The field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what they mean. Metaethical answers to questions are focused on the issues of universal truths, the will of God, the role of reason in ethical judgments, and the meaning of ethical terms themselves. Normative ethics involves a more practical task, which is to arrive at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. Ideally, moral questions could be immediately answered by consulting the moral guidelines provided by normative theories. Finally, applied ethics involves examining specific controversial issues, such as abortion, infanticide, animal rights, environmental concerns, homosexuality, capital punishment, or nuclear war. By using the conceptual tools of metaethics and normative ethics, discussions in applied ethics try to resolve these controversial issues.
A duty is a moral obligation that an agent has towards another person, such as the duty not to lie. Etymologically, duties are actions that are due to someone else, such as paying money that one owes to a creditor. In a broader sense, duties are simply actions that are morally mandatory. Medieval philosophers such as Aquinas argued that we have specific duties or obligations to avoid committing specific sins. Since sins such as theft are absolute, then our duty to avoid stealing is also absolute, irrespective of any good consequences that might arise from particular acts of theft. It is same for the leaders who represents others of either a big group or a small one. For example, if you are a member of student government, you should truly represent your members. I am not trying to make fun of the former American president Bill Clinton, but his behavior violated the ethics of representation. The news of him and Ms. Lewinsky really made him a laughing stock, but the worst part of that is that other country starts to think that Americans don’t select their president correctly. This is what most newspapers in Asia was printing out. They say that President Clinton is a disgraced to the United States. To make matters worse, he lied and said he didn’t have any sexual contact with Lewinsky. Now, everyone know he is a lier.
If you are not in politics but you are involved in business, then you will have to work on your representation skills. You should know what you should
Ethics and Morals