Evaluating the Theories and Factors Affecting Leadership Essay

Harry W. More, W. Fred Wegner, Gennaro F. Vito, and William F. Walsh province ” The term personality is normally used to intend the alone combination of ways of thought and behaving that make an person who he or she is ” ( p.54 ) . Some people make loose usage of psychological footings like extravert and introvert to depict personality. These labels convey a brief impressionistic description of the single being referred to. Categorizing personalities can be utile to leaders because there is grounds to demo that personality can act upon behaviour. Awareness of personality can be utile to leaders because it can let them to foretell the behaviour of equals, supervisors, and employees.


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There are many theories about how people develop personality. Four basic premises about human behaviour, known as interactive psychological science are drawn from one of those theories and they are:

Behavior is a map of uninterrupted, multidirectional-interaction between the state of affairs and the individual.

The individual is active in the procedure, both by being changed by it and altering the state of affairs.

Peoples differ in many features, including motive, ability, knowledge, and consequence.

Both the person ‘s subjective position and the aim are really of import.

It is highly of import that leaders exhaustively understand the assorted theories of personality in order to asses the manner people behave in their organisations. Several theories have been proposed. Psychoanalytical theory, humanistic theory, and trait theory are most outstanding among them. They present a different position of personality, and have disparagers and protagonists. No specific theory of personality development explains all fluctuation in behaviour, nevertheless, leaders who understand assorted theories have taken the first measure in covering with the complexness of human behavior-interpersonal, group, single, or organized.

Interactional psychological science attributes human behaviour jointly to the nature, state of affairs, continued interaction between the two, and the personality of the person. This makes personality a really important consideration for constabulary executives within an organisation because it influences how personnel measure the demands and respond to the demands of their work environment. For case, an accomplishment oriented police officer will measure each working state of affairs in footings of its possible to help his or her calling promotion. These persons are more disposed to prosecute particular preparation, develop expertness needed by others, and voluntary for unattractive assignments all with the purpose of accomplishing the highest possible accomplishment or acknowledgment in the shortest possible clip. To the contrary, officers who are strongly influenced by the officer equal group civilization will set their behaviour to conform to the work group ‘s frequently anti-organizational position of the universe ( More, Wegner, Vito, and Walsh, p.57 ) .


Culture is another determiner of personality. Culture is a system of shared values, attitudes, beliefs, and significances that guide single behaviour. This system is acquired by persons through their interactions with important others such as equals, instructors, and parents in a procedure called socialisation. Culture socialisation, reconditions and conditions persons supplying them with an recognized system of norms that structures their daily behaviour. More, Wegner, Vito, and Walsh ( 2006 ) province ” Organizational theoretician believe that civilization is the concealed significance behind behaviour and that it must be understood and observed by directors if they wish to alter behaviour ” ( p.57 ) . The organisation ‘s nucleus values are held and widely shared in a strong civilization. The more members who accept and believe in these nucleus values, the greater the organisation ‘s committedness to those values and the stronger the civilization will be.

Acknowledging how the traits we are born with, the beliefs and attitudes we acquired through socialisation influence us will add to our apprehension of the human personality. Each juncture is different. Differences may look little, but when filtered by a individual ‘s cognitive mediation procedure ( perceptual experience ) they can take to quite big diverse behavioural results and subjective differences. Under certain fortunes an person can respond in ways about foreign to his or her personality.

Police officers have performed heroically, many times, puting their lives at hazard, when if the had considered the event rationally and logically, they may hold ne’er reacted as they did. In other cases, constabulary officers to the full cognizant of what is right, and the potency of what is incorrect, have engaged in illegal behaviour for personal addition or acted unethically. Police executives should be careful when generalising about the manner subordinates behave unless he or she has taken into history the nature of each state of affairs. They must cognize the failings and strengths of each employee being supervised. Changing the state of affairs alternatively of passing a great trade of clip turn toing those failings may be a precedence. For cases, when managing a new employee, a first-line supervisor may take to minimise their engagement in state of affairss necessitating close supervising.

Human Relations and Effective Leadership

Stephen P. Robbins and David De Cenzo ( 2001 ) remind us, “ Human relationship accomplishments focus on your ability to work with, understand and motivate those around you ” ( p.310 ) Persons who have good homo relationship accomplishments allow them to be able to pass on their vision to workers. Besides, it means listening to what they have to state. First category leaders do non cognize it alls, nevertheless, he or she freely promote and accepts engagement from followings. Peoples accomplishments are human relationship accomplishments. They go manus in manus. It is the supporting, facilitating, and training workers within the organisation. Leaderships must understand themselves, and be confident about their abilities.

Robbins and De Cenzo ( 2001 ) province “ There ‘s one facet that ‘s about a warrant with regard to leadership-that is if you fail as a leader, it probably wo n’t be because you lack proficient accomplishments ” ( p.310 ) . Alternatively, it is more likely that a leader ‘s followings have lost regard for them because of their deficiency of human relationship accomplishments. If that happens, a leader ‘s ability to influence others will be hopelessly damaged. One of the most interesting constructs of leading is that accomplishments and traits are hard for followings to separate. Therefore, followings define leading by the behaviours they see in leaders. As the expression goes “ actions speak louder than words ” .

Leadership Styles and Behaviors

Several surveies examined behavioural manners. The most fake and most comprehensive of the behavioural theories resulted from research that started in the 1940s at Ohio State University. This survey identified the magnitude of leading behaviour. They finally lessened the list down to classs that accounted for most of the leading behaviour described by their subsidiaries. These are best identified as employee centered and undertaking centered behaviours.

Contingency Theory

Behavioral and trait theories were efforts to happen the best leading manner for all state of affairss. It became evident that there is no best leading manner for all state of affairss in the late sixtiess. Both the University of Michigan and Ohio State Studies discovered that no 1 set of leading behaviour is effectual in all state of affairss. Robert N. Lussier ( 2002 ) province ” Contingency leading theory is Fiedler ‘s theoretical account used to find if one ‘s leading manner is task or relationship oriented, and if the state of affairs matches the leader ‘s manner ” ( p.237 ) . Fidler suggest that unsuccessful leaders change the state of affairs alternatively of their leading manner.

Leadership Style: The first of import factor is to find whether one ‘s leading manner is relationship or undertaking oriented. The leader must make full in the Least Preferred Coworker ( LPC ) graduated tables. Then he or she must find the favourableness of the leader ‘s state of affairs.

Situational Favorableness: Situation favourableness refers to the grade to which a state of affairs allows the leader to act upon the followings. Robert N. Lussier ( 2001 ) in his text provinces ” Three variables, in order of importance are:

1. Leader -member relations- Is the relationship good or hapless? Do the followings trust, regard, accept, and have assurance in the leader? Is it a friendly, tension-free state of affairs?

Leaderships with good dealingss have more influence the better the dealingss, the more favourable the state of affairs.

2. Task structure- Is the undertaking structured or unstructured? Do employees execute modus operandi, unambiguous, standard undertaking that are easy understood? Leaderships in a structured state of affairs have more influence. The more structured the occupations are, the more favourable the state of affairs.

3. Position power- Is the place power strong or weak? Does the leader have the power to delegate work, wages, and penalize, engage and fire, and give rises or publicities? The leader with place power has more influence ; the more power, the more favourable the state of affairs ( Lussier. 2001, p.237 ) .


Peoples oriented leading stress interpersonal relationships with followings. This type of leading is concerned with the demands of employees. Interactions are characterized as supportive, friendly, and swearing. Besides, this sort of leading is sensitive to feelings and concerns for employees. Task oriented leaders have a inclination to stress the undertaking or proficient facets of the occupation. This sort of leading is more concerned with doing certain employees know what is expected of them and supplying counsel for the ends to be met. Harmonizing to this type of leading, employees are a agency to an terminal. In order to accomplish ends, employees have to make their occupations. Undertaking oriented leaders are happy every bit long as employees do their occupations. Mentioning to a production-oriented individual as a leader is a misnomer. In a sense, this person does non take, but merely ensures conformity with ordinances, production ends, and province regulations.


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