and harm their host.
parasites
Orchids require tree limbs for support but don’t harm the trees
commensalism
capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.
producers
Grazing animals such as deer are
primary consumers or herbivores
Zooplankton-eating fish are
secondary consumer
The relationship between flowering plants and bees is best described as
mutualism
have the most biodiversity.
Tropical rainforests
change rapidly as you change altitude and latitude.
Biomes
typical primary consumers in a temperate deciduous forest.
Deer
herbivory is a type of
predation
Kelp suffers intense herbivory from
sea urchins
Global climate change may produce major shifts in biomes for any given location because.
mean temperature, precipitation, and salinity will change
The Everglades restoration plan in Florida will restore natural levels of water flow by
undoing numerous damming and drainage projects.
The energy content and biomass of ___________ is the lowest of any food web.
top carnivores
Resource partitioning would most likely lead to
species coexistence
matter contained in living organisms.
Biomass
the solid earth beneath our feet
lithosphere
The process by which water moves from Earths surface to the atmosphere is called
evaporation
the release of water vapor by plants through their leaves.
Transpiration
Water returns to earths surface as
precipitation
The physical abiotic components of our planet can be divided into
lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
Cattle on an open range, in some areas, May compact fragile soil while grazing. This can damage plant roots, leading to fewer, smaller plants, which may in turn cause cattle to graze more and work harder to obtain food. This is an example of
positive feedback loop.
The eutrophication that has taken place in the Gulf of Mexico and other locations appears to be due to
excess nutrients from fertilizers
the amount of food potentially available to the herbivores in a specific area
Net primary production
consists of the sum of all the plants living organisms and the abiotic portions of the environment.
biosphere
the origin of all phosphorous in biological tissues
phosphorous weathered from rock
The origin of all nitrogen in biological tissues is
atmospheric nitrogen gas
tends to be the limiting nutrient in freshwater systems.
Phosphorous
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs as we produce ________________ and apply them to crops, lawns, and parks.
synthetic fertilizers
underground water reservoirs
Aquifers
Humans have dramatically altered the flux rate of ______________ from the atmosphere to various pools on earth’s surface.
nitrogen
In a eutrophic aquatic ecosystem, dissolved oxygen ________ and dissolved macronutrients _______
decreases; increase
Algae and phytoplankton are both
primary producers
Many fish die if dissolved oxygen levels fall below
2ppm
When CO2 levels _______ the ocean can become ______ acidic and it’s pH levels _________
increase;more;decrease
Planting _______ will lead to higher levels of ammonia in the soil
legumes
Acceleration of the Consumption of natural resources, increased pollution, and the mobilization of individuals and groups to object to the changes associated with industrialization allon.
industrial revolution
An American transcendental it’s writer who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the divine
Henry David Thoreau
a Californian ecocentrist and antgropocentrist who argued that we should protect Americas natural environment in its pristine, unaltered state.
John Muir
a conservationist who advocated protection of nature for its beauty and usefulness and founded the US forest service.
Gifford Pinchot
Environmentalists believe that governments should promote
social and environmental justice
is the study of how we decide to use scarce resources in the face of demand.
Economics
include pollination of crop plants.
Ecosystem services
Modern market economies generally don’t address
aesthetic and cultural value.
was an American president famous for the instituting of the California wilderness in the early 1900s.
Theodore Roosevelt
An example is creating the illusion of green or sustainable practices.
green washing
are factors that influence the government in the development of policy.
Citizens, private sectors, and science
typically creates statutory law and legislation.
Congress (house and senate)
Rachel Carson’s book,_______, communicated the problem of pollution from DDT and other pesticides.
silent spring
means that the government doesn’t take possession of the property, but deprives the owner of most of its economic value.
regulatory taking
an approach the government uses to control pollution. The government gives industry limits and threatens punishment if these limits are violated.
Command and control
a system that permits industries that pollute under the federal cap to sell credits to industries that pollute over the cap.
Cap and trade
All else being equal, if there is an increased immigration
population growth rate will increase
the second most populous region in the world
India
The human population is currently
7.2 billion
If a population roughly doubles in the course of 50 years, its growth rate would be close to
1.5%
China is the world’s most populous nation, home to __________ of the people living in Earth.
1/5
Declining death rates due to increased food production and improved medical care while birth rates remain high is characteristic of the
transitional stage
drives TFR down.
Social and economic security
A country with _______ is not expected to grow quickly in the near future
high female literacy
In a country where there are increasingly more households
consumption rates should increase
America’s age structure diagram reflects an
aging population
The most accurate terms describing the trend over the past 50 years in resource use for human energy and agricultural systems are
increasing and unsustainable
was responsible for the idea that without social restrictions, increasing human population would lead to famine and war.
Malthus
A population, which is not changing, will have a TFR of
2.1
may do better in areas where overgrazing occurs
Invasive species
Alternative bands of different types of vegetation planted across a slope
intercropping
the name for an individual layer of soil
Horizon
composed of organic compounds and is necessary for fertile soils and for holding soil moisture
Humus
During most of our species’ existence, and until about 100,000 years ago, we depended on
hunting and gathering
Factors involved in soil formation are
weathering of parent material, freezing/thawing, and growth of tree roots
The breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces is affected by
rainfall, freezing, and thawing
removes water soluble nutrients from the soil
Leaching
The loss of more than 10% productivity in arid areas due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, and an array of other factors are called
desertification
are to wind erosion as __________ are to water erosion
Shelterbelts; terraces
The consequences of over fertilization can include
eutrophication in nearby waters
Planting legumes between regular crops will help replace depleted nitrogen
legumes
Which particles in the soil are of the smallest diameter?
Clay
Which statements are true about the soil of wet tropical areas like rain forest?
Nutrients are heavily leached from the topsoil & leaf litter is rapidly decomposed
The buildup of salts in soils as a result of over irrigation is
salinization
Which of the following is not an ecosystem service provided by healthy forests?
Increases the amount of Co2 in the air
The SLOSS dilemma involves controversy over
Habitat fragmentation and preserve design
___ % of Earth’s land area is currently covered by forest
30
In the US, most logging takes place in
Conifer forests in the west and pine plantations in the South
Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging?
desperate for economic development
Forests reach their greatest ecological complexity when
mature and exhibit a multi-level canopy
The area effect of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography suggests that
The number of species increases with the size of the island; all else being equal, larger islands contain more species
Controlled burns would be used in forests that are subject to
severe wild fires to remove fuel load and stimulate new growth
are a particular when Formerly large habitats are reduced to small fragments
Edge effects
The region of forests The upper level of leaves and branches in the treetops
canopy
Which of the following would be a characteristic of a sustainable palm oil plantation?
adequate income to local farmers, employs manual
Which island would be predicted to have the greatest number of species based on Island Biogeography Theory?
Large island close to mainland
According to the graphs, the energy consumption per passenger mile
higher for all types of road use than it is for rail use
Given the energy consumption and operating costs per passenger mile, one of the best overall strategies for cities to consider is to create a
convenient, affordable, rail transit system
Shift from rural to urban living
Urbanization
Broad land use studies that may include several cities and adjoining non-urban areas
Regional planning
What drives the move to the suburbs from cities
less stressful, more peaceful park-like conditions
Greatest general problem with suburbs is that they
spread environmental impact over a large area
In developing nations such as India and Nigeria, _____ people are moving to the cities in large numbers
Rural
Around the world, most major cities are situated along
rivers, oceans, roads, or train routes
Over the past 50 years, most US citizens who could afford to do so left ____ to go to _____
cities; suburbs
Air travel, the internet, cheap fossil fuels, and television all have allowed people to live in
less centralized communities
Any consideration of the true costs of sprawl must include increased use in
fossil fuels
intended to Provide guidelines for city development to separate areas desired to be urban from areas desired to be rural
urban growth boundary (UGB)
tries to Develop walk able communities, with homes and businesses close together
New urbanism
Classify areas for different types of urban development and land use
zoning
An area that produces few of the things it needs
Recourse sink
May become disconnected from nature and from the true costs of their needs and activities
People living in urban environment
is caused by Heat-generating buildings and dark, heat-absorbing surfaces
urban heat island effect
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