evaluation of the proposed remedy to the current situation Essay

Mauritius and India foremost signed a Double Tax Agreement Treaty ( DTAT ) in 1983. The primary intent of this proviso was that the capital additions obtained by selling securities in India would non taxed for Mauritanian occupants in India.1 This understanding provides revenue enhancement free benefits on capitals additions for investings if routed via Mauritius. The authorities of Mauritius put an terminal to the capital additions revenue enhancement so that Mauritian-based foreign institutional investors ( FIIs ) would non be taxed when they invest in India.1 As such, Mauritius has made the most foreign direct investing in India, with 44 % of the entire FDI in India transacted through the island during the interval of 2000 and 2009.3 Investors are utilizing the Mauritius path to put in India to avoid revenue enhancement with allegations that abroad corporations are doing usage of ‘notional occupant license ‘ in Mauritius to hedge revenue enhancements in India.1

States normally agree such pacts so that persons and companies, with multi-national concerns, are non apt to dual revenue enhancement on the same income in the state of beginning and the operating 1. However, job comes up when such pacts are misinterpreted by revenue enhancement governments or such bilateral understanding are signed with offshore finance Centres such as Mauritius, non bear downing important income revenue enhancement on domestic offshore houses which accordingly provides a way for concerns to hedge revenue enhancements or paying merely nominal taxes.1

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The root of this issue is that assorted alleged FIIs are, in fact, merely Indian companies or persons making the procedure of ’round-tripping ‘ through Mauritius so as to put revenue enhancement free back in India.1 Nevertheless, amending the pact would merely travel the financess to other legal powers such as Bahamas or Netherlands.

The Resident of Mauritius standard

To be entitled to the benefits of India-Mauritius Treaty, one has met the standards of being a occupant of Mauritius. The authorities of Mauritius were able to more steadfastly implement this nucleus requirement under its domestic jurisprudence for companies. The Central Board of Direct Taxes ( CBDT ) late announced that a Certificate of Residence issued by the authorization of Mauritius will be plenty to turn out that a company is based in Mauritius.3

This proclamation created political confusion but the Indian Finance Ministry reckoned that any measure to revenue enhancement the FIIs with Mauritius base would do monolithic escapes, harm the stock market and harm India ‘s glowing image. Thus the Indian Finance Ministry in coaction with the CBDT advised revenue enhancement functionaries to let the domestic enrollment of Mauritius based houses, despite being controlled from 3rd states, including India1.

The response from the Finance Ministry caused public involvement judicial proceeding ( PIL ) asseverating that the authorization may so be protecting revenue enhancement evaders by moving in favor of investors who are routing through Mauritius chiefly to hedge revenue enhancement. The Supreme Court considered the round as ‘bad in jurisprudence ‘ and gave the green visible radiation to revenue enhancement functionaries to analyze the veracity of corporations in their effort for being exempt from revenue enhancement charges under the DTAT.1

How did Mauritius go the preferable path for puting in India?

The 1983 Indo-Mauritius pact precised that any capital additions derived from the merchandising of securities of Indian Companies by Mauritius occupant would merely be nonexempt in Mauritius and non in India. For one decennary the dual revenue enhancement understanding pact merely existed on paper as the Foreign Institution Investors ( FIIs ) were non permitted to merchandise in Indian Stock market. However when the ordinance changed in 1992 leting FIIs to put in India, Mauritius in the same twelvemonth passed the Offshore Business Activities Act which enabled registrar of abroad companies for puting abroad.

The advantages of registering a company in Mauritius are as follows:

– Complete capital additions revenue enhancement freedom

– Rapid Incorporation

– Complete secretiveness of Business

– Complete Currency Convertibility


An option for India would be to modify its current domestic jurisprudence to one-sidedly call off out the consequence of the DTAT. The Direct Taxes Codes ( DTC ) Bill passed in 2009 is an effort to amend the revenue enhancement system in India. The proposals below in the DTC may likely impact on the operation of all the 75 revenue enhancement pacts of India3:

When there is bilateral understanding between the authorities of India and the authorities of another state, the existent Indian revenue enhancement jurisprudence grants revenue enhancement alleviation or if capable to dual revenue enhancement, a taxpayer eligible to the benefits of the pact, has the possibility to stay by the domestic revenue enhancement jurisprudence to the point to which it is advantageous for the taxpayer. Consequently, a non-resident taxpayer with income generated in India has the pick to be ruled by either the Indian domestic revenue enhancement jurisprudence or the relevant revenue enhancement pact, whichever is more advantageous to the taxpayer.

The DTC besides enables the cardinal authorities to come to an understanding with another authorities to avoid dual revenue enhancement and for the motivation of interchanging information to forestall income revenue enhancement equivocation or turning away. The DTC, however, provinces that neither the pact understanding nor the codification will hold favoured intervention based on its being a pact or jurisprudence and if there is a divergency between the commissariats of a pact and that of the codification, the one later in clip will be applicable. This is so a major alteration from current ordinances. India, holding revenue enhancement pacts with 75 states, enacted the DTC in 2010 and will be in for on 1 April 2011, which would impact all its revenue enhancement pacts including that with Mauritius. Implying that after the 1st April 2011, Mauritius-based Company reassigning portions of an Indian company would be apt for revenue enhancement in India without any freedom from the pact.

It is deserving observing that the revised bill of exchange codification encloses the general anti-avoidance regulation ( GAAR ) .

The GAAR would merely be activated if the taxpayer has entered into an agreement covered by one the undermentioned conditions4:

-The chief intent was to obtain revenue enhancement benefits

-characterise abuse or maltreatment of the commissariats of the DTC

-lacks commercial substance

-entered into or carried out in a mode non usually employed for bona fide concern intents

-not created between individual covering at arm ‘s length

India ‘s Revenue Authority would measure and declare whether an agreement is a allowable or impermissible turning away agreement. If declared impermissible, the revenue enhancement functionary could ignore the revenue enhancement pact every bit good as the intermediary retention corporation and later revenue enhancement the income belonging to the parent company. For illustration, an agreement would be seemingly to hold been gone through chiefly to be exempted of revenue enhancement and the hurdle of the taxpayer is to turn out that the chief intent of the agreement was non to obtain revenue enhancement benefits. Notably, the GAAR proviso would non be concerned with, and could overturn, the revenue enhancement pacts commissariats.

If the Direct Tax Code is enforced, investors utilizing the Mauritius path to put in India would happen themselves in a complex state of affairs as depending on the nature of their concern, the new codification may predominate over the Bilateral Tax Treaty. The ability to show to satisfactory degree to the Indian Revenue Authority that the implicit in agreement is employed for bona fide concern intents and is a allowable turning away agreement would be a cardinal factor to obtain revenue enhancement alleviation.

3. The footings enclosed in Section 5 ( 1 ) of the Direct Tax Code states the followers: “ The Income shall be deemed to accrue in India, if it accrues, whether straight or indirectly, through or from2:

( a ) a concern connexion in India ;

( B ) a belongings in India ;

( degree Celsius ) an plus or beginning of income in India ; or

( vitamin D ) the transportation, straight or indirectly, of a capital plus situated in India.

( vitamin D ) the transportation, straight or indirectly, of a capital plus situated in India.

The interpolation of the word “ indirectly ” in the current footings of the Income Tax Act 1961 is an attempt from the authorization to capture the “ indirect transportation ” of assets financess located in India. However, the undermentioned treatment will demo that changing the current commissariats of subdivision 5 ( 1 ) ( vitamin D ) of the revenue enhancement Code to bridge the spread in the Act will non be the right manner to proceed2.

See this simple and familiar keeping construction of a company2:

( a ) Company A, a French-based corporation, has the to the full ownership of a subordinate in Hong Kong, S1

( B ) S1 has a full ownership of a subordinate in Mauritius, S2

( degree Celsius ) S2 possesses 51 % portions in an Indian Company X, with two Indian companies keeping the remainder of the portions

( vitamin D ) Company X has full-ownership of a assorted subordinates in India.

Suppose that Company A sell some of his portion in S1 at a addition to another Gallic Company B. Tax-wise, there will be three concerns from this dealing, viz. :

The apt indictable disbursal of the capital additions

The accounting computation of the capital addition

The grosss of revenue enhancement on capital additions

The first issue in this instance is “ placing assets located in India ” , that to find whether we are reassigning the assets of Company X or the portions of Company X or the assets the Company X ‘s subordinates. Legally, a company ‘s stockholder has no control over the company ‘s assets and one good ground for this regulation is that gauging the costs and net incomes of portions is non treated the same manner for physical assets.

The 2nd issue is to detect whether taxing Company A or even Company B would be “ just ” , furthermore, had S2 shifted its 51 per centum of Company X, based on the Indo-Mauritius Treaty, capital additions revenue enhancement would non be indictable. To endorse this point, we can mention to the instance of E-trade by stretching on the finding of fact of the Supreme Court in the Azadi Bachao Andolan Case where the Authority for Advance Rulings confirmed the Treaty place.

The 3rd issue, Section 5 ( 1 ) ( vitamin D ) of the Code would necessitate the corporate head covering to be taken off at each phase get downing from the subordinates of Company X to Company A, which to my head is really improbable as per bing jurisprudence. The remotion of the corporate head covering is merely allowed by the Case Law in limited fortunes.

The head covering will be lifted if the construction is a “ Deceitful ” but without grounds of the antonym, the company ‘s retention construction does non stand for a “ fake ” ( Upheld in instance KSPG Netherlands Holding B.V. ) .

The 4th issue is that the Code does non come with a procedure mapping explicating how the additions on the “ indirectly transferred financess ” would be computed, particularly when there is no method of calculating the “ cost ” of the “ plus ” and hence creates the inability to calculate the “ nonexempt net income ” ( Decision upheld in CIT v. B.C.Srinivasa Setty 128 ITR 294 ) . This issue would be more apparent had S2 held more portions in corporation based in states other than India and the purchase monetary value could non, as one would anticipate, delegate a value to each entity.

Assuming that Company A ‘s capital additions are nonexempt in India, the job that comes up for the Revenue Authority is how to acquire the grosss of the capital additions revenue enhancement from Company A, which does non hold any assets in India. Collection of the revenue enhancement gross from Company A would non be possible and nor is the revenue enhancement collectible from Company X without any commissariats of this affair in the Act. The lone resort left for the Revenue Authority is to prosecute Company B B u/s 201 of the Act for neglecting to deduct revenue enhancement when paying Company A and keep it to be an assessee deemed in default. Again, as Company B has its assets outside India, this would be hard.

The above treatment shows that the commissariats made on the Section ( 1 ) ( vitamin D ) of the Direct Tax Code are ill-defined and besides deserving mentioning is that the above statements are merely some of the delicate concerns involve in the proposed Code. It is really likely that these commissariats will do hurtful consequence on the foreign investing flow in India.

CAN Be Included! !

Can we, hence, learn from the attempts of some other states in this way?

Indonesia has late introduced a jurisprudence to revenue enhancement capital additions originating from the sale of portions in a foreign revenue enhancement oasis state which holds portions in an Indonesian company by specifically supplying that such a sale will be deemed as a sale/transfer of portions in an Indonesian Company and that the capital additions will be deemed to be 25 % of the merchandising monetary value. The keep backing revenue enhancement will be 20 % or in other words 5 % of the merchandising monetary value.

The scope of the recent Indonesian statute law in this respect is prospective and clearly defined and it does non use to foreign companies resident in states with which Indonesia has DTAAs but simply applies to sale of portions of the company in the revenue enhancement haven state.

A comprehensive relook on the issue is, hence, required maintaining a balance between the desire of the Revenue governments in India to revenue enhancement the minutess under consideration on one manus and the international patterns including the economic facets on the other manus. If India wishes to stay an attractive finish for foreign investing, it must guarantee its revenue enhancement Torahs are crystal clear and make non take to drawn-out differences between sellers, acquirers and the Tax Authorities.


The High Court of Mumbai ‘s finding of fact was that Vodafone International Holdings B.V, a Holland subordinate of Vodafone Group PLC, was responsible to subtract Indian capital additions revenue enhancement for the dealing affecting the acquisition of 67 per centum of Hutchison Essar, an Indian Mobile phones operator, in 2007. Hutchison Essar was a subordinate of a Cayman Islands company, Hutchison Telecommunication International Ltd. 5

Interestingly, the Indian Tax Authority stated that India had revenue enhancement claims right over an acquisition completed to the full outside of India between non-Indian companies. Following this statement, the Indian revenue enhancement authorization could hold right on trades effected outside of India, but refering indirect transportations of involvements in Indian entities.5

Holland-based Vodafone International Holdings BV acquired Cayman Islands CGP investings from Hutchison Telecommunication International Ltd. CGP investings involve assorted Mauritian and BVI subordinates which wholly held 67 per centum retentions in Hutchison Essar Limited6. The Tax Department of India claimed that the acquisition of CGP investings constituted the transportation of underlying Indian assets, Holland-based Vodafone subordinate was apt to subtract the Indian capital additions revenue enhancement of around $ 2.1 billion from the payment of $ 11 billion to Hutchison. 7


The statement of Vodafone was that if the stocks of the underlying Mauritius-based companies were sold in India, the bilateral pact would hold given capital addition revenue enhancement relief.6 Even though, the High Court of Mumbai reckoned that the intermediate subordinates in concurrence with the Cayman mark and Hutcheson Essar were incorporated in Mauritius, had a valid Certificate of Resident of Mauritius, the standards to acquire Indian capital addition revenue enhancement alleviation under the indo-Mauritius Tax Treaty, the High Court initiated continuing against Vodafone.6

After the High Court analysed the facts of the instance in deep, discussed due diligence papers, interim and concluding one-year study and regulative revelations, they observed that the operation comprised the transportation of few rights and entitlements other than the shareholding in the Cayman entity entirely. These encompassed a premium for more control on the cellular sector, the Hutch trade name ‘s right in India, a non-competition with the Hutch group agreement, the handover of intra-group loan duties and some option rights on specific Indian entities. These facts showed that Vodafone had “ important link ” with India and plenty for the High Court to take actions against Vodafone.7

IPL and Mauritius connexion

Indian Premier League ( IPL ) has built-up into a immense $ 4 billion large money bundle of patrons, Television rights and other franchises, charges and other returns. Recently, many IPL activities have been suspected to be unscrupulous, bastard and even illegal. Politicians and others are alleged to be making the pattern, called round-tripping, of change overing their black money into legal money via Mauritius and other legal powers, even though officially recognised, have secrecy of their individualities through shell companies and “ benami ” ( False ) names. There have been claims about lucifer repair and repair of commands for squad franchises every bit good as payoffs, revenue enhancement equivocation, illicit betting and misdemeanor of foreign investing rules.9

Tax functionaries ordered the Board of Control for Cricket in India ( BCCI ) to let go of the IPL ‘s balance sheet, the ownership and keeping construction of franchisees and their understanding with IPL. Failure to make so, the revenue enhancement functionary would so hold resort to the lifting of the corporate head covering and track down information from the registered companies ‘ state, which in many instances is found to be Mauritius. There is a job when Indian investors route their investings through Mauritius for money laundering intents. The Indo-Mauritius revenue enhancement pact includes the proviso on exchange of information which revenue enhancement functionaries will utilize to obtain information on the Mauritius-based companies ‘ ownership. However, there will be a legal processs taking topographic point before the banking information is divulged to another country.8

The dealing may non be every bit simple if taxpayers have been leaping legal powers to hide their individuality and beginnings of financess. For illustration, Tax functionaries may be forced to look non merely in Mauritius to follow the beginning of fund if the Mauritius-based company borrowed fund from entity from another legal powers such as Cayman Islands or Bermuda, two states where India does non hold revenue enhancement information exchange understanding. However, after the G20 acme, Tax oasiss have agreed to use the exchange of information understandings in conformity to the criterions set by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) . Bank secretiveness will no longer predominate and refusal to unwrap the inside informations on the home-based companies can do the state black-listed for harmful revenue enhancement practices.8

Indian TAX SOLUTIONS ( 2010 ) INDO-MAURITIUS DOUBLE TAXATION AVOIDANCE TREATY [ ONLINE ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //indiantaxsolutions.com/old_site/main.php? t=28011995 & A ; d=1159080586 [ Accessed 15.11.2010 ]

BUSINESS STANDARD ( MAY 2010 ) DIRECT TAXES CODES: A WILD GOOSE CHASE TAXING OFFSHORE TRANSACTIONS? [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.business-standard.com/india/news/direct-taxes-codewild-goose-chase-taxing-offshore-transactions/395845/ [ Accessed 15.11.2010 ]

Tax Ratess ( SEP 2009 ) MAURITIUS Tax: WILLTHE MAURITIUS ROUTE BE BLOCKED AFTER INDIA ‘S NEW DRAFT DIRECT TAXES CODE? [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.taxrates.cc/html/0909-india-direct-taxes-code.html [ Accessed 16.11.2010 ]

CONYERS DILL & A ; PEARMAN ( Oct 2010 ) INDIA ‘S DIRECT TAX CODE [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.conyersdill.com/publication-files/178_10_10_29_India_Direct_Tax_Code_THE_LAWYER.pdf [ Accessed 16.11.2010 ]

DLA PIPER ( SEP 2010 ) Vodafone Essar: International tendency of taxing indirect transportations by non-resident continues [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dlapiper.com/vodafone-essar-international-trend-of-taxing-indirect-transfers-by-nonresidents-continues/ [ Accessed 30.01.2011 ]

Finance 3.0 ( SEP 2010 ) Vodafone Decision: All is Not Lost, Possibly Nothing [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.finance30.com/forum/topics/vodafone-decision-all-is-not [ Accessed 30.01.2011 ]

THE ECONOMIC TIMES ( AUG 2010 ) Hearing on Vodafone revenue enhancement supplication ends [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/telecom/Hearing-on-Vodafone-tax-plea-ends/articleshow/6333239.cms [ Accessed 30.01.2011 ]

THE ECONOMIC TIMES ( APRIL 2010 ) IPL ‘S DECEPTIVE MONEY TRAIL [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //economictimes.indiatimes.com/opinion/policy/ipls-deceptive-money-trail/articleshow/5870218.cms [ Accessed 30.01.2011 ]

FINANCIAL TIMES ( APRIL 2010 ) INDIA ‘S SCAM-RIDDEN IPL IS A NATIONAL CELEBRATION [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ft.com/cms/s/0/48f5cc8c-51bd-11df-a2a2-00144feab49a.html # axzz1BbDPns8z [ Accessed 30.01.2011 ]


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