ES 567

________ is any network of relationships among a group of components, which interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information.
a system
A system stabilized by negative feedback, with opposing processes offsetting each other, is said to be in ________.
Dynamic equilibrium
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all Earth’s organisms and the nonliving environment with which they interact
the biosphere
In an aquatic ecosystem experiencing eutrophication, levels of dissolved macronutrients ________ and dissolved oxygen levels ________.
increase decrease
The entire area of land that a river drains is called its __________
characteristics that are not evident in the system’s individual components but are evident only by looking at the whole operating system
emergent properties
The structural sphere of Earth that is best described as the rocks and sediment is the ______.
A contributing factor in the process of eutrophication is ______.
nitrogen and phosphate pollution
the role of a tree as a habitat for other organisms in the ecosystem is its
emergent property
Containing elements of both forests and coastal marshes, the swamplands of extreme southern Louisiana would be an example of ________.
an ecotone
Biodiversity is partially influenced by net primary productivity. Where can the highest terrestrial rates of NPP be found?
tropical rainforests
this involves constructing and testing simplified representations of ecological systems
ecological modeling
Most energy in the majority of ecosystems arrives as ______ and exits in the form of _____.
radiation from the sun heat
Ecosystems that convert solar energy to biomass rapidly ________.
have high primary productivity
who would most likely study the movement of nutrients from alpine grassland on a mountain through the temperate deciduous forest at the lower elevations into the tropical rain forest at the base
a landscape ecologist
Which best describes how energy and nutrients work in an ecosystem?
energy flows nutrients cycle
The majority of Earth’s fresh water exists ________.
in the form of ice
The first essential step in changing atmospheric nitrogen into more usable NH3 is called ________.
n fixation
Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs ________.
by using fertilizers
Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and certain root nodules play an important role in the global cycling of ________.
How do plants contribute to the water cycle?
In the carbon cycle, carbon moves from the atmosphere into the living portion of the cycle through ______.
name 3 places that are considered carbon reservoirs
the ocean, phosphorus and plants
Natural wilderness should be protected as is, regardless of the needs of humans, is an example of the ________ point of view.
________ is best defined as the knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.
Hetch Hetchy provides the residents of San Francisco with _____
drinking water
A person’s culture plus his or her personal experience contributes to his or her _____.
Californian ecocentrist and anthropocentrist who argued that we should protect America’s natural environment in its pristine, unaltered state
John Muir
Forester who espoused the conservation ethic.
gifford pinchot
American transcendentalist writer who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the divine
henry david thoreau
Proposed the categorical imperative, which advocates treating others as you would wish to be treated
immanuel kant
British utilitarian who promoted the idea that actions should maximize the overall benefit to most people
Jeremy Bentham
Forest ranger in Arizona and New Mexico in the early 1900s who advocated preservation of nature’s integrity. He wrote, “to keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.”
aldo leopold
In general, environmentalists believe that governments should ________.
Promote social and environmental justice
Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” essay ________.
encourages actions to preserve
john muir
founder of the sierra club
________ involves the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
environmental justice
Which American president increased protection of wilderness in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the early 1900s?
theodore roosevelt
________ is the American school of philosophy exemplified by Thoreau and Whitman which saw natural entities as symbols or messengers of deeper spiritual truth.
When someone believes that something in nature has intrinsic value he or she believes _______.
it has value outside of its use
What ethical perspective would you ascribe to someone who makes environmental choices based on a respect for just the living things in an ecosystem?
Which type of ethics dictates the sustainable use of natural resources while also managing them wisely?
people realized that environmental damage is not equally distributed among all classes and racial groups; minority and low-income communities tend to contain a much larger share of the environmental damage (such as landfills, incinerators, toxic waste sites, etc.)
environmental justice movement
suggests that resources should be used from natural areas but in a responsible way such that they are not depleted
conservation ethic
Suppose someone said, “Earth and all of its contents were created for the betterment of human beings, so as long as something is good for humans, it is good for the whole Earth.” What ethical perspective would they hold?
Two scientists are debating the responsibility of humans to the environment. The first debater says, “We should maintain the environment in its most natural state as if we hadn’t been here at all.” The second says, “We should use the environmental resources available to us but not abuse them.” Which two scientists discussed in this chapter would have made these comments, respectively?
muir and pinchot
which is an example of an ecosystem service
pollination of crop plants
global warming
creation of pollution
genetically modifying food
Pollination of crop plants
promoting a viable economy while maintaining a viable environment and meeting social needs
sustainable development
_____ consist(s) of a formal set of general plans and principles intended to address problems and guide decision making.
Which of the following requires those responsible for pollution to cover the cost of repairing the damage?
the polluter pays principle
In the policy-making process, science is _________.
only one influential factor
Private, voluntary efforts to keep the “tragedy of the commons” in check are often less effective than mandated public policy because of _______.
the free rider predicament
Statutory laws are passed by this branch ________. and they are the only branch of government that can make environmental laws
the legislative branch
is the movement of powerful officials between the private sector and government agencies
the revolving door
Lobbying is one strategy employed by ________ to influence governmental environmental policies.
environmental agency groups and the american petroleum institute
The first laws in U.S. environmental policy ________.
promoted settlement of the west
required environmental impact statements for any projects funded by the U.S. government
how does nepa affect environmental policy?
makes rules and regulations
The publication of which book was noted as one of the landmark events starting the third wave of environmental policy?
silent springs

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