Expectancy Theory Of Motivation Essay

Harmonizing to Steven McShane and Mary Von Glinow, motive is the forces within a individual that affect the way, strength, and continuity of voluntary behaviour. Motivated employees are willing to exercise a peculiar degree of attempt ( strength ), for a certain sum of clip ( continuity ), toward a peculiar end ( way ).

We will write a custom essay sample on
Expectancy Theory Of Motivation Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Goal is a cardinal factor direct employee contributes their attempt. The Company should do certain they are continually seting attempt until they reach the end. It is of import for a company to actuate employee. Their public presentation determines a company prosperity.

In today ‘s universe where everyone wants to be noticed and recognized for their work – employees are motivated to accomplish to stay relevant ( Glenn Liopis, 2012 ). The company should measure and understand what accomplishment are required by the employee and develop a traning plan to heighten their learn capablenesss.

There are many ways to actuate employee. It used to be thought that money was the best manner to actuate employees. ( A Lisa Quast,2011 ) Many companies increase employee motive by honoring them such as fillip, net income sharing, stock option and others. Beside wages, the director should pass on to employee on a regular basis so they are experiencing the undertaking is of import.


McDonald ‘s Corporation started in United States, in 1940 which started by Richard and Maurice McDonald. In 1948, the McDonald brothers reorganize the concern from barbeque eating house to a beefburger base. In 1955, a man of affairs Ray Kroc joined the company and purchased the concatenation.

McDonald is the universe ‘s largest concatenation of beefburger fast nutrient eating house and best known by its nutrient, quality, direction and selling scheme. This fast nutrient concatenation has 1000s of mercantile establishments around 119 states, functioning 68 million clients daily.

Most of the McDonald ‘s eating houses offer both antagonistic service and drive- through service which bring a batch of convenience for people like man of affairs. Other than that, McDonald introduced a cafe-style concomitant to McDonald ‘s eating houses which is McCafe. This construct is created by McDonald in Australia, foremost introduced in Melbourne in 1993. Today, there are more than 600 McCafe worldwide.

McDonald besides owned a Hamburger University, which designed to supply restaurant direction cognition for McDonald ‘s employees. Now, there are more than 80,000 eating houses directors, mid-managers and operators have graduated from this university. This installation was started in 1986, located in Oak Brook, Illinois, Chicago.

2.0 Contentss

2.1.1 Employee Battle

The definition of employee battle is the extent to which employees feel passionate about their occupations, are committed to the organisation, and put discretional attempt into their work. Employee battle is the employee ‘s emotional and cognitive motive, self-efficacy to execute the occupation, perceived lucidity of the organisation ‘s vision and his or her specific function in that vision, and belief that he or she has the resources to acquire the occupation done. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 )

Employee battle is different with employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction does non bespeak your employees ‘ degree of motive, engagement, or emotional committedness. It merely addresses how happy or content your employees are. However, employee battle is measured by utilizing an employee battle study for reference employees ‘ feel. Employee engagement studies have been developed specifically and statistically validated and comparable with other organisations for utile and effectual consequences.

There are two primary factors that drive employee battle. First, Engagement with The Organization measures how occupied employees are with the organisation as a whole, and by extension, how they feel about senior direction. Second. Battle with “ My Manager ” is a more specific step of how employees feel about their direct supervisors.

2.1.2 Employee Drives and Needs

Drives are ( besides called primary demands or innate motivations ) the hardwired features of the encephalon that right lacks or maintain an internal equilibrium by bring forthing emotions to stimulate persons. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 ) Needs refer to purposive forces that people experience. Needs are the emotional forces of emotions channeled toward peculiar ends to rectify lacks or instabilities. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 ) In order to actuate your employees, understanding some of the cardinal factors that motivate people can assist to happening the solutions.

One of the keys to actuate employees successfully is let employees willing and able to work. If they perform at their best, the productiveness will lift, nevertheless if they are bored or non interested in their work, employee motive beads. Therefore, your employees should merit their thrusts and demands.

2.1.3 Maslow ‘s Needs Hierarchy Theory

Harmonizing to Abraham Maslow, people are motivated by unmet demands. Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands explain and let us better understand how to actuate employees based on their different degree of demands.

There are 5 degrees of demands in this hierarchy. When a demand is satisfied, it no longer motivates and the following higher demand will take its topographic point. First, Psychological needs – these are your basic required to prolong life, like air, nutrient, H2O, and shelter. Second, Safety needs – if a individual feels that he or she is under physical or emotional injury, higher demands will non have more attending. For illustration, employees want to experience secure at work.

Following, Social needs – when a individual met the lower degree of demands, the higher needs become of import. Social demands are those related with other people such as demand for friends, need for belonging. And, employees the demand to experience accepted and portion of the group to be motivated. Forth, Esteem needs – are those related to self esteem such as societal acknowledgment, self respect and accomplishment. In an organisation, an employee demands for recognition and acknowledgment from others. Last, Self-actualization needs – are those the quest of making one ‘s full potency as a individual such as truth, justness, wisdom and significance. Those are the demand to develop to your fullest potency.

In theory, when actuating your employees it is of import to hold a good apprehension of what your demands are to better understand your employees.

2.1.4 Expectancy Theory of Motivation

TheA Expectancy theoryA provinces that employee ‘s motive is an result of how much an single wants a wages, the appraisal that the likeliness that the attempt will take to expected public presentation and the belief that the public presentation will take to honor. In short, ExpectancyA is the religion that great attempts will ensue in great public presentation. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as appropriate accomplishments for executing the occupation, handiness of right resources, handiness of important information and acquiring the needed support for finishing the occupation.

An person ‘s attempt degree depends on three factors: attempt to public presentation ( E-to -P ) anticipation, public presentation to outcome ( P-to-O ) anticipation and result valencies. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 ) Employee motive is influenced by all three constituents of the anticipation theory theoretical account. If any constituent weakens, motive weakens. E-to-P anticipation is the person ‘s perceptual experience that his or her attempt will ensue in a peculiar degree of public presentation. P-to-O anticipation is the sensed chance that a specific behaviour or public presentation degree will take to a peculiar result. A valency is the awaited satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an single feel toward an result. It ranges from negative to positive.

Advantages of the Expectancy Theory are it is based on self-interest person who want to accomplish maximal satisfaction and who wants to minimise dissatisfaction. This theory stresses upon the outlooks and perceptual experience ; what is existent and existent is immaterial. It emphasizes on wagess or pay-offs. It focuses on psychological extravagancy.

2.1.5 Goal Setting and Feedback

Goal scene is a normally used motivational method. A end can be defined as a hereafter province that an organisation strives to accomplish. Organization ends provide way and counsel, better planning, actuate employees and assist to command and measure public presentation. In add-on, it besides defined as the procedure of actuating employees and clear uping their function perceptual experiences by set uping public presentation aims. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 ) It potentially improves employee public presentation in two ways: 1 ) by magnifying the strength and continuity of attempt and 2 ) by giving employee clearer function perceptual experiences so that their attempt is channeled toward behaviours that will better work public presentation. ( McShane, S. L., & A ; Von Glinow, M.A.,2010 ) Goals required several specific characteristic which are ‘SMART ‘.

As for feedback, it is good because it allows employees to set and better their degree of attempt to accomplish ends. Feedback can be in the signifier of charts, graphs and runs. It besides provides employees with continued motive to accomplish their ends. Feedback should be specific, timely and relevant. Feedback can arise from nongregarious or societal beginnings.

2.2 Real-life Examples

2.2.1 Employee Battle

McDonald ‘s had won the HR Excellence Awards 2011 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hrmagazine.co.uk, 2011 ) – Outstanding Employee Engagement Strategy. As a fast nutrient concatenation, McDonald ‘s recognized that extremely skilled and extremely motivated work force was the anchor of a successful and customer-focused concern. However the company known the negative promotion would sometimes environ the trade name.Employees face ill will from people outside the concern, even if they enjoy their occupations

Lancaster University was brought in by the company to turn out a clear nexus between employee battle and concern growing – which it did. This scheme was launched to heighten employee satisfaction in the concern, better trade name perceptual experience, contribute to bettering concern public presentation and develop people.

The company was organized a campaign-‘Meet our people ‘, which look for the humanisation of staff in uniform and to observe and have a choice of the company ‘s staff.

The company invested in the well-being of its staff through an on-line well-being kit, it invested ?35 million in up-skilling and preparation for staff ( and published a prospectus detailing the assortment of makings, grades and work experience available for staff at the company ), and launched legion wages enterprises, including 100 free vacations and fillips for enigma shopper awards.

McDonald ‘s UK CEO Jill McDonald is actively involved in employee battle, driving the enterprises within the concern and publicly speaking about the work taking topographic point in the concatenation.

McDonald ‘s has set out on the route to turning around perceptual experience of its trade name and every battle determination it makes is straight related to its corporate ends. It reports 84.5 % of staff feel valued, 83.8 % feel proud to work at the eating house concatenation, and 83.5 % feel motivated. As a consequence, the company saw an extra 72 million clients in 2010, from the old twelvemonth.

2.2.2 Employee Drives and Needs

Their wage and wagess programme follows a “ wage for public presentation ” doctrine: The better your consequences, the greater your wage chances. Under this programme, there are five classs which are basal wage, short term inducements, long term inducements, acknowledgment programmes and company auto programme. With these five classs of wage and wagess, employees can bask the benefits and for certain they will make good in their occupations.

Other than that, under Investing in Your Future programme, there are net income sharing and nest eggs program, MCDirect portions, recognition brotherhood and fiscal planning services. With all these nest eggs and money direction programmes, current and future fiscal demands are taken attention of ; employees can hold peace in head for their fiscal position.

2.2.3 Maslow ‘s Needs Hierarchy Theory

McDonald ‘s supplying 25 different concern maps for the employees to seek for occupation chances, such as Administrative, Communications, Environmental Affairs, Insurance, Product Development and so on.

McDonald ‘s benefits and compensation programme is designed to pull, prosecute and retain gifted people who will present strong public presentation and assist the company achieve their concern ends and aims. Four classs are organized, such as Your Health and Protection, Your Pay and Rewards, Investing in Your Future and Helping Balance Your Work and Life. In these four classs, most of the demands of employees have been covered.

Mcdonald had fulfilled the 2nd degree of Maslow ‘s demand hierarchy. For the bulk of the employees the end is to fulfill their lower demands. Using Maslow ‘s hierarchy, the chief end is to supply the basic demands such as a safe environment where they can gain the money they needed to supply for their physiological needs.A McDonald ‘s provide a healthy and safe work environment for all employees. Their top precedence is to do safety a portion of everything they do. The company offered workplace safety plans in topographic point to guarantee that high safety criterions and processs are clearly communicated and reinforced daily. Employee have opportunity to place and describe any possible issues, and encouraged to offer suggestions to better wellness and safety. Employee are motivated because of the safety environment.

Besides that, Mcdonald ‘s besides concerned the societal demand of employees.Each individual at McDonald ‘s dramas an of import function. Crew and directors work together, invariably pass oning and back uping each other in a squad ambiance that is busy and ambitious, but ever aims to be co-operative and merriment. Employee have opportunity to gain friendly relationship while working in the company. The interesting people you ‘ll run into will guarantee you have a great clip at work. The company are besides offer societal activities, hence employee have opportunities to pass clip with your co-workers at particular company events such as summer field daies, vacation parties and other organized excursions.

2.2.4 Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Harmonizing to public presentation to outcome theory, McDonald ‘s in the manner that the directors tend to honor the employees with a basal wage plus an incentive wage. This practise within the company is called Target Incentive Plan ( TIP ) that “ links employees ‘ public presentation with the public presentation of the concern they support and their single public presentation ” ( Mcdonald ‘s, 2009b ). This provide illustrations of other employees whose good public presentation has result in higher wagess.

Mcdonald besides focuses on attempt to public presentation anticipations. It aim to increase the belief that employees are capable of executing the occupation successfully. Through the provided preparation, employees know what they are expected to make, cognize how to make and believe in themselves they can make it. McDonald ‘s are dedicated to giving their clients the best services. In order to make so, they have to supply preparation for all their employees. There are five types of preparation provided, such as crew development ( new hires, crew and crew trainers ), shift direction ( swing and director trainees ), system direction ( 2nd helper directors ), restaurant direction ( first helper directors ) and concern direction ( eating house directors ). Employees ‘ perceptual experience can be enhanced besides. The company has five outlooks to their employees, which are entire client satisfaction, teamwork, work criterions, cleanliness and occupation tantrum.

2.2.5 Goal Setting and Feedback

McDonald ‘s mission is to be their clients ‘ favourite topographic point and manner to eat with divine people who delight each client with odd quality, service, cleanliness and value every clip.

Plan to Win, a customer-focused program provides a common model for their worldwide concern and allows for local version. With the five elements – Peoples, Products, Place, Price and Promotion, they have enhanced the eating house experience for clients globally. As the feedback to this program, strong consequences have delivered to their stockholders.

McDonald ‘s directors have besides decided to alter the purposes and ends of the employees more frequently ( about every 6 months ), in order to do them develop flexibleness and get new accomplishments and abilities in diverse Fieldss. This attack is derived from the end puting theory of Bryan and Locke ( 1967 ), who argues that ends and public presentation aims are achieved faster when they are clear and specific. When the end is achieved, it must be moved frontward, therefore exciting the employee to execute even better, seting Forth the biggest attempt.

2.3 Problems encountered by the company by using the relevant OB rules & A ; constructs

2.3.1 Employee Battle

A If an organisation ‘s employees seem less-than-eager while on the occupation, you may hold an issue with employee low battle. Mc Donald is one of the typical organisations that apply employee battle scheme in its organisational direction. Harmonizing to a study conducted by Akron ‘s Centre for Organizational Research, low engaged employees tend to qualify the undermentioned component.

Dissatisfaction, which means that low battle employee, tends to be extremely dissatisfaction with their occupation. With low employee battle, employee ‘s ability to manage or digest economic uncertainness is minimum. Incompatibility is one of the elements of low employee battle, demoing that the employees are unable to convey a high degree of trueness, creativity and energy to their occupations. For illustration, Mc Donald employee would non be able to bring forth any new thought or convey up their best public presentation for their work if they are low engaged. Other than that, Employee good will is low both at the work and when they are off from work. In bend, it disallows employees to advance good will within and towards the organisation.

2.3.2 Employee thrusts and demands

Organization may neglect to use this theory as the thrusts and demand of single are different, organisation may non be able to understand all of the thrusts and demand of an person. For illustration, the ground for employee A to fall in a tour company is to bask the trip to other state or topographic points ; nevertheless, the ground for employee B to fall in the company is merely to gain more money. Therefore, company would non be able to standardise the motive system or wages as the thrust of each single employee is different.

To actuate employee is non an easy thing, as organisation may meet the job of employee are bore and non interested in their work. Employee ‘s personal demands may be different in different state of affairs, it is rather difficult to carry through employee demands in all clip and for all of the employee at the same clip. In decision, organisation have to analyze really good of the consumer ‘s thrust and demand in order to actuate them

2.3.4Maslow ‘s demands hierarchy theory

By using Maslow ‘s Theory, organisation may believe that they can actuate the employee by supplying them equal physical or psychological demands like money, fillip or publicity, self actualization ; they miss out the point that non all employees are governed by same set of demands. Every person has their ain idea and ain demand, one ‘s demand might non be applicable to another. For illustration, if a company puting a policy that an employee will acquire a fillip if they increase their ain gross revenues over 30 %, many of the employee will seek to be more persevering and work harder to accomplish the mark, nevertheless, some of the employee are satisfy with their paid at the minute and non willing to work harder for the company as they think that their physical demands already been fulfilled, so they wo n’t work harder for the organisation.

Different persons may be driven by different demands at the same point of clip. For case, as an creative person, even the basic demands are non satisfied, he will endeavor for acknowledgment and accomplishment instead than maintain trouble oneselfing his physical demands. As an organisation, it is difficult to observe each employee ‘s single demands, either physical or psychological. Further than that, single behavior seems to react to several demands, non merely one and there is a job in make up one’s minding when a degree has been really ‘satisfied ‘. In decision, Maslow ‘s theory is non suited to be widely used in the organisation presents.

2.3.5 Expectancy theory of motive

The anticipation theory seems to be idealistic because rather a few persons perceive high grade correlativity between public presentation and wagess. All of the employee have different thought and different attitude towards their, some of them may desire to acquire a higher degree in work, put in their attempt for it ; the other may non take their work earnestly and make non care about the organisation involvement. Furthermore, the application of this theory is limited as wages is non straight correlated with public presentation in many organisations, wagess may non needfully be straight connected to attempt and public presentation: in some companies wagess such as rises might be built into a contract or depend upon factors like instruction or specific occupation accomplishments. Therefore, it is a tough occupation to actuate employee as the wages system are non suited for every employee in the company. Therefore, this theory is more applicable to be applied to a smaller house or company, which the degree of the employee would non greatly differ with each other.

2.3.6 Goal scene and feedback

There are several jobs that an organisation may be encountered during the deduction of the theory. Goals that are non disputing but alternatively clip devouring do non impart good to end puting theory because workers will hold a difficult clip being motivated to make a good occupation on apparently undistinguished undertakings. Besides, end puting theory relies on wagess in order to maintain workers motivated, which might non ever be available to distribute. For illustration, when an organisation is confronting fiscal crisis, more employee ‘s attempt is decidedly needed to help the organisation to travel through the tough clip, nevertheless, if end puting theory has been apply in the organisation, employee would non be motivated if there is no end for wagess since the company already run out of money for giving excess wages to the employee.

A company proprietor or director demands feedback from a figure of cardinal parties However there are besides some disadvantages for the employee ‘s feedback. One downside of an employee feedback study is that the employer might non acquire accurate or wholly true replies intending that the reply is deficiency of truthfulness. Even if the employer promises namelessness, some workers may play it safe and avoid giving blunt sentiments about the work environment to avoid being penalized. As a consequence, giving a study could turn out to be a useless enterprise if it does n’t assist place existent job-related issues that directors must rectify. Some of the employee may be besides afraid of the organisation, hence return it with all good remark and non stating the truth. A portion from that, some employee can non understand the feedback questionnaire good, may be able to hold misinterpretation and give a hapless feedback or over complimented feedback. Organization will non be able to bring forth a good motive method if the collected informations are non fit the true idea of the employee.

Another possible disadvantage of giving employee feedback study is that the proprietor or director might non like the responses he gets. Geting blunt feedback from workers about direction or the overall ambiance of the company could even do some directors to distrust workers. If directors take the information excessively personally alternatively of taking the feedback as an chance for betterment, it could make a potentially hostile work environment.


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out