Environmental Science Ch 1-5

the systematic study of our environment and our place in it.
Environmental science is a
methodical and logical
Ideally, science is
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A) Proposed explanation based on observation.
The best definition of a hypothesis is a(n)
If all insects have six legs, then butterflies have six legs
Of the following statements and questions, which is the best example of deductive reasoning?
May have different interpretations of the same evidence
Generally, distinguished scientists
open to question or new evidence
Proof in science is always
homes, jobs and recreation for people
Utilitarian conservationists, including Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt, supported forest conservation in order to provide
beauty and wildlife habitats
Biocentric preservationists, first led by John Muir, advocate saving natural areas for their
placing more emphasis on pollution problems
Environmentalism stemming from the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring differed from earlier North American conservation perspectives by
the establishment of a small marine sanctuary
Which of the following was key to the recovery of the Apo Island’s reef fish population?
They have higher fertility rates

They don’t need as much children so they dont have as much children

Compared to poorer countries, which of the following is not true of richer nations?
Double blind experiments/ inductive reasoning
When testing a new drug to treat arthritis what method should be used to avoid bias in the data
Places in the world where indigenous people live tend to have high biodiversity.
Water, carbon Dioxide and energy
Photosynthesis produces sugars from ____________.
Primary consumers are also known as ________________.
potential energy is ___ energy
The motion of a rock rolling downhill is known as __________ energy.
short and less complex
The length and complexity of a food web in the Arctic would be ____________ when compared to one in the tropical rainforest.
Is used repeatedly
The law of conservation of matter tells us that matter
Disposable goods arent going away when we throw them out
What implication(s) does the law of conservation of matter have for humans?
under normal circumstances energy and matter is neither created or destroyed
The first law of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter are similar in that
a constant flow of energy is needed for biological systems
What implication(s) does the second law of thermodynamics have for biological systems?
Primary consumers are
All members of a species that live in the same area at the same time make up a(an
populations interacting and living in the samearea
A biological community consists of all
a biological community and its physical environment
An ecosystem consists of
potential to kinetic energy
Metabolism can be seen as the process of converting _____________.
development can proceed with limited damage to the environment
Proponents of sustainable development argue that
the lack of available opportunities
Poverty is passed on from one generation to the next primarily through
look for evidence of the source’s reliability
In reading a claim by an atmospheric scientist that ozone depletion is not an actual environmental problem, a critical thinker would
many: specific Critical factor
There is/are usually _______ tolerance limit(s) responsible for limiting the number and location of a species. However, some organisms have ____________ that limit(s) their distribution
zone of psyiological stress
2.A species of fish can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100°F there are no individuals present. In the range from 97°F-100°F and 90°F-94°F there are a few individuals present. Below 90°F there are no individuals present. Between 95°F-96°F there are many individuals.
What would you label the range of temperature from 90°F to 94°F for this particular species?
Optimal Range
Again, using the example in question 2, answer the following questions.
What would you label the range of temperature from 95°F to 96°F for this particular species?
Population: Psyiological modifications at the personlal level
What is the difference in the adaptation of a sled dog’s (such as a Husky) thick coat of hair to help it withstand the cold temperatures of Arctic winters and a dog that adapts to cold temperatures in the fall by growing a thickened coat? The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.
better chances of reproduction of the species with a certain characteristic
Evolution occurs as a result of
better adapted to it’s environment
Natural selection will ultimately make a species
Tall flowers cannot reproduce
Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because
Inter-specific competition
A sparrow and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources. The best way to classify this interaction is as
different ecological niches for adults and juveniles
An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is
living together
Symbiosis means
that it can produce
An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ______ its environmental carrying capacity
A) J-shaped curveA) J-shaped curve
In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population; yet, if a SUPERFLY existed with a theoretically unlimited food supply, and no mortality would show what type of growth?
the amount of biomass created by the community
A biological community’s productivity is a measure of
unoccupied ground: bioligical communities replacing eachother
Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
Historically, up until the Middle Ages, populations were mostly limited by
According to Joel Cohen, the maximum human population that Earth can support is
One of the _________ effective ways to stabilize populations is to _________.
Total fertility rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life is called _____________________.
What is the dependency ratio?
the number of nonworking compared to working
) Social status of large families, or social taboos regarding birth control.
C) Male pride.
D) Need for additional family income
Which of the following is a pronatalist pressure?
The only way to break out of the demographic trap is to reduce population growth immediately and drastically by whatever means are necessary.
The policies of Andra Pradesh and China are based on which of the following?
these topics where taboo
One obstacle to family planning and birth control use that had to be overcome in Thailand is
The world human population reached 1 billion in about
economic development and stabilization
A demographic transition is expected to accompany
proven that basterd Malthus of predictions of famine and disease
Technological optimists argue that technological advances have
resources are dibstrusted equally
Proponents of social justice believe that environmental and social problems will decrease if
high birth and death rates to low death an birth rates
The demographic transition refers to a country’s change from
women t) Women tend to have more influence in family planning.
Many demographers believe that birth rates generally decrease as the level of development increases because _________________.
decide in advance how many children they want to have
Family planning means enabling people to
precipitaiton and temperature
The location of specific biomes can be predicted based on
conversion to farmland
Historically, the greatest threat to grasslands has been
are neccesary for a population to develop in a changing environment
We are usually referring to species diversity when we talk about biodiversity. However, genetic diversity is also important to ecological systems because diverse genes
niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community
Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of
decrease in bio diversity
Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n)
Humans may have been causing extinctions thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased.
why humans dicks?
habitat destruction world wide
The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is
we think mammals are a more desirable species.
The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because
increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered.
The objective of a species recovery plan is to
The giant panda is considered to be a _________________ species.
In the Bill Gates video shown in class, what area did he believe has the highest potential to address global warming?
20-less than 1
According to Bill Gates in the video “Innovating to Zero”, Americans produce an annual average of ______ tons of carbon dioxide, while the annual average for poor countries is ________ per individual?
Carbon Capture, Nuclear, Wind, Solar Voltaic and Solar Thermal
In the video “Innovating to Zero”, Bill Gates identify 5 potential energy “miracles”. Please identify these five energy miracles.
cost, safety , long term waste
In the “Innovating to Zero” video, Bill Gates identifies three problems with nuclear energy production. Please identify these three problems.
cost storage, transmission
In the “Innovating to Zero” video, Bill Gates identified three problems with solar energy production. Please identify these three problems.
Logical reasoning from general to specific.
Example: If we know that massive objects attract each other (because of gravity), then it follows that an apple will fall to the ground when it releases from the tree.
Reasoning from many observations to produce a general rule.
Example: When chimpanzees are exposed to rage, they tend to become violent. Humans are similar to chimpanzees, and therefore they tend to get violent when exposed to rage.
Is a search for ecological stability and human progress that can last over the long term.
: Is “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
sustainable development
The tragedy of the commons refers to how population growth inevitably leads to the overuse and destruction of common resources. It states that any resource that is commonly held will ultimately be destroyed. It is a basic economic theory which states that rational and unregulated individuals will behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting “common” resources.
tragedy of the commons
1. Make an observation and identify a question
2. Propose a hypothesis
3. Test your hypothesis
4. Gather data from your test
5. Interpret your results
scientific method
energy is conserved
first law of thermoydynamics
energy is entropic
2nd law
refers to all organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed in nature and produce live, fertile offspring.
A trophic level is an organism’s feeding status in an ecosystem. The two principal trophic levels are:
• Primary producers or autotrophs, feed themselves using only sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and minerals.
• Other organisms in the ecosystem are consumers (or heterotrophs) of the chemical energy harnessed by the primary producers.
Explain the concept of trophic levels, and identify the two principal trophic levels presented in class.
• The response of predator to prey and vice versa, over tens of thousands of years, produces physical and behavioral changes in a process known as co-evolution.
• Co-evolution can be mutually beneficial: many plants and pollinators have forms and behaviors that benefit each other.
• A classic case is that of fruit bats, which pollinate and disperse seeds of fruit-bearing tropical plants.
As presented in class and your textbook, please explain the concept of “co-evolution”.
Habitat describes the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.
Ecological niche, describes both the role played by a species in a biological community and the total set of environmental factors that determine a species distribution.
Specialists have narrow niches, like giant pandas
The Competitive Exclusion Principle states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche for long.
– The one that is more efficient in using available resources will exclude the other.
Please explain the Competitive Exclusion Principle
Density-dependent: Meaning as population size increases, the effect intensifies. With a larger population, there is an increased risk that disease or parasites will spread, or that predators will be attracted to the area.
Density-independent: Limits to population are often nonbiological, capricious acts of nature. A population is affected no matter what its size.
In class and in your textbook, the principles of density dependent and density independent limits to population growth was explained. In your own words, please explain these two concepts and provide an example of each.
Succession is a process in which organisms occupy a site and change its environmental conditions, gradually making way for another type of community.
• Primary succession – Bare land is colonized by living organisms where none lived before.
• Secondary succession – Occurs after a disturbance, when a new community develops from the biological legacy of the previous one.
Explain the concept of ecological succession, and define Primary and Secondary Succession:
• Total fertility rate is the number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life.
• Zero population growth (ZPG) occurs when births plus immigration in a population just equal deaths plus emigration.
• Ecological footprint – Estimates the relative amount of productive land required to support each human being. It is a way to estimate our environmental impacts by expressing our consumption choices into the equivalent amount of land required to produce goods and services. Example: Forests and grasslands store carbon, protect watersheds, purify our water, and provide wildlife habitat.
• It would take 5-6 Earths if all of us lived at the same level of affluence as the average North American.
ecological footprint
1) responsible economic development
2) education and increased women’s rights
3) high-quality health care (including family planning services)
The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development agreed that three initiatives that are necessary to help slow population growth. Please identify these three initiatives:
Demographic transition is a typical pattern of falling death rates and birth rates due to improved living conditions that usually accompanies economic development. It normally identifies 4 distinct transition Stages of Stage I to IV that are characterized by changing death and birth rates
demographic transition
three of these threats that also include the most major threat to biodiversity.
1) Habitat destruction is the main threat
2) Fragmentation reduces habitat to small, isolated patches
3) Invasive species are a growing threat
4) Pollution poses many different types of risk
5) Human population growth
6) Overharvesting & commercial collection
7) Predator and pest control
7 threats to biodiversity
Biodiversity-the number and variety of species.

Biomes-broad types of biological communities with characteristic types of environments that occur in different conditions of temperature and precipitation.

biodiversity, biomes
Breaking up habitat reduces biodiversity:
1) Because many species, such as bears and large cats, require large territories to subsist.
2) Other species, such as forest interior birds, reproduce successfully only in deep forest far from edges and human settlement.
It can also divide populations into isolated groups, making them much more vulnerable to catastrophes.
Habitat fragmentation
The Endangered Species Act provides:
(1) Criteria for identifying species at risk,
(2) Directions for planning for their recovery,
(3) Assistance to land owners to help them find ways to meet both economic needs and the needs of a rare species, and
(4) Enforcement of measures for protecting species and their habitat.
Endangered species are those considered in imminent danger of extinction.
Threatened species are likely to become endangered, at least locally, within the foreseeable future.
Recovery Plan details how populations of Threatened or Endangered species will be stabilized or rebuilt to sustainable levels.
A recovery plan could include many different kinds of strategies, such as:
1) Buying habitat areas,
2) restoring habitat,
3) reintroducing a species to its historic ranges,
4) captive breeding programs, and
5) plans for negotiating the needs of a species and the people who live in an area.
recovery plan

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