Establishing the Critical Success Factors in Firms Essay

This thesis begins with constitution of “ What critical success factors in Business procedure Reengineering aid in the success of Higher Education in Pakistan? ”

This thesis discusses the CSFs of BPR in Higher Education in order to guarantee the successful execution of BPR. The finding of the CSFs of BPR could help HEIs to be after their attack and to do their action program.

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Public sector universities are the chief vehicle for higher instruction in Pakistan. Historically, private sector had an undistinguished function in the higher instruction system and was about non -non existent till the 1980s. The public sector HEIs uninterrupted to be plagued by the inattention of consecutive authoritiess and remained burdened the chronic jobs of the hapless quality of instructors and course of study, gender prejudices, on campus political relations, low degree of pupil motive, hapless subject and deficiency of relevancy of class contents to societal and economic demands, rote acquisition, overcrowding, and non-transparent scrutiny systems. Research work was marked by the low quality and negligible measure. But Pakistan ‘s inability to increase investing in instruction beyond 2.5 per centum of GDP ( one of the lowest in the universe ).

In this paper author will analyse critical success factors in BPR which Higher Education Commission of Pakistan usage to implement reforms in higher instruction.

Historical Background of the Organization

“ Of all the economic growing enterprises available to the Government of Pakistan, possibly none holds more promise and the possibility big graduated table and sustainable returns so the effectivity and the enlargement of the Higher Education substructure in Pakistan. This does non intend that the value of instruction is limited merely to the economic development. Its value extends and is universally viewed as widening good beyond its impact on the economic public presentation, to embrace greater societal impact lending to a merely, democratic, and enlightened society. ”

( Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah in his message to the All Pakistan Education conference in Karachi on 27th Nov 1947 )

When Pakistan was founded in 1947, the state inherited two higher instruction institutes ; one of which is university of the Punjab. The Pakistan higher instruction conference was held to put vision for the higher instruction system. Subsequently, in 1952 a higher instruction organic structure, inter university board, was established to develop affair among the universities of the state. In 1959, the national committee on national instruction was set up. Once once more, like earlier organic structures of its nature take same really general position of the instruction system.

During the following decennary, as a consequence of the nationalisation in the Pakistan, the whole system instruction went to the direct control of the province. However, in 1979, a authorities committee reviewed the effects of the nationalisation that public sector could no longer be the state ‘s exclusive supplier of instruction.

University grants committee ( UGC )

The university grant committee, the predecessor of the Higher Education of Pakistan, was established, in 1974, by an act of the parliament. It was mandated that UGC maintain the criterions of instruction and set up a unvarying policy aimed at conveying national integrity and coherence. Appraisals of universities fiscal demands and expenses of the grants was the chief intent of UGC but unfortunely it did non play an active function in development of higher instruction.

The Reform Procedure

In 1959 the national committee on higher instruction made in deepness survey of jobs and challenges the instruction sector at that clip. The instruction policies of 1970, 1972, 1979, 1992, and 1998 and the eight Five Year programs, all set unrealistic without supplying financess and the needed political will to guarantee their successful execution.

The Pakistan Economic study 2001-2002 semen up with decision that

One of the factors in the slow betterment of instruction indexs has been low degree of public outgo in instruction

( Pakistan Economic study, 2001-2002 )

The latest reform procedure was catalyzed by the publication of the study on higher instruction of the developing states compiled by the Task force on higher instruction of UNESCO and World Bank.

( S.B Ali, S.k Lakha, ( 2000 ) “ study on HE of developing states by UNESCO & A ; World Bank ” )

Constitution of the Higher Commission ( HEC )

On September 11, 2002, the recommendations of SCHE were translated in to action, through the presidential Ordinance No LIII of 2002. The HEC was established as cardinal organic structure that facilitate choice confidence of the higher instruction in the public and private sectors, links support by the Federal Government.

( The Nation intelligence paper, September 12, 2002, )

The Prime Minster as commanding authorization and Prof. Dr. Atta-ur -Rehman was appointed as laminitis president of the HEC. Now the current president is Dr. Javaid R. Laghari.

Historical Background of the Organization

The intent of the survey is to look into the impact of nucleus procedures and critical success factors Business Process Reengineering helps to work out jobs and chances of higher instruction in Pakistan. Higher instruction plays the function of leading in the society. The maps of the university are to develop the people physically, mentally and spiritually. It improves and promotes the economic, societal, political and cultural life of the state. All over the universe universities are steering and co-operating with the industrial and agricultural development organisations and they are developing their economic sciences quickly and meaningfully.

Author puts attempts for aggregation of informations from the research of the experts, leaders, instructors and interacting with Pakistani pupils analyzing in UK ‘s universities and colleges. Datas were tabulated and analyzed utilizing the Likert ‘s five-point graduated table and chi-square.

The chief aims of the survey were:

( 1 ) To happen what critical success factors in BPR aid in the success of Higher Education of Pakistan?

( 2 ) To happen out the present profile of higher instruction in Pakistan ;

( 3 ) To analyze the past attempts done for the betterment of higher instruction ;

( 4 ) To foregrounding the budget commissariats for higher instruction ;

( 5 ) To research jobs of higher instruction in Pakistan ;

Literature reappraisal of Business Process Reengineering

Business procedure reengineering is the redesigning of concern procedures every bit good as related systems and organisational constructions in order to accomplish a important betterment in concern public presentation. The concern grounds for the devising such alterations could include hapless fiscal public presentation, external competition, eroding of market portion, or emerging market chances. BPR is non downsizing, restructuring, reorganising, mechanization, new engineering but it is the appraisal

and alteration of the undermentioned constituents of the concern: ”

1. Strategy ( leading and top direction support ‘Ahmad, 2004 ‘ )

2. Procedures ( Hall et al. , 1993 ; Peppered and Fitzgerald, 1997 ) ;

3. Technology ( IT/IS )

4. Cost / Controling / Monitoring and Evaluation

5. Organization

6. Culture

7. Invention

( Michael Hammer and James Champy, 1993 ) define BPR in their book reengineering the corporation as:

Cardinal rethinking and extremist redesign of concern procedures to convey about dramatic betterments in public presentation.

Hammer focal point on one key construct of BPR – that it is cardinal and extremist.

But another concern betterment methodological analysis is uninterrupted betterment ( CPI ) , which emphasizes little and mensurable polishs of an organisation ‘s current procedures and systems. Continuous procedure betterment has its beginning in Entire quality direction ( TQM ) and Six Sigma, a programme that began at Motorola.

Ascari, a. ( 1995 ) his survey explore that the organisations that implemented BPR agreed that the impact on the alteration of their civilization was related to the organisation ‘s rethinking of its cardinal procedures. The was besides on placing and bettering nucleus procedures and particularly with accent on cross functional work squads

Maull et Al. ( 1995, p.42 ) which show important importance of range of concern architectures. ”

The pattern of redesigning concern procedure, and the associated engineering and organisational construction, more popular so of all time before.companies uninterrupted to revaluate and basically alter concern procedures and the manner of making concern. Competitive force per unit areas and more sensitive economic system provide the push for continued attempts to “ present more with less. ” Reengineering remains major tool for concerns seeking to work efficaciously and expeditiously as possible. ‘

Ascari et Al. ( 1995 ), Stoddard et Al. ( 1996 ) , Peppard and Fitzgerald ( 1997 ), Smith ( 2003 ) highlighted that BPR aims to accomplish public presentation interruption through by using advanced ways of making concern.

Key marks of BPR:

BPR has three key targeted classs:

o Customer friendliness: one of the of import ends of the BPR is to acquire a competitory border, and that can merely be gained by supplying the clients more than what others in the market are inquiring for.if the client is looking for merchandise tailed to their demands, for illustration, a auto customized to the client ‘s gustatory sensation, so auto shaper most likely derive more clients over the competition due to the customization option.

o Effectiveness: How effectual is the merchandise or service that the concern or fabrication company provides the client? if the merchandise or service the concern might be supplying the clients is successful, so the clients would automatically desire like to purchase that merchandise or services once more.for illustration Nipponese autos like Honda and Toyota, even they are more expensive than domestic autos, are really dependable.

o Efficiency: how efficient is the company, that fabricating the merchandise, in minimising costs before presenting it to the market.efficiency is non merely about being efficient at the production floor degree ; the direction degree has to be efficient. Examples of merely the production floor being efficient and non the direction degree would be found in the Nipponese fabrication companies.

By sing few definitions given by old writers for illustrations, pearce and Robinson, ( 1997 ) ; in this research context, CSFs defined as the few things which must travel right for the PBR to go on successfully.


The present thesis incorporates the research scheme of grounded theory and in-depth interviews. In this regard, it can be concluded that the present survey is built on a combination of secondary and primary informations.


The present thesis incorporates a multi-method research procedure, where the research worker combines secondary and primary informations in the same survey. This scheme is chosen as the research worker believes that both methods are significantly reliable on each other in the present research context, and that secondary informations provides solid theoretical foundation, whereas primary informations contributes to the research worker ‘s ability to turn to the most of import issues in the present context ( Robson, 2002 ) . The primary informations is extracted through the conductivity of in-depth interviews.

Open ended interviews

Specifically, this survey had developed a set of interview inquiries on the CSFs factors, were put to the direction of the Pakistan Higher Commission.

Examples of the inquiries are as follows:

Please explicate the factors that make the BPR or extremist procedure alteration undertaking win from your experience?

Please give your remarks on how critical they were to your BPR or extremist procedure alteration undertaking success?

The instruments for the unfastened ended interviews were developed based on the literature reappraisal, most of them adopted from Al-Masheri and Zairi ( 1999 ) and guimaraes, ( 1999 ).


The secondary informations employed can be described as multiple beginnings like books, diaries, articles, web sites, newspapers and magazines. Multiple beginning secondary informations can be divided into two classs – country based, which comprises of academic beginnings and clip series based, which focuses of commercial issues ( Saunders et al. , 2003 ). The usage of multiple beginning informations provides the research worker with the chance to develop a balanced and analytical thesis.


I will utilize Microsoft excel for questionnaires, as it is easy to export the information into excel and utilize its statistics installations descriptive, presentational and illative analysis.

Weft QDA is easy to utilize package, I already installed this package in my laptop which will assist me to analyze the interviews consequences.


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