Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Essay

A good wages system is needed to actuate employee of an organisation. The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors impacting nurses ‘ trueness and what increase the occupation satisfaction and motive of the nurses in Changi General Hospital Singapore. The impact of three dependent variables wagess, authorization and direction on the dependant variable nurses ‘ trueness is studied. The research conducted shows that there is a strong positive relationship between wagess and motive among the staff nurses. I postulate that a lessening in motive lessening occupation satisfaction and these do a lessening in nurses ‘ trueness. It was besides concluded that wagess have a greater impact on motive of nurses than seting work load and how they are manage. There are findings of important differences in comparing of agencies with regard to gender, age group, matrimonial position, working continuance, displacement work and salary.

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As we are populating in the twenty-first century criterions of life in Singapore have been increasing and once more looking at a nursing deficit. This is an immediate and ongoing concern this is besides the ground for taking nurses for this research as this profession is being accent and in demand. As the demand for more intensive and technologically advanced medical attention is needed for kids and our aging population, we will necessitate even more nurses, but we have lesser nurses come ining the work force since. Even when we have equal Numberss of nurses come ining the work force. We will still hold challenges enrolling nurses who want to work in needed specialised countries. Therefore it is necessary to keep a healthy sum of wellness attention supplier to prolong the quality of services provided. Good wellness attention suppliers should besides be recognised and be rewarded for their service, cognition and public presentation.

In many states we can easy happen a high turnover rate for registered nurses due to dissatisfaction in their occupation. Job satisfaction is in respect to one ‘s feeling or province of head sing the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a assortment of factors which are one ‘s relationship with their supervisor/management, the sum of work load tasked, grade of fulfillment in their work, the wagess that comes reasonably with the sum of attempt put in and more. Job satisfaction in staff nurses should be of great concern to any organisation. Nurses hold the bulk of places in most wellness attention scenes, and replacing of accredited forces is dearly-won and clip consuming. Therefore the with the current deficit of nurses and the expectancy of declining status there is a demand to analyze the beginnings of dissatisfaction in the wellness attention puting. I reviewed several beginnings and drew out pertinent information. Following the treatment of literature findings is a drumhead including suggestions for farther research.

Motivation is frequently regarded as the underlying cause of behavior as it arouses and directs attending and energy for behavior ( Franken, 2007 ; Petri & A ; Govern, 2004 ). It manifested in the pick or way, strength and continuity of behavior. For illustration, weather a staff nurse chooses to direct energy to assist or disregard a patient, how much attempt the nurse puts in to assist, and whether the nurse gives up when the state of affairs gets hard, reflect the motive of the staff nurse. Motivation is extremely dynamic and extremely situation-dependent. A nurse motive may alter after he/she has decided to assist the patient and there may be many factors that can impact the alteration and degree of motive. Some of these factors will be clearer wen the theories of motive are presented subsequently. In recent old ages, research workers have recognized the of import function of emotions and are analyzing its relationship to motive. Nevertheless, the theories still provide utile models and theoretical accounts for the direction to utilize when they manage their employees.

1.2 Objective

The basic aims of transporting out this research were ;

To analyze the nexus between motives and staff keeping

To reexamine and better occupation satisfactions

To supply recommendations to retain good performing artists

Literature Review

2.1 What is motive?

The most of import capital agreed by all in our modern concern universe is frequently considered to be the employees and they in bend need good direction. Good direction of employees accordingly can be translated as fulfilling employees who are motivated to execute in an up manner.

Psychologists have identified two wide classs of implicit in causes of human behavior, attack and avoidant. For attack causes, people are motivated to make things because of something they need or desire. Examples include nutrient, money and independency. For the avoidant causes, people are motivated to make to forestall, avoid or get away something. Examples include failure, a bad odor and disapproval from loved 1s.

Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2002 ) and Daft ( 2003 ) motive is made up of forces internal or external which direct the manner and continuity of action through enthusiasm. Harmonizing to Daft ( 2003 ), employee motive affects productiveness and accordingly profitableness of the company. Therefore, “ a director ‘s occupation is so to talk to impart motive towards he achievement of organizational ends ” ( Draft, 2003 p.546 ). Presently there are many motives theories, which may be used by employers in order to impact employees ‘ public presentation. Motivational theories are typically classified as “ content base ” and “ procedure base ” theories. The former focal points on the causes of behavior which have been labelled as “ demands ” and “ motivations ” have Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory ( 1943 ), McClelland ‘s acquired needs theory ( 1961 ) and Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory ( 2002 ) autumn under this class. The latter focal points on the procedure in which the behavior is energized and redirected. Reinforcement theory ( 1904-1990 ), Vroom ‘s anticipation theory ( 1964 ) and Adams ‘ equity theory ( 1965 ) autumn under this class.

Hierarchy of Needs ( Maslow theory, 1943 )

In 1943, Maslow discover that single development and motive with the hierarchy of demands. After Maslow find, many theories were so elaborated but with differences. Maslow ‘s theory introduces that employees are motivated by several demands. Harmonizing to his theory human existences have different demands, which can be classified and placed in a pyramid get downing with those, which are more indispensable. These demands are physiological demands, safety demands, belongingness and love demands, esteem demands and self-actualisation demands. Employees want to fulfill these demands, foremost those which are the lowest in the hierarchy and afterwards to go on fulfilling those higher in degree. A necessary demand to go on to the following measure is the first satisfaction of the old demand.

To correlate the hierarchy of demands into company ‘s demands it is that for physiological demands require income in order to be satisfied. Safety needs has to make with safe occupation and occupation security, belongingness demands reflect the desire to take part in a work group and to hold a positive relationship with supervisors. Esteem demands are related with the demand for acknowledgment and increased duties. Last, self-actualisation demands reflect the chances for preparation and promotion ( Mullins, 2002 & A ; Daft, 2003 ). As follows, many employees are motivated by occupation security. Employees need to experience freedom of fright, to experience safe in the workplace and non day-to-day anxiousness for what is traveling to go on the following twenty-four hours. Additionally employees need to experience that they belong to the company and they are portion of it. In this manner employees will endeavor to work harder because they feel they are portion of the administration.

Two-factor Theory ( Herzberg ‘s, 2002 )

A different attack has been presented by Herzberg with the two-factor theory ( 2002 ). His theory is really based on Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands but he distinguished demands in hygiene factors and incentives or growing factors. He highlighted that when a company hygiene factor do non be. Examples are salary, occupation security, working conditions, degree and quality of supervisings, company policy and disposal and interpersonal dealingss. If these exist employees are dissatisfied but this does non intend that employees are motivated or satisfied. This is because based on his research the antonym of dissatisfaction is satisfaction merely semantically and non when it comes to understanding the behavior of people in their occupations. ( Herzberg, 2003 )

Acquired Needs Theory ( McClelland ‘s, 1961 )

“ The McClelland ‘s acquired needs theory proposes that certain types of demands are acquired during the single life-time. In other words, people are non born with these demands but may larn them through their life experiences ” ( Daft, 2003, p.553 ). There are three demands that are most frequently studied which are foremost the demand for accomplishment, which is defined as the demand to carry through something hard, to get the hang physical objects, human existences or thoughts, to achieve high criterions and to excel others ( Huczynski & A ; Buchanan, 2001 ). Second the demand for association, which is defined by the demand to organize close personal relationships, avoid struggle and set up warm friendly relationships ( Draft, 2003, p.554 ). In add-on, people with higher demand for association prefer to pass more clip in societal relationships and fall ining groups ( Huczynski & A ; Buchanan, 2001 ). Third some people besides have the demand for power. Peoples who have high demand for power are people who desire to command and act upon others and have authorization over others ( Daft, 2003 ).

Expectancy Theory ( Vroom ‘s, 1964 )

Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2002 ), Daft ( 2003 ) Vroom ‘s anticipation theory ( 1964 ) refers to employees ‘ belief that they are capable of act uponing their public presentation through increasing attempt. Expectancy theory is based on the thought that people try to accomplish certain results from their behavior over others because they can expect that these results can give them experiencing of satisfaction. The awaited satisfaction from an result to which they are expected to take. The valencies of results derive from employees ‘ instrumentality. Instrumentality reflects to employees ‘ cognition that an result in public presentation will ensue in an addition in wagess. Therefore employees will seek to execute good even because they derive satisfaction through this and without thought to anticipate effects of their actions or because their result ( public presentation ) will take to other results ( wage, periphery benefits, publicity ) which give them satisfaction ( Mullins 2002 ).

Equity Theory ( Adam ‘s,1965 )

Adam ‘s equity theory suggests that “ people are motivated to seek societal equity in the wagess they expect for public presentation ” ( Daft, 2003, p.555 ). Based on Huczynski & A ; Buchanan, ( 2001 ) equity holds that motive is a map of equity in societal exchange. Peoples who are motivated by equity need the input of their part to be equal with the end product, which is wage, acknowledgment, benefits and publicities. In any instance that an employee has the feeling of unfairness based on Adams can hold different types of reactions. Examples of feeling unfairness are increasing or diminishing the degree of their input which is public presentation. Trying to alter the result which is wage but without to alter the input. Trying to avoid the being state of affairs by bespeaking for a transportation out or even vacating from the administration. Trying to act upon the others inputs and affects their input and result in order to accomplish equity ( Mullins, 2002 ).

2.2.1 Factors Affecting occupation Satisfaction

( Extracted from Harvard Business reappraisal, 2003, p.56 )

Herzberg theory provides a strong nexus between occupation satisfaction to motive and public presentation. It shows that public presentation can come as an emanation of feelings like accomplishment, promotion, growing, which are related with occupation satisfaction and motive. This is associated with the early human dealingss attacks. Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2002 ) Luthans provided that there is no strong nexus between occupation satisfaction and productiveness public presentation. Finally, Bassett suggests that research surveies have found that merely a limited relationship between occupation satisfaction and work end product. Additionally, Herzberg ( 2003 ) emphasized the importance of occupation enrichment and he separated it from occupation expansion. The term occupation expansion to both Mullins ( 2002 ) and Herzberg ( 2003 ) is to do the occupation structurally bigger and the term enrichment includes increased duty and engagement, chances for promotion, and the sense of accomplishment precisely what Herzberg considered as incentive factors, accomplishment, acknowledgment, duty, nature of work, personal growing and promotion.

From here we can besides see a strong positive nexus between occupation satisfactions to work burden tasked. If work load is addition and yet no engagement, chances for promotion, and the sense of accomplishment is achieve employees might experience there is no satisfaction taking to experiencing demoralize and impact the employee trueness to the administration. To the employee this besides reflects that the direction is non taking good attention of them and they might experience no engagement and no relationship forged with the direction. This absence causes dissatisfaction due to the quality of supervising given to him/her is deficient which may do them to experience a sense of insecurity for their occupation. Herzberg ( 2003 )

Therefore nurses ‘ occupation satisfaction is really of import because the current nursing deficit and high turnover is of great concern in many states because of its impact upon the efficiency and effectivity of any health-care bringing system. Recruitment and keeping of nurses are relentless jobs associated withA occupation satisfaction. From the graph shown above shows the factors that normally contribute to occupation satisfaction and dissatisfaction. For occupation satisfactions are occupation accomplishment, work acknowledgment, nature of occupation range, occupation duty, calling promotion and possible calling way growing. For occupation dissatisfactions are mostly due to company constabularies and disposal, direction supervising, relationship with supervisors, working conditions, salary, relationship with co-workers, personal life style, relationship with subsidiaries, occupation position and occupation security. All these factors under occupation satisfaction can be farther divide under wagess, work load and direction shown in the Theoretical Framework shown in chapter 3.

To reemphasis the two theories that have been of import in the development of an apprehension of occupation satisfaction in nursing and Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands theory and Herzberg motive and hygiene growing needs theory. Maslow ‘s identified two types of demands, lack demands which are physical, safety and belonging and growing demands which are self-esteem and self-actualization. Herzberg two factors theory consist of intrinsic factors or incentives that promote occupation satisfaction and extrinsic factors of hygiene factors that cause occupation dissatisfaction. They are besides use to understand occupation satisfaction in nurses ‘ early calling and from most of the motive theories stated above it ties down to these three chief factors that affect nurses occupation satisfaction which are wagess, direction and work load.

2.2.2 Wagess

For illustration wage will fall under wagess which besides falls under the primary/basic needs physiological demands of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands. Maslow ( 1943 ) For an illustration a nurse merely hold to compare the attempt he/she put in to the sum of wage drawn which might non even be able to prolong the high life criterions of the state they live in. In this manner inclination of him/she feeling dissatisfied will be form. This illustration can besides be link to the Adam ‘s equity theory ( 1965 ) whereby the authorities sector nurses comparing their wage drawn to those working in the private sector to the sum of attempt require to set in they will natural experience the instability and deficiency of equity casing occupation dissatisfaction. Under types of wagess there are besides pecuniary wagess which are awarded to forces by the organisation in signifier of hard currency, or through check or some other manner of fiscal dealing for accomplishing ends, supplying best quality, supplying outstanding public presentation in hard state of affairss. Monetary wagess are besides called touchable wagess. The other type of wagess is non-monetary wagess. Some illustrations of non-monetary wagess include certifications, an grasp like thank you from director or supervisors, flexible agendas or an off twenty-four hours and many more. Non-monetary wagess are besides called intangible wagess.

2.2.3 Authorization

( Extracted from Harvard Business reappraisal, 2003 )

Manville and Ober ( 2003 ) emphasise the demand for authorization through a democratic system. The nucleus of modern concern is an employee with intelligence, understanding accomplishments and experience which is called cognition employee. Administrations which demand this sort of employee, needs to confront them as their cardinal managerial challenge. Nurses decidedly falls under cognition employee as their occupation range comprises of issue of medicine, injections, CPR which is besides resuscitation during exigency instances. From the diagram above we can besides there is a close nexus between authorization and work load which links to incentives such as intrinsic wagess like acknowledgments and accomplishment.

This will construct up an employee self-esteem and self-actualization and in a long tally he/she will happen a sense of belongingness to the administration and have lesser dissatisfaction with the current work. Giving selected employee authorization will make a sense of shared ownership in the administration. This manner it is like actuating them to give their best in footings of abilities and public presentation, it is besides a both party win, win state of affairs. Beyond uncertainty, this is non merely a prescription for modern direction because this really means alterations in organizational and managerial values and civilization, but promotes a system where motivated employees can co-operate for better administration consequence.

2.2.4 Management

Different managerial manners and patterns at the organizational unit degree which is ward can hold direct bearing on nurses ‘ satisfaction. This is because for illustration of working overtime due to miss of manpower issues will do the employee societal demands to diminish as activities planned in front with household will necessitate to be cancelled or even unable to bring childs from school. This besides affects the life style of the employee. The deficiency of work force is a direction issues by itself. Like highlighted an work over load issues might impact interpersonal relationships among nurses and other medical staff. It will besides impact the ward coherence. It is besides clear that money is non the lone means for motive, it is much more than money. Longstanding factors that can actuate people to make their very best are publicity and growing in the administration and interesting work. Harmonizing to Herzberg ‘s incentive and hygiene ( 2002 ) the most successful method of motivation and increase occupation satisfaction is to construct challenge and chance for accomplishment into the occupation itself.

Furthermore, McClelland ‘s theory ( 1961 ) suggest that disputing undertakings with clearly come-at-able aims, seasonably feedback and more duty for invention assignments creates higher occupation satisfaction and higher accomplishment demands. Through the chance for publicity and developing a company can beef up employees ‘ feelings like promotion, accomplishment and acknowledgment. Promotion and preparation additions the cost of administration, short term but well-motivated employee with high occupation satisfaction will over all be more deserving as it cover long-run and might act upon others. All these stated require close monitoring and a good direction which comprises of more factors. One of the more of import factor is holding changeless feedback from the employees pool which besides means good relationship with them.

Research Methodology Design


The purpose of the research is to look into how nurses in Changi General Hospital Singapore are motivated in order to increase their occupation satisfaction.

Specifying Research

“ A subject or profession is established by developing a organic structure of cognition which is alone – that organic structure of cognition is produced through research. ” ( Amaratunga al, 2002 )

Harmonizing to Amaratunga et Al, ( 2002 ) research is of import in both concern and academic activities but there is no consensus in its definition. This is because research means different things to different people. Based on Amaratunga et Al, ( 2002 ) there is understanding merely in some points that research is a procedure of question and probe, it is systematic and methodical and it better and increases cognition.

3.3 Theoretical Model

Fig 1. The Theoretical Framework

The Theoretical Framework was designed by maintaining in head Herzberg ‘s ( 2003 ), Maslow ‘s ( 1943 ) and McClelland ‘s ( 1961 ) work which come out with factors that affect motives of employee which will so impact the occupation satisfaction degree of employee. These declared factors shown the Fig.1 is selected as they are more important in impacting nurses ‘ occupation satisfaction degree in their calling. Drawn from the theories, with the employees holding the purpose of having wagess may it be touchable or non-tangible will act upon employees to set more attempt, finding and concentrate on work demoing their motive to make something. Job satisfaction so becomes a portion of motive when they know that their administration is valuing him willing to authorise them if they prove their worth and supplying sufficient support and communicating, in return the employee will give his/her best back to the administration.

Tool for informations aggregation and sample size

The tool used for informations aggregation for this research will be a study. And for the intent of making studies questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire will be distributed by electronic mail and some were topographic point in the sofa. In order to acquire a higher response rate there were besides several followups will be send. Response rate that will be expected to have back is minimally a 50 % which is 75 out of the sample size of 150 nurses must be receive back both through electronic mails and paper format. Consequences will so be indiscriminately picked utilizing the website random choice generator at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.random.org/. Surveies are so numbered 1 to 75. If the random figure generator happens to pick a figure twice it will be regenerated. An Microsoft soft excel file will besides be create to house all the informations collected to cipher the mean consequences and making of correlativity of informations.

Design of Questionnaire

The research questionnaire consists of two parts. In the first portion it consists of forces information of classs such as gender, age, working experience, matrimonial position, old ages in current occupation and wage. The 2nd portion was designed for the aggregation of informations about the variables such as wagess, authorization, direction and occupation satisfaction.


4.1 Drumhead

In decision, there are many factors that will lend to occupation dissatisfaction in the work topographic point such as infirmary. There will be many variables within each factor make accomplishing occupation satisfaction for every person a really hard undertaking. Recognition of defeats, such as turnover, deficiency of internal authorization, workload addition and decreasing of external beginnings of emphasis will diminish dissatisfaction in the wellness attention puting.

Issues refering occupation satisfaction, possible for burnout, every bit good as consequence of burnout on patients, expanded cognition and better apprehension of productiveness, and, beginnings of authorization in the wellness attention puting should go on to be investigated. Having to improved occupation satisfaction will consequences in lesser turnover rate, better quality patient attention, less physical and mental hurts to wellness attention staff, and over all bettering the of full organisation effectivity. Extrinsic work values such as, occupation security, wage, periphery benefits, and work agendas, are besides considered to be of import in occupation satisfaction. Restrictions in programming and limited handiness of clip off promote defeat and dissatisfaction.

4.2 Possible Outcome/ Analysis

Some possible result will be that we will see the findings indicated that there is a stronger correlativity between occupation satisfaction to wagess follow by direction which is besides organizational support so authorization. Nurses will besides be more likely to be committed to the administration when they are provided with a proportionate sum of occupation liberty and just work loads. On top of that with the perceptual experience that the administration concentrating on competitory wages may besides lend to burses committedness to the administration. We will see that when motive ( wagess, direction and authorization ) decreases it will do a bead in occupation satisfaction and when both of these lessening it will do the affect the trueness of the nurses ensuing an addition in staff turnover rate.

4.3 Limitations & A ; suggestion for future research

A recommendation would be to carry on farther surveies with nurses sing their committedness to the organisation, without including their current direction support. To hold employees address inquiries such as their employers as opposed to themselves, or in add-on to them this may ensue in a entire different result. In add-on for recommendation the direction can besides see practising utilizing the ( IDP ) Individual development procedure usher to assist employees derive sense of belongingness, better their self-esteem and self-actualisation.

It is through holding selected acceptable mangers/supervisors do training conversations with their employee, measure by measure guide them on their functions and duty following pen image and in conclusion come out with end puting naming out the jobs and booby traps that will be face fiting them with critical and originative thought accomplishments. This will let them to experience a sense of occupation security, valued and run into their self-actualisation demands. This besides helps in bettering the organizational effectivity by developing them to be good dons, pedagogues, wise mans and clinical adviser.


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