EVR chapter 4

Lionfish are native to the tropical Pacific. There are no natural water routes of warm water between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Why do we classify lionfish populations near the eastern United States as an invasive species? What suggests that these new populations are not an expansion of the lionfish’s natural range?
There will be fewer algae eating fish. More algae will grow over and damage corals.
Based upon what we are learning about the lionfish diet, what is most likely going to happen to Caribbean coral reefs invaded by lionfish?
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A single lionfish female may produce up to 2 million eggs a year. The eggs float for up to a month, spreading the lionfish populations.
What characteristics of lionfish contribute to their ability to spread and become established in new areas?
Biologists examined the contents of the stomachs of lionfish caught in the wild.
How did the fish biologists determine the diet of lionfish in the regions where the lionfish have invaded?
How did the fish biologists determine the diet of lionfish in the regions where the lionfish have invaded?
cannot be eliminated by any means currently known
Based upon what we are learning about invasive lionfish populations in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the United States, these lionfish populations __________.
Chaparral has a climate most similar to ________
____ are secondary consumers
Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level.
not 100
10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer.
This cold, dry biome is populated by lichens and shrubs that can survive great seasonal variations in sunlight and temperature
. In this hot, dry biome, populations of zebras, gazelles, and giraffes are concentrated around widely spaced watering holes
temperate grassland
Also called steppe or prairie, this biome has been extensively developed for agricultural use due to its nutrient-rich soils
tropical rainforest
Despite having lush vegetation and diverse biological communities, the soil in this biome has low nutrient content and cannot support long-term agriculture
This is the driest biome, where many plants have water-conserving features such as thick leaves and needles
temperate deciduous forest
This biome is characterized by broad-leaved trees that lose their leaves each fall and remain dormant during winter
secondary consumers
zooplankton eating fish are ___
a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
lichens and mosses
The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be:
Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession?
Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession?
temperature and rainfall
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
This cold, dry biome is populated by lichens and shrubs that can survive great seasonal variations in sunlight and temperature
which of these biomes is characterized by very little rainfall
coniferous forest
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
tropical rainforest
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
Many wild orchids cannot be successfully dug up and transplanted because they need the native mycorrhizae (a fungus) in the soil to survive. What kind of interaction is this?
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a ________ association.
imagine a large state park near your home. Which of the following are probably the most crucial and essential part of that park’s ecosystem?
All of the listed responses would be expected to occur within this patch of soil.
Imagine a square meter of leafy forest soil underneath an oak or maple tree. Which of the following is likely to exist within this patch of soil?
bacterial cells
After examining every single cell in your body, you would conclude that humans are made up mostly of __________.
Which of the following are probably the most abundant but least understood of all forms of life on Earth?
What kind of relationship exists between multiple organisms who seek the same limited resource?
they eat only tamarisk leaves
Which of the following is true regarding tamarisk beetles?
colorado river
Your uncle works for the Central Arizona Project. Levels of which of the following rivers will be of his highest concern?
United States Department of Agriculture
You are an Arizona landowner with questions regarding the tamarisk beetle introduction and wish to contact the federal agency in charge of the project that brought them to the U.S. Who should you contact?
douse the area with herbasides
You live in Arizona and remove a stretch of tamarisk trees on your property. Which of the following should you do to best increase the chances of keeping the tree at bay?
You live in Arizona and remove a stretch of tamarisk trees on your property. Which of the following should you do to best increase the chances of keeping the tree at bay?
open water
open water
scientific method zooplankton question
A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.
Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?
tropical rainforest
____ terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity.
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are __
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are __
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
secondary consumer
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
primary consumer
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____
tertiary consumer
A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____.
include introducing predators and diseases
techniques to eradicate zebra mussels ________.
Suppose that a system has 5000 grasshoppers. How many hawks would be expected?
herbivory, predation, parasitism
How is energy transferred from one trophic level to the next? Select all that apply.
temperate deciduous forest
Describes biome in the eastern United States, north central Europe, and eastern China; characterized by stable precipitation and seasonal temperature variation
temperate grassland
Describes the region west of the Mississippi River; characterized by limited precipitation, thick organic soils and extreme temperature variation in winter and summer
temperate rainforest
Describes the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Nagasaki, Japan; characterized by heavy rainfall and relatively stable temperatures
Describes the terrestrial biome bordering the Mediterranean Sea; characterized by wet winters and warm dry summers
tropical dry forest
Describes an equatorial zone with moderate precipitation that fluctuates seasonally; characterized by warm temperatures year round
Describes Cairo, Egypt, and northwest Mexico; characterized by sparse rainfall and much variation in temperature
primary consumers
________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.
________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest.
in the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985.
If the actual increase in total sea otters was 1,400 individuals between 1985 and 2005, how many new sea otters were added to the population (on average) each year?
increased by approximately 100%
Between the years of 1985 and 2005 the total number of sea otters:
Sea otter populations would increase.
In 1991, scientist James Estes and his team observed a new trend of orcas preying on sea otters. Orcas normally prey on great whales, but those populations had been dramatically reduced by industrial whaling. Estes hypothesized that the decrease in the great whale population had caused orcas to turn to smaller prey — sea otters. If this hypothesis is correct, predict what might happen to sea otter numbers if great whale population numbers increase.
Sea urchins increase and kelp decreases.
Regions with otters tend to host dense forests of kelp, a brown seaweed that anchors to the seafloor. Kelp forests provide a physical structure in which diverse marine communities find shelter and food. Sea otters prey on urchins, which consume kelp. According to James Estes, sea otter populations have dropped dramatically in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. If sea otter populations in these areas continue to decline, what might happen with populations of sea urchins and kelp?
resource partitioning
Two species of lizard live on the same tree and consume the same sorts of food. Regardless, neither species is in direct competition with the other. The key to this scenario is that one of the species is nocturnal; the other is diurnal. What is this called?
How much energy is available to the third trophic level, a secondary consumer, if its prey in the second trophic level, a primary consumer, is only able to obtain 10% of the available energy of the first trophic level?
temperate rainforest
Which of the following biomes has the most annual rainfall
primary sucession
If the climate warms significantly, tundra permafrost may melt, exposing underlying rock. This may next lead to ________ in the community.
Parasites rarely kill their host, while predators kill their prey.
How does predation differ from parasitism?
How does predation differ from parasitism?
This biome often features wildfires due to extensive dry seasons.
matter and energy
What moves through the community from one trophic level to another as organisms feed on one another?
intraspecific competition
What kind of interaction occurs when two cardinals (birds of the same species) are trying to build a nest in the same tree?
Which continent contains the most desert shrub?
Tundra is often present in relatively warm regions of South America and Asia. What factor or factors are chiefly responsible for the presence of tundra in these regions?
Which climate type primarily borders arid lands (deserts)?
Which of the climates listed would contain the LEAST amount of biodiversity?

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