Explain Various Theories Of Motivation Commerce Essay

Motivation is the driving force behind an person ‘s actions. Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to take certain behaviors from among the many options open to them. The strength of motive varies from single to single. An single himself may see different degrees of motive at different state of affairss. Besides, an person could be motivated by different factors like occupation satisfaction, sense of achievement, interaction with clients and colleagues, something to make full their clip with activity, etc.


Organizations are driven by employees and a motivated employee is an plus to the organisation. Motivation is of import because of its significance as a determiner of public presentation and its intangible nature. In today ‘s of all time increasing competitory markets, keeping a extremely motivated undertaking force is one of the challenges that the modern director has to face.

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Marks & A ; Spencer is a good known concatenation of supermarkets with several mercantile establishments all over the universe. Recently there has been a sudden addition in employees ‘ absenteeism, extended interruption hours and a perceptible diminution in client service. The state of affairs is non out of manus but will shortly go if this tendency is non reversed. The direction has investigated the grounds for this behavior and found the grounds to be as under:

Due to recession, direction has taken the determination to close down several mercantile establishments in non-profitable locations. This has created a fear psychosis amongst employees.

Management besides has decided to cut down excess staff.

There have been several steps taken towards cost cutting – which included withdrawing of several benefits which employees used to bask before for illustration paid interruptions.

Due to these and many other factors employees are de motivated and loose involvement in working and functioning the clients decently.


Customers are kicking about hapless service and ill-mannered staff.

No. of footsteps in the shop has reduced thereby cut downing profitableness.

Employees ‘ attitude on the occupation is demoing negativeness

Employees ‘ public presentation is demoing a downward tendency in the company ‘s repute and gross revenues.

The theory of Motivation which I think is most applicable to the current state of affairs is Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Hierarchy.

Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands assumes that people are motivated to fulfill five degrees of demands:

Physiological, where Marks and Spencer should provides its employees basic necessities for populating like nutrient, shelter from the money they make working in the company and besides proper tiffin interruptions.

Safety, Marks and Spencer provides its employees a safe environment to work, medical insurance, occupation security etc.

Social Needs ( Love Belonging ) , where the company provides love, friendly relationship and belongingness to its employees.

Esteem, it includes internal and external where internal relates to self-esteem such as ego regard and external such as societal position and acknowledgment

Self-actualisation, it is the highest degree reached harmonizing to Maslow where many times 1s demands are ne’er fulfilled as 1s demands and outlook supports on increasing.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/ )

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( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cbc.ca/radio2/programs/maslow.png )

The hierarchal agreement suggests that the five degrees of demands are arranged in order of increasing importance, get downing with physiological demands. Harmonizing to the theory, when demands at one degree are satisfied, they are no longer incentives and the single “ moves up ” the hierarchy to fulfill demands at the following degree.


While concentrating on the bottom line is a primary concern of all concerns, it is really of import to besides retain the human capital of the constitution. Management can make so by merely acknowledging the assorted factors which motivate employees. Consequently direction can take determinations which will non merely satisfactory of employee.

Directors at Marks and Spencer should follow Maslow ‘s theory where one time the physiological demands are fulfilled so it moves to safety and so further and reaches its maximal degree at self-actualisation. This can actuate the employees to work better.


Though a really old theory used by many companies and the first motive theory, it is argued that in some work places the employees are sometimes non motivated in the hierarchal manner and sometimes safety comes foremost so physiological and is ever non followed in the same order.


Though there are some restrictions I believe that if the directors follow Maslow ‘s theory employees can be motivated which will assist Marks and Spencer to maximize its net incomes, keep clients happy and most of import maintain its employees happy who are the chief assets of the company.


STEREOTYPING ( Generalizing )

Pigeonholing agencies analyzing a fixed image about a certain group of people based on the race, coloring material, and faith without holding more cognition about the individual or community as a whole. Generalizing about people holding limited or no cognition about them can be deceptive and unjust some times. Assuming about people based on their race, coloring material, and faith can be unsafe. It can be both negative and positive but it is unjust to judge people without holding cognition about them is unjust all the times as human head can be complex all the times for illustration if at late dark we are walking in a alone street and we see two old work forces in coats and with sticks we will believe that we will be safe as we have a stereotype image that they will non do any job, adult females are chatty, all politicians are corrupt etc. Thus stereotype has really negative deductions on a race, faith, worlds etc.


I had been to US a nice and large state but when I use to run into people most of them believe we are from the 3rd universe state. One twenty-four hours I met a cat he was speaking all bad things about India and when he came to cognize that I am from India he started stating that you are besides from a 3rd universe state which has batch of poorness, corruptness to call a few as he had preset in his head about all American indians but when I explained him about the accomplishments India and Indians have made like traveling to daydream, turning economic system, 3rd largest ground forces in the universe, one of the largest Numberss of physicians, applied scientists etc he was shocked and so believed that India and Indians are non what he believed.


Halo consequence can be defined as holding a certain positive image of a individual or merchandise because of the inclination they believe that it good by non judging the negative things about the individual or merchandise. A common aura consequence illustration could be when Apple released IPod people that that its Mac book gross revenues would besides increase as IPod was selling good in the market but that dint go on, so we have a inclination to believe that if a certain merchandise of a company is good the other merchandise will besides be good without look intoing much about the other merchandise.


In the twelvemonth 2002 Pepsi released a new drink in India called Pepsi Blue, as Pepsi was at extremum with its Pepsi Cola, Miranda and other drinks which were making great. It released Pepsi Blue to hold a more market portion. Like most of the people I though since its other merchandises are good this 1 should besides be nice but had a really bad experience as it was excessively sweet and Pepsi had to retreat it in 2004 as it had batch of ailments about it.

Undertaking 2 ANSWER Angstrom

Give specific illustrations of the ways in which an administration of your pick has attempted to fulfill and or has failed to fulfill, duties or duties towards its stakeholders.

Every company has stakeholders whether internal or external. A company to be successful has to carry through the duty of its stakeholders as they may be straight or indirectly linked to it. A stakeholder could be described as a individual, administration, and group which can be affected by the administration actions.

In this assignment I would wish to take illustration of Tesco the administration I work for, how they are able to fulfill or hold failed to fulfill its duties or duties towards its stakeholders. Tesco the largest supermarket in UK and Northern Ireland is non merely in supermarket but in different types of concern besides like banking, finance, insurance to call a few and it becomes really hard to fulfill every stakeholder needs but it tries its best to accomplish that.

Stakeholders OF TESCO

Customers Tesco chief purpose is to sell its merchandises at low monetary value and maintain quality as it believes “ Every Little Helps ” , it does its best to fulfill its clients. Its celebrated nine card helps clients to acquire points whenever they shop which can be used to acquire hard currency verifiers at a ulterior phase after they accumulate points or they can purchase anything from the shop or online by utilizing those points, which motivates clients to shop from Tesco. For about every merchandise they have their value scope which the clients can purchase at inexpensive monetary value and good quality. It adapts to the local country wherever it opens shop for illustration if it opens a shop where many Asians live they would maintain nutrient points harmonizing to Asian gustatory sensation which make clients to come to Tesco and store. If a Customer is non happy with a merchandise he can interchange or acquire a refund for the merchandise. Customers can order most of the material online even food markets which makes easy for the client non to travel to the store and salvage clip.Fresh and best quality nutrient is available for the clients.

Employees They are the chief internal stakeholders of the company. Tesco does its best to maintain it Employees happy as without them it would be non possible for the company to run its concern. Below are some of the steps applied by Tesco to fulfill its employees

Equal wage for the same work done by employees.

Right for publicity for the suited campaigner. Tesco has an internal strategy called “ options ” where in a employee after being lasting in the company can fall in in “ options ” and acquire trained to be a Line Manager and so the director.

Every employee has a right to fall in the Union USDAW which they have tie up with for a nominal fees which they charge every month and any issue which the direction ca n’t work out the employee can near the Union which they will so look after. If an employee is sacked unlawfully or is injured at work they can near the Union who will make its best to give the justness.

If any employee is non happy with his line director and ca n’t acquire his job solved he can near his Personal director, who will look into the affair so.

No racial discrimination- Tesco makes certain that there is no racial favoritism and one can happen people from all races working in Tesco shops.

Proper Health and Safety regulations are followed in all Tesco shops.

10 % Discount Privilege card to employees after finishing 6 months in occupation.

These are some of the steps taken by Tesco to fulfill its employees and to do certain they are motivated in every manner the company can.

Stockholders, Government and Local Community Despite being recession Tesco has managed to do net income of ?3.13 billion lbs net income for the twelvemonth stoping April 2009 and fulfill all its stockholders. ( http: //www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/5192155/Tesco-posts-record-3bn-profit.html ) .

Tesco recycles most of its material like plastic, composition board and thereby assisting the environment, it donates money to assorted charity administrations for illustration every clip any one withdraws money from a hard currency machine at Tesco it will donate 0.0125p to Muscular Dystrophy Campaign. It invests batch in utilizing Green Technology at that place by cut downing CO2 emanations.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //tesco.muscular-dystrophy.org/get_involved/pop_it_in_your_trolley/809_cash_machines )

It is one of the largest private Employer and Tax Payer in the UK there by assisting the Government to raise revenue enhancement money.

Though Tesco tries it best to fulfill all its stakeholders but there are certain countries where it has failed to carry through its duties towards its stakeholders:

Some employees complain about excessively much work emphasis and deficit of employees because of which they have to work excess.

Sometimes no proper enlisting process is followed and many vacancies are filled by mentions from bing employees.

Tesco is been accused by Viva ( Vegetarians International voice for animate beings ) that it sends more than 5000 metric tons of fresh meat which has crossed it sell-by-date to National Grid to bring forth electricity for about 600 UK places which Tesco believes can assist to bring forth power but Viva believes that many people would be horrified by larning that the power they are utilizing is from meat, they argue that why in the first topographic point so many animate beings should be killed which increases the waste.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/epic/tsco/5979939/Tesco-criticised-by-vegetarians-for-using-waste-meat-to-generate-electricity.html ) .

Lot of Bakery and Fresh nutrient points are besides wasted because of surplus telling which is thrown off, where many people in the universe do n’t even hold one loaf of staff of life to eat every twenty-four hours.

Many merchandises are outsourced from China and other developing states to cut down cost but like many other companies Tesco is accused that the people doing these merchandises do n’t acquire proper wage, no proper working conditions and besides usage of kid labor in these states.

Some clients feel the monetary values are non as competitory compared to other supermarkets like ASDA and Sainsbury.

If Tesco wants to be figure one in the market it needs to undertake these jobs to do certain all its stakeholders are kept happy.

Undertaking 2

Answer B

“ To do the best usage of engineering, we must utilize it to back up and develop our concern, non adapt concern to engineering ” .

“ Technology should be our retainer and non our maestro ” .

Discuss the above statement with the aid of your ain personal experiences in this respect.

Technology has become a of import portion of the universe today, it has helped many administrations to be more successful in the market and it besides has changed their manner of advancing a concern since the engineering start to govern the concern universe.


Time could be easy saved by utilizing engineering in a concern.

Plants could be done easy and merely instead than composing it in manual an maintaining in a safe topographic point.

More secure to maintain all the paperss in the system so in a usual topographic point.

Could assist to turn our concern to its highest degree.

Make the concern more efficient for the clients and the


Initially in Tesco the largest supermarket in the UK there were merely manual check-out procedures when most of the times we have to stand in waiting line during busy times and people working at the check-out procedures use to scan points manually and function the clients but some clip back Tesco and other supermarkets introduced Self Checkouts where a individual has to himself scan the points he is purchasing and pay for the merchandise. Tesco has saved batch of money by presenting these egos check-out procedures by cut downing the figure of staff at the check-out procedures, but there are disadvantages to it besides.

Once when I was utilizing the ego check-out procedure, I has bought batch of bakeshop material as there was a party at my topographic point, there was one individual taking attention of 6 ego check-out procedures so any job a client was confronting he would assist them, job I face was as many of the in shop bakeshop material dint had barcodes it took clip to look for the points manually and was doing me impatient, the staff looking after ego check-out procedures came and helped me. It took approximately 10 proceedingss to unclutter everything which could hold been done in less than 5 proceedingss if person was making it manually. Many clients besides find it raging sometimes utilizing these ego check-out procedures at times.

Therefore engineering should be used to back up and develop the concern ; it should non be used as a tool to put off people. If used decently it can give maximal benefits.


About all companies have introduced voice acknowledgment client service to salvage costs where in the client calls the client service figure and has to talk consequently to take the right option which is so recognised by the system and the question is answered consequently.

Once I had to name Three Mobile for my measure query, it was so bothersome, even though I was talking clearly the voice acknowledgment system did non understand it clearly and I had to reiterate it two to three times and be on the phone for about 10 proceedingss before I could talk to person. It was truly thwarting utilizing their system.


Therefore earlier implementing any new system staff should be trained decently and client ‘s response should be taken into history and so merely Technology could give its best consequences. This clearly explains that “ Technology should be our retainer and non our Maestro ” .

Undertaking 3 Answer

With regard to the undermentioned theoretical account, analyse the organizational civilization of a planetary administration of your pick. Besides discuss the jobs faced by the directors in pull offing their diverse and multicultural work force.

The cultural web was developed by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes in 1992, provides an attack for looking at and altering an organisations civilization. Using it one can expose cultural premises and patterns and put to work different administration elements with one another with 1s scheme.

The cultural web consists of six different elements called the “ paradigm ” , the form of work environment they are Narratives, Rituals and Routines, Symbols, Organisational Culture, Control Systems and Power Culture.

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( hypertext transfer protocol: //changeworksblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/culturalweb.jpg )



It is what people speak about the concern and its repute in the market. Tesco is the largest supermarket in the UK. Customers know that they will acquire value for money when they buy merchandises in Tesco and besides acquire loyalty clubcard points when they shop at Tesco. Employees are besides happy for working with such a reputed company.

Rituals and Routines

In Tesco the staffs has to work together and describe to their line director and who in bend has to describe to his director. The clients know they are traveling to acquire good client service in Tesco. It is fundamentally the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours behavior of the staff and clients.

Power Structures

Power is distributed to assorted people harmonizing to the occupation for illustration a shop director in Tesco has the power to make the right thing for the shop which he needs to pass on to the caput in Tesco. Though there are some major determinations which are taken by the Chairman of Tesco and are communicated to different shops and section.


One can recognize Tesco symbol easy. Whenever we think if Tesco it will ever come in head their tag line “ Every Little Helps ” and one can be assured that Tesco will sell good quality material at sensible monetary value. Staff in Tesco ‘s demand to have on bluish or ruddy uniform with Tesco logo which is alone, so if any client demands help they know whom to inquire in the shop.

Control Systems

It is the manner of tracking the net income and other activities of the concern. In Tesco a employee after being lasting can travel for “ options ” wherein he will be trained to go a line director and so a Manager. Every employee is rewarded harmonizing to his public presentation.

Organizational Structure

Tesco is the largest supermarket in the UK and besides has shops in other states. It has got a matrix organizational construction where each section is given their ain work and who has to describe to their line directors and who in bend have to describe to their directors. For illustration as I work dark displacements in Tesco in Dairy subdivision, my line director delegate me a section which I need to finish and describe it to him and in the forenoon he has to describe to the twenty-four hours director who so reports to the Store Manager.


Tesco being the largest supermarket in the UK and one of the largest private employers, the directors can confront troubles in pull offing the multicultural work force they are as follows:

Ever single has different capablenesss, one can make a occupation fast where the other may take some more clip to finish the same undertaking. The director should cognize this and handle the staff consequently.

Persons from different race, faith, background should be treated consequently. For illustration during Ramadan Muslims need to interrupt their fast at a peculiar clip, so the director has to set their interruption clip consequently so they can interrupt their fast and if they need to pray a supplication room should be given to them.

If some employee has a difficult clip in understanding him he should inquire them and speak easy to do certain they have understood.

If there are any differences between employees he should seek to screen them out, actuate them and do them work in squads.

If a employee has a echt job and ca n’t come to work the director should understand it and happen a solution to it like displacement barter etc.


Therefore a good leading manner would assist the directors to pull off diverse and multicultural work force by making a friendly ambiance and actuating the employees in every possible mode.


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