Environmental Science Exam II

Genetic Variation
Individuals within a population each have a unique combination of traits due to:
two interacting species
Symbiosis is the result of coevolution. Coevolution is the result of the interdependent evolution of:
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A sand dune along a lakeshore
Which of the following is an area where primary succession is likely to occur?
lichens
Which of the following organisms would be members of a pioneer community on bare rock?
occurs in areas lacking vegetation where soil is present
Secondary succession:
are usually not the most abundant species in the ecosystem
Keystone species:
ecological niche
An organism’s role, or lifestyle, within the structure of an ecosystem is its:
whether it is a producer, consumer, or decomposer, predator and/or prey, the kinds of symbiotic associations it forms, what species it competes with
An ecological description of a species typically includes:
a close interrelationship where both species benefit, a close inter- relationship where one species benefits and the other is not affected, a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is adversely affected, an intimate relationship between members of two or more species
Which of the following characterizes a symbiotic relationship?
to absorb essential nutrient minerals
Mycorrhizae help plants:
one organism consuming another organism, which may be a plant or animal
Predation can be defined as:
two or more species attempt to use an essential common resource
Competition occurs when:
trees and epiphytes
All of the following are examples of mutualism except:
parasitism
The relationship between a tick and a dog is an example of:
Predation exerts a selective force on the prey, favoring characteristics that reduce the probability of capture.
Which of the following statements is true?
warning coloration
Which of the following is not an adaptation to improve the efficiency of prey capture?
coevolution & natural selection
The shape of the bill on the bird in the figure below is most likely the result of:
competition
The realized niche for the green anole differs from its fundamental niche because of:
coevolution
Which of the following terms encompasses all of the other terms?
competitive exclusion
The associated figure provides support for which of the following processes?
increasing niche overlap
Resource partitioning can be accomplished through all of the following except:
decreases
Based on the figure below, as the structural complexity of the vegetation decreases, species richness
the geological history of the region
the abundance of ecological niches
the stability of the ecosystem
the productivity of the ecosystem
The number of species in a community can depend on:
because there are many ecological because they have a high productivity because they are geologically stable
The reason(s) that tropical regions of the world have such high biodiversity is:
flowering plants and their pollinators
Which of the following is an example of coevolution?
a forest develops on the edge of a retreating glacier
Which of the following is the best example of primary succession?
fundamental niche; realized niche
The potential ecological niche of an organism is its _______, while the niche an organism actually occupies is its ________.
interspecific competition
Which term defines competition between species?
both competition and realized niche
Green anoles were forced out of their established habitat of trees, plants, walls and fences by invasive brown anoles. The green anoles then had to find new habitats in wetlands and tree crowns. This example illustrates the concepts of:
describe the movement of water and other materials through abiotic and biotic interactions
Biogeochemical cycles:
hydrogen
Which of the following is not one of the biogeochemical cycles considered of particular importance for organisms?
the atmosphere
carbon dioxide and coal
limestone, animals, and plants
oil, bicarbonate, and sugar
In the carbon cycle, carbon can be found in:
cellular respiration
The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living organisms to the atmosphere is called:
Wood
Which of the following is not an example of a fossil fuel?
is an essential part of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (DNA)
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen:
the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form (ammonia (NH3)
Nitrogen fixation is:
78%
Nitrogen gas accounts for what percentage of the atmosphere?
erosion
Which of the following processes plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle?
is the product of a massive nuclear fusion reaction, essential for photosynthesis, captured by plants & may become energy available from fossil fuels, powers the hydrologic and other biochemical cycles
Solar radiation:
Glaciers
Which of the following surfaces has the highest albedo?
absorbs UV radiation
Stratospheric ozone is important because it:
regional & possibly global climate
The ocean conveyor belt affects:
the earth’s rotation
The Coriolis effect is associated with:
circular ocean currents
Gyres are:
alter both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns
El Niño—Southern Oscillation events:
topography, distance from the ocean, latitude, vegetation
Which of the following does not influence climate?
has a profound effect on the distribution of organisms
Precipitation:
tornadoes
Which of the following has the most concentrated energy and highest destructive potential?
dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing wind
Rain shadow describes the;
marine organisms
Which of the following does not affect ocean currents?
the atmosphere does not contribute to the phosphorus cycle
The phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle in that:
fixation
Which of the following processes is not involved in the hydrologic cycle?
affect weather patterns
El Niño and La Niña are similar in that both events:
troposhere, stratosphere,mesosphere, thermosphere,exosphere
The atmosphere consists of five concentric layers. What is the order of these layers starting at the Earth’s surface?
hourly or daily; average, long-term
Weather is a term that refers to the conditions in the atmosphere on a ________ basis, whereas climate is a description of ___________weather conditions.
are not always damaging for natural environments, can have an increased negative effect due to the efforts intended to prevent them, release nutrient minerals that are previously locked in dry organic material, are increasing do to climate change
Wildfires:
in regions around the globe with mild, rainy winters, followed by hot, dry summers
Chaparral biomes occur:
1. population 2.community 3.ecosystem 4.biome
Which of the following organizational hierarchies is correctly listed from smallest to largest unit?
biome
A relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by similar environmental factors regardless of where it occurs in the world is called a/an:
has an extended day length during its growing season
Tundra:
temperate grassland
The biome most suitable for the development of farmland is:
south of
The boreal forest is located ______ the tundra.
temperate rain forest
The biome with high amounts of precipitation, large narrow-leaved evergreen trees, and epiphytes including lichens is the:
temperate deciduous forest
Hot summers and cold winters, topsoil rich in organic material, annual precipitation of 75 to 125 cm (30-50 in), and many hardwood trees are characteristics of the:
conversion to agriculture
The tallgrass prairie is currently the rarest biome in North America due to:
tropical rain forest
Which of the following biomes has the highest biodiversity?
turnover
Mixing of water layers, which often occurs in temperate lakes due to decreasing ambient temperature, is referred to as:
plankton
Free-floating aquatic organisms are known as:
estuary
A coastal body of water, partly surrounded by land, with input from both sea and fresh water is called:
protect coastlines from erosion, are the most diverse of all marine environments, are found in shallow, nutrient poor, tropical waters, may occur as barrier, fringing, or atoll formations
Coral reefs:
the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone
The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which:
have trees that shed their leaves seasonally
Deciduous forests:
chaparral, temperate grassland, and savanna
The biomes that commonly have fire-adapted species are:
salinity
Which of the following abiotic factors does not typically affect biome structure?
temperate grassland and savanna
The biomes known for supporting herds of grazing animals are:
usually confined to a relatively small geographical area
Which of the following does not apply to a biome?
water
Which of the following is not important in determining the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes?
oceanic province
Which of the following is not found at the boundary between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems?
increased levels of O2
Which of the following is not a source of human impact on the marine environment?
E: Hot, Tropics. Right bottom corner.
According to the diagram below, desert biomes would fall into the area marked by the letter:
they contribute to asymmetry in urban communities
Wetlands are important for all of the following reasons except:
Recycling
Humans harm the oceans in all of the following ways except:
They look the same, they occupy the same niche, they freely breed and produce viable offspring, they can communicate w/ each other.
What distinguishes the members of a particular species?
biogeography
The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by
they produce the most viable offspring
Which of the following best represents superior evolutionary “fitness” for individuals in a population?
secondary succession
The change in species composition that takes place after a forest fire is referred to as
parasitic
The following relationships are: humans + mosquitoes
commensual
Relationship: humans + pigeons
mutual
Relationship: humans + dogs
True
Natural selection should favor those individuals of each species that avoid or reduce competition.
100%
What portion of the human’s fundamental niche are we occupying today?
La Nina
8. When surface water temperature in the eastern Pacific Ocean becomes unusually cool, and westbound trade winds become unusually strong, it is called:
Iron
1. Which of the following IS NOT one of the five main biogeochemical cycles of matter?
respiration, combustion, decomposition
2. The carbon in fossil fuels, food and plants return to the atmosphere by
phosphorus
3. Which of the following cycles does not involve an atmospheric phase of matter?
asphalt
5. Which of the following surfaces has the lowest albedo?
troposphere
6. In which level of the atmosphere do we experience our weather?
Trade Winds
7. Which winds did Columbus and other explorers of tropical America use to cross the Atlantic?
Tides
9. Which of the following is NOT caused by the Coriolis effect?
benthos
Which of the following are aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms?
moisture
7. Marine biomes are defined by all the following, except:
tall grass praire
Which is the rarest untouched biome in the US?
millenia
Temperate deciduous forests have been converted to agricultural use for how long?
tropical rain forest
The most biodiverse biome is:
True
The Arctic tundra receives less annual rainfall than some desert biomes.
both temperature & moisture
A terrestrial biome is defined primarily by:
Only true for some ecosystems
Fire is a natural element of terrestrial ecosystems
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