At the morning of this millenary, Milner ( 2003 ) concluded that motive continues to keep a important place in eyes of bookmans. It is a known fact that assorted organisations have resorted to different schemes to hike staff motive, make a comfy work environment and accordingly, addition end product.
Motivation can be analyzed from assorted positions but for the intent of this essay, it would be examined from a work related point of position. Work motive is a set of energetic forces that originate both within every bit good as beyond an person ‘s being, to originate work-related behavior and to find its signifier, way, strength, and continuance ( Pinder, 2005 ) . We can therefore truly infer that motive is a psychological procedure developing from contact between an person and his environment. To understand motive, one must understand the aspirations of a life being. Several motive theories have been proposed to explicate these human aspirations at different times and by diverse people.
Motivation theories are loosely divided into two but for this essay, two theories, one from each wide group has selected for analysis. They are ;
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory ( content theory ) and
Expectancy theory ( process theory )
They will be reviewed, evaluated and compared, foregrounding single strengths and restrictions. They besides would be used to find the extent to which they influence single motive of people in the work topographic point. Furthermore information collated from completed questionnaires by employees on what motivates them will be summarized and compared with the theory propositions to determine practical relevancy.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
An appropriate starting note would be replying the inquiry, ‘what is motive ‘ ? A suited definition would be ‘the cognitive decision-making procedure, through which purposive behavior is initiated, energized, directed and maintained ‘ ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski 2010, p. 267 ) . The demand to analyze motive, its stimulators and asphyxiators remain really critical. Its importance to directors can non be over emphatic. Understanding the construct of motive would fit directors with the right accomplishments to promote subsidiaries, accomplish organisational ends, addition end product and besides better their quality of life. Motivation is a combination of pick and purpose. It has come to a decision that persons dissent to their motivational province and the elements that influence it.
2.1 MOTIVATION THEORIES
Motivation theories are by and large categorized under two wide groups – content theory and procedure theory. Although there is no universally accepted theory that applies to everyone, each can assist in different work scenarios. An effort has been made to explicate the variableness noticed in the determinations people make about what they do at work, their committedness and the strength they utilize in accomplishing ends utilizing motivational theories.
Contented theories of motive inquiry the position that views motive in footings of persons ‘ ends. Examples of content theories include Herzberg ‘s Two-factor theory and Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory. While process theories view motive in footings of the determination doing procedure act uponing an person ‘s pick of ends. Examples are Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal Setting Theory.
Different content and procedure theories have been formulated holding specific application to motive with mention to work context.
2.1.1 Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Theory ( Content theory )
Harmonizing to R. Dailey ( 2008 ) , Maslow proposed that people are motivated by the yearning to satisfy peculiar demands. He went on to set up this needs in a given order get downing with the most basic demands which he called lower degree demands and lifting to the higher degree demands. He maintained that the lower degree demands must be majorly satisfied before higher degree demands and that a satisfied demand seizes to be a incentive.
Below are briefly described the different demands get downing with the lower degree demands.
Physiological Needs – these refer to basic demands required for endurance and they include nutrient, H2O, shelter, air. Some research workers have added money to this group reasoning that it has the capacity to supply some of the demands.
Security Needs – these joints to the general concern of an person to experience safe, stable and the absence of hurting in his environment both physically and psychologically.
Social & A ; Belongingness Needs – these refer to the desire for association, friendly relationship, love and being accepted by others as a consequence of interaction and association. Theoretically, people who reach this degree have chiefly satisfied physiological and safety demands and are now concerned with set uping fulfilling relationships. ( Hitt, Miller, and Colella, 2009 ) .
Esteem Needs – these refer to perceptual experiences of personal value as a consequence of esteem from fellow persons. When employees have attained a certain degree in the organisational hierarchy, they yearn for acknowledgment, celebrity and power owing to old accomplishments.
Self-actualization Needs – the demand for self-actualization sits at the top of Maslow ‘s hierarchy and few people are deemed to hold attained this degree. They are by and large driven by the desire to use their accomplishment and maximise their possible. They ever seek new land interrupting chances to convey into play their accomplishments which greatly motivate them.
Some other factors were originally included in Maslow ‘s demands but have been omitted by subsequent research workers. They are
To cognize and to understand
Freedom of question and look
They come in this order severally between esteem demands and self-actualization demands. Harmonizing to Maslow, the most powerful manner of actuating persons is by proviso of their primary demands which is the lowest unsated demand ( Gordon, 1996 ) .
2.2 Expectancy Theory ( Process theory )
Peoples are motivated to work or affect in a procedure merely when they are assured of or perceive personal benefit. The procedure through which outcomes become desirable is explained by the anticipation theory ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski, 2010 ) .
This theory therefore goes along to turn out that we act in manners that facilitate the achievement of apprehended ends. It helps in explicating employee behaviors ‘ associating to issues such as calling pick, public presentation, fall ining a new organisation, absenteeism, turnover and leading effectivity ( Dailey, 2008 ) .
Expectancy theory was stated as a map of three constructs: valency, instrumentality and anticipation.
Mathematically, it can be expressed as
Motivation = V x I x E ( Valence x Instrumentality x Expectancy )
If any of the values has zero value, so accordingly, motive is zero.
Valence can be said to be personal value placed on a wages or the sensed value of an result. Since it is subjective, that means valency comes across to assorted people in different ways. Employees ascribe valencies to specific results and they can be either negative or positive. A negative valency can be linked to unwanted results and accordingly makes employee exhibit turning away behavior.
Instrumentality is the personal belief that good public presentation would bring forth valued wagess. It can besides be positive or negative. While positive instrumentality refers to the employee belief that good public presentation would take to coveted wagess, negative instrumentality means the antonym.
Anticipation is the personal belief that attempt would take to good public presentation. When employees decide to give clip and energy to a occupation, they expect positive results. Contrastingly, there would be no sensed attempt if the employee believes that it would non convey approximately positive public presentation. It is besides notable that public presentation feedback would hike attempt.
Diagrammatically, anticipation theory can be summarized by the figure below.
Motivational Force = Effort Performance Outcome 1 V1
Outcome 2 V2
Outcome 3 V3
E = Expectancy I = Instrumentality V = Valence
1 = Not valued at all 2 = Not strongly valued 3 = Strongly valued
Fig 1.0: Anticipation Theory Model
2.3 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
The strengths and failings of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory and the Expectancy theory have been summarized in the tabular arraies below.
MASLOW ‘S Theory
Shows the kernel of confer withing with employees and giving them a sense of belonging within the company.
Strong empirical support.
Shows a simple, sensible description of human behavior.
Reflects importance of consistent wagess.
It still remains really influential
Recognizes single differences.
Encourages employee calling development.
Provides explicit ways to increase employee motive.
MASLOW ‘S Theory
Lacks empirical cogency.
Using the constituents separately can non strongly predict motive.
Focused merely on positive growing without reflecting the possibility of a backsliding in persons.
Assumes behaviour is rational.
Does non keep universally
Predictive power depression for unsure environments.
Does non take single differences into consideration.
Questionable position of worlds.
3.0 DATA ANALYSIS
Those selected for the study cut across multicultural backgrounds, different sorts of occupations runing from white neckband occupations to ordinary occupations and different organisational degrees – directors and subsidiaries. The inquiries were carefully selected to turn out or confute the cogency of the theories. ( See attached questionnaire in Appendix 1 ) .
Get downing with Maslow ‘s theory, the consequence of physiological demands was doubtless reflected in the study. 80 % strongly agreed that the absence of physiological demands would adversely impact their motive. Another issue is the contention over societal demands. While 40 % strongly accept the demand to be socially accepted, a close 30 % argue that the demand to be accepted would non hold any inauspicious on their end product non because they lack emotions but owing to the nature of their work e.g. scientific research. Some others strongly underplayed the consequence of societal demands claiming that they boosted their ego assurance by themselves and did non necessitate to be accepted to be motivated which contradicts Maslow ‘s theory. The consequence besides shows a really strong point that cut across the full respondents which is the consequence of wage.
The study consequences are summarized in the figure below.
Fig 3.0 MASLOW ‘S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY ANALYSIS
For the anticipation theory, the constituents – instrumentality, valency and anticipation were by and large accepted though the per centum for those that strongly agreed was non overpowering. 30 % strongly agreed to the influence of instrumentality, 30 % for valency and 40 % for anticipation. Worthy of note is the feedback factor whose importance is overpoweringly obvious from the figure below ( 80 % ) . But most interestingly is the fact that even though 80 % strongly subscribed to motive from a good wage cheque, a arresting 60 % agreed that they would accept a more interesting occupation for a wage cut ( inquiry 1 ) . A general sum-up of the study associating to the anticipation theory is shown in the figure below.
Fig 3.1 EXPECTANCY THEORY RESULT ANALYSIS
3.1 EVALUATION OF THEORIES
The replies to the questionnaire would look to bespeak that workers were non unusually convinced that good public presentation would take to valuable wagess which raise a strong concern about the motive of workers in today ‘s organisations. The statement is that if the employees do non see a clear tract from first-class public presentation to valued wagess, motive would be on the diminution with the effects clearly obvious.
Furthermore, 60 % of the respondents opted for a more interesting work with less wage. This shows a way to self-actualization and that more value placed on it. When the occupation is more interesting, that provides the employee with an ambiance to work his potencies trusting for a valued wages. This farther explains the construct of instrumentality because respondents placed more value on occupation satisfaction.
The last two inquiries were intended to acquire firsthand the sort of wagess that genuinely appeal to persons and to give them an chance to state what truly motivates them. 70 % of the respondents had fiscal wagess as their first pick and it was followed by acknowledgment with a close mark of 60 % .
This reflects Maslow ‘s societal and belonging ‘s demand and besides his regard needs on one manus and the valency constituent of the anticipation theory. This shows a relationship in both theories when compared.
Besides really outstanding was the feedback factor every bit portrayed by the two theories. Equally important was the pick of publicity and self-actualization as valuable wagess. Promotion as an illustration of instrumentality can besides hike esteem demands.
The study consequences highlighted show really close similarities between Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands and the Expectancy theory. Even though they were proposed by assorted people and ages ago, they have stood the trial of clip and are still really valuable today. The consequences besides prove that motive is dependent on the person and the environment.
3.2 PRACTICAL RELEVANCE
Most work topographic points run into the first two basic demands traveling by Maslow ‘s hierarchy needs theory. Employers meet physiological demands by paying rewards and wages which can supply nutrient and shelter. In most states, they are besides obligated by jurisprudence to run into the following degree of demands by supplying safe and unafraid work topographic points. To run into the following degree of demands, directors need to promote squad work. The work environment is a societal topographic point and at that squad spirit should be developed. Directors should travel a long manner to further socialisation and a sense of belonging through effectual internal communicating, societal assemblages, etc. If this is done, a better working environment would be created, societal demands provided and motive heading North.
An appropriate wages system is really indispensable and would travel a long manner to run into esteem demands.
Clear links should be made between attempts and ends and an assessment system which recognizes accomplishment utilizing valued wagess like wage rises, executive functionary autos and publicities should be put in topographic point. These things besides attach a position symbol to their office which promotes esteem. Obviously, the regard of people in diverse occupations is boosted in different ways. If directors possess the ability to measure and impart instrumentality justly, motive would be certainly achieved.
All direction policies that crack, resist, alter or crook instrumentalities should be looked into to avoid take downing employee attempt and public presentation.
Self-actualization, sitting on the top of Maslow ‘s hierarchy can be likened to valued honor – instrumentality in the anticipation theory and this would non instantly come to everybody as accomplishable through work but it really is. Directors should guarantee quality preparation and support so as to accomplish clear public presentation ends and supply an avenue to animate invention.
When employees are faced with ambitious ends and can see a clear way to positive instrumentality through anticipation so this aim is executable and personal growing achieved. On the contrary, self-actualization has been found to play a fringy function in some civilizations. Nipponese civilizations offer occupations for life which seem to run into merely physiological demands and publicities based on senior status which diminishes the yearning for self-actualization in the work topographic point. Besides in some extremely collectivized civilizations, efforts to be personally advanced may be deemed as aberrant ( Hofstede, 1991 ) .
The present survey efforts to crystallise certain factors which influence motive by analysing the relationship between employees, employers and the work environment. Both Maslow ‘s theory and Expectancy theory can explicate motive merely to a certain magnitude from assorted position points. Maslow ‘s theory proposes that persons are motivated based on thrusts and demands while anticipation theory postulates that picks are made based on how we make picks with regard to ends. The response from the questionnaires corroborated facets of both theories but highlighted the great importance of wage and feedback in act uponing motive. It is recommended that directors and employers pay great attending to these factors amongst the remainder.
As hinted antecedently, no theory can once and for all explicate the construct of motive. The relevancy of these theories can non be over emphatic or neglected. They have had a significant impact on directors straight and employers as a whole in assisting to happen out how and what to make to hike employee motive. In add-on, they have generated farther involvements in the country of specialisation.
The most important restriction to this study was the limitation to the figure of people surveyed and the trouble in converting unskilled workers to partake in the study.