Introduction Equal employment opportunity (EEO) began when President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 in 1941. Executive Order 8802 ensured that every American citizen was guaranteed equal employment opportunities in World War II defense contracts, regardless of race, creed, color, or national origin. Today, the EEO legislation has affected businesses.
The topics discussed will be, how the organization, as well as the individual employee, has rights, the effect it has on the customers, how it can improve an organization’s public relations, how it can diversify the workforce, and the effect it has on Human Resources Management of an organization. Organization and Employee Rights A. Equal Pay Act of 1963 “To prohibit discrimination on account of sex in the payment of wages by employers engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. June 10, 1963 [S. 1409]” (1).
In other words, employers cannot pay a woman, who performs the same job as a man, less because of her gender. This act is an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act which states that it is illegal to pay workers lower wages strictly on the basis on their sex. B. Civil Rights Act of 1964 “Prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce the provisions of Title VII” (Bohlander and Snell 101). Discrimination was prohibited in public facilities, in government, and in employment.
Segregating races in schools, housing, or hiring became illegal. C. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 “Prohibits private and public employers from discriminating against people age 40 or older in any area of employment because of age; exceptions are permitted when age is a bona fide occupational qualification” (Bohlander and Snell 101). Organizations are not allowed to discriminate against an older person, but if they cannot meet the demands of the job, the older person can be eliminated from consideration. D. Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 Amended Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964; strengthens EEOC’s enforcement powers and extends coverage of Title VII to government employees, employees in higher education, and other employers and employees” (Bohlander and Snell 101). With this act, employers are further protected from discrimination. Employees are allowed to sue employers to enforce the provisions of the act. Effects on Customers Equal employment opportunity affects the customers in various ways. If the employees working are satisfied and happy, the customer will see it when the employees help them.
For example, a customer walks into Burger King to get something to eat, but the cashier is unhappy that a coworker is getting paid more than him for doing the same job and having the same time in the workforce, so the cashier takes it out on the customer. The customer will probably never return to the business again. If the employees work in a happy environment, they will provide better services. Improvement of Public Relations By applying EEO to an organization, the public relations will improve.
In society, one of the main jobs is to keep good appearances. An organization wants to promote that everything in their company works perfectly and equally. By maintaining good appearances, the organization has a greater probability that other organizations will want to work with them. Also, it will attract the best workers because they will want to work for an organization that is fair. Diversity in the Workforce When referring to diversity in the workforce, the first thing that pops into people’s heads is Affirmative Action. “Affirmative action” means positive steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded. When those steps involve preferential selection—on the basis of race, gender, or ethnicity—affirmative action generates intense controversy” (1). The establishment of affirmative action causes a huge controversy. Yes, affirmative action helps out minorities and women because it allows them to get better opportunities without being discriminated against.
The problem that arose from affirmative action was reverse discrimination. Reverse discrimination is “the act of giving preference to members of protected classes to the extent that unprotected individuals believe they are suffering discrimination” (Bohlander and Snell 126). For example, in University of California Regents v Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court of the United States settled a reverse discrimination case, which land marked affirmative action. Allan Bakke, a white male, applied to the university, but was denied admission twice.
He stated that he had better scores than some of the people that were admitted because they were minorities. The Court ruled in favor of Bakke. Race can be a factor in an applicant’s evaluation as long as the other factors are considered and there was not a quota system for individuals in different protected classes. Diversity can be a good thing. Having a diverse business helps the organization by allowing input from different point of views, thus allowing growth of the company.
It can also teach employees organizational morals and views by letting them coexist with one another. A happy and diverse workplace means better proficiency and efficiency. Effects on Human Resources Management Equal employment opportunity effects human resources management. Human resources management is defined as “the process of managing human talent to achieve an organization’s objectives” (Bohlander and Snell 4). With EEO legislation, human resources management have to consider all guidelines the laws impose on the organization when hiring or changing their structure.
Human resource managers have to be up to date with everything that is going on in reference to their company. That may include new laws domestically and internationally. Conclusion In conclusion, equal employment opportunity has changed what businesses are today. Organizations have to be more careful with how they run their company. Furthermore, they have to consider the rights of employers and employees, the customers, public relations, diversity, and their own human resources managers.