The increasing complexness of both the environment in which companies operate and of their internal workings, combined with the velocity demanded from them, the force per unit area for invention, and the scarceness of attending as the ultimate limited resource, make knowledge cardinal to concern success today. Knowledge is now seen as a factor of production non merely on par with land, labour, and capital, but exceling them in importance.
Knowledge is a resource or stock in the organisation that exist along the organisation ( Coulson- Thomas, 2003 ) . Knowledge is valuable, rare, non easy to replace and hard to copy. Therefore, it makes it a competitory advantage for the organisation. As we all know, a house can non hold the same cognition as the others ‘ because different houses have different human and knowledge resources ( Kim, 2002 ) . Then, there is no organisation that can hold a entire same cognition.
To last and vie in the ‘knowledge society ‘ , companies must larn to pull off their rational assets. Knowledge is the lone resource that increases with usage. Knowledge as competitory factors has hit the concern headlines with a knock. Companies are urged to do more usage of ‘hidden hoarded wealth ‘ in the heads of their employees. Knowledge is a trade good which is frequently merely movable in personal exchanges between persons ( Nonaka & A ; Takeuchi, 1995 ; Spender, 1992 ) . Grant ( 1996 ) besides regards cognition as the “ most strategically of import resource ” that an organisation possesses.
Harmonizing to Davenport & A ; Prusak ( 2000 ) , as there is rapid alteration and increasing competition in the concern environment, most of the house tend to seek a sustainable advantage that differentiate them with their rivals. Rivals normally can double the quality and monetary value of one ‘s organisation, but it had argue that cognition that resides in the heads of an organisation ‘s employees, clients, and sellers are the most critical resource of today ‘s endeavor to acquire their sustainable competitory advantage.
Learning how to pull off organisational cognition has many benefits to the house. These benefits may include leveraging nucleus concern competences, speed uping invention and clip to market, bettering rhythm times, and determination devising, beef uping organisational committedness, and edifice sustainable competitory advantage ( Davenport and Prusak, 1998 ) . In short, they make the organisation better suited to vie successfully in a much more demanding environment.
Wah et Al ( 2005 ) believe that an person will merely affect in cognition sharing if such conditions exist, viz. chances to make so, communicating mode, outlook of the benefits of members accrue, outlook of the cost of non sharing cognition, context compatibility for those who shared, motive is important stipulation for cognition sharing, personal compatibility and liking and self-interest ( associated with dealing cost analysis ) . Riege ( 2005 ) suggested that three of import elements of cognition sharing are single, construction and engineering would assist organisation in promoting cognition sharing in the organisation.
The Importance of Knowledge Management
Soon, Knowledge Management ( KM ) is considered as a critical portion of keeping competitory advantage in concern environment ( Becerra, 2004 ) . Basically, there are four sub-processes in Knowledge Management ( KM ) that includes Knowledge Discovery, Sharing, Capturing, and Application.
Knowledge direction has emerged as a label for consciously comprehending and turn toing the issues raised by the importance and the handiness of cognition. It consists of more than straight pull offing cognition as a resource. Basically, it is concerned with pull offing the environment of cognition workers, with making and keeping favourable conditions for value creative activity based on cognition.
While traditional economic systems used to trust on touchable assets such as land and capital, today ‘s economic system has evolved to handle cognition as the primary production factor on which competitory advantage remainders ( Beijerse, 1999 ) . The most of import features of cognition are uniqueness and originality. Once created, knowledge can non be imitated or substituted, which makes it a cardinal strategic plus resource to all concerns ( Cabrera and Cabrera, 2002 ) .
Knowledge among organisational units besides wills provides chances for common acquisition and inter unit cooperation that stimulate the creative activity of new cognition and, at the same clip, contribute to organisational units ‘ ability to introduce ( Kogut & A ; Zander, 1992 ; Tsai & A ; Ghoshal, 1998 ) . However, cognition is frequently “ gluey ” and hard to distribute ( Szulanski, 1996 ; Von Hippel, 1994 ) .
In short, cognition is really of import for organisations that continually face downsizing or a high turnover per centum due to the nature of the industry. Knowledge direction besides of import for all organisations because today ‘s determination shapers face the force per unit area to do better and faster determinations in an environment characterized by a high sphere complexness and market volatility, even though they may in deficiency of the experience. Therefore, it is really of import for everybody.
1.2 Research Background
Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) is the local and the largest electric public-service corporation company in Malaysia and besides the largest power company in Southeast Asia. It has many subdivisions around of Malaysia which responsible in the coevals, transmittal and distribution of electricity and serves over seven million clients throughout Peninsular Malaysia and besides the eastern province of Sabah through Sabah Electricity Sdn. Bhd. Researcher have been choose Kota Tinggi subdivision as research country, alternatively of including all the subdivisions in Malaysia. Furthermore, this research is about the employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that impacting cognition sharing.
Significant of this survey is to concentrate how employees ‘ perceptual experience on organisational civilization and organisational support factors will impact the cognition sharing in the organisation. For organisational civilization, research worker will be concentrating on employees ‘ perceptual experience towards low or high power distance and individuality or Bolshevism attitude by Hofstede Cultural Dimension ( 1998 ) . That include how the employees ‘ perceived about their organisation civilization in promoting cognition sharing environment in the organisation.
Following, utilizing the elements of direction support and wagess by Jones ( 2001 ) , researcher wants to cognize whether there is strong relationship between the employees ‘ perceptual experience with these two elements of organisational support in promoting the employees ‘ to portion their cognition with others.
1.3 Tenaga Nasional Berhad at a Glance
Powering the state for over a decennary, Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) is the largest electricity public-service corporation company in Malaysia with estimated RM71.4 billion worth in assets. Committed to supplying service excellence, our Company is listed on the chief board of Bursa Malaysia and employs about 28,000 staff to function a client base of over seven million in Peninsular Malaysia & A ; Sabah. Today, TNB continues to take the attempt in furthering economic growing & A ; societal development in the state.
Recognized for its outstanding public presentation, regionally & amp ; globally, TNB ‘s nucleus concerns comprises of coevals, transmittal & A ; distribution of electricity. With a sum installed coevals capacity of about 12,000 MW ( including SESB & A ; Kapar Energy Ventures ) , TNB is trusted for presenting dependable & A ; efficient merchandises & A ; services. In Peninsular Malaysia, TNB contributes to 55 per cent of the entire industry capacity through six thermic Stationss & A ; three major hydroelectric strategies. In add-on, TNB manages & A ; operates the National Grid, a comprehensive transmittal web that is besides interconnected to Thailand and Singapore.
Meanwhile, employees ‘ competences are continuously enhanced through structured programmes to guarantee topmost proficiency, gaining TNB singular repute ; TNB is ranked 100 from a list of 250 power companies worldwide for the “ Power Company of the Year ” in the 2008 Platt ‘s Global Energy Awards. In add-on, TNB was besides the proud victor for The Prime Minister ‘s Industry Excellence Award for 2007. This one-year national quality award is given to organisations in the private sector in acknowledgment for their first-class accomplishment in quality direction.
Passionate at what they do, TNB through its subordinates, has been successful in other diversified activities, which include fabricating transformers, high-voltage switchgears & A ; overseas telegrams every bit good as in the proviso of professional consultancy services.
1.4 Research Problem
Search of past literatures indicate that there are research involvements on cognition sharing but there is deficiency of research on employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that impacting cognition sharing in organisation, particularly in Malaysia. Therefore, this research wills chiefly focusing towards the apprehension of cognition sharing among the TNB staff, particularly on proficient workers.
Then, to happen out whether employees ‘ perceptual experience on organisational civilization and organisational support factors will impact the cognition sharing in TNB organisation.
1.5 Research Aims
Knowledge sharing has progressively been viewed as playing a really of import function in the exchange, transportation and airing of cognition. It is hence of import to place the factors that affect cognition sharing to enable cognition sharing activities be carried out efficaciously.
The aim of this survey is hence as follow:
To place and analyze employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that affect cognition sharing.
1.6 Research Questions
This survey addresses the undermentioned research inquiries:
To what flat organisational civilization encourage cognition sharing?
How low or high power distance will impact cognition sharing?
How individuality or Bolshevism attitude will impact cognition sharing?
To what degree organisational support encourage cognition sharing?
How direction support will impact cognition sharing?
How wagess will impact cognition sharing?
To what extent employees ‘ perceptual experiences on the factors will impact cognition sharing?
1.7 Research Scope
This range of survey will be concentrating chiefly at employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that impacting cognition sharing. Research will be conducted at Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) , Kota Tinggi, Johor which operates as electricity public-service corporation company. The survey is to happen out whether employees ‘ perceptual experience on organisational civilization and organisational support factors will impact cognition sharing in that organisation. That means, if employee perceives that their organisational civilization encourage cognition sharing, employee tend to easy portion their cognition with others. But, in contrast, they will be given to stash their cognition.
Lapp goes with organisational support factors, how employees ‘ perceives about the direction support and wagess in the organisation, will impact them to portion their cognition with others.
1.8 Research Restriction
There are some restrictions that need to be considered in this survey. The restrictions are stated as below:
The range of this survey is confined to the employees in Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) Kota Tinggi, Johor. It does non affect other employees in the other subdivisions outside the research country. This is due to restriction of clip to carry on the more comprehensive survey.
The usage of TNB Kota Tinggi employees ‘ as a sampling of survey may non reflect the population of employee in other subdivisions in TNB Malaysia.
The findings of this survey are limited in footings of the honestness and thoroughness of the respondents in finishing the questionnaires.
1.9 Significance of the Study
The deduction of this survey can be important value to the company particularly for TNB Kota Tinggi as they can happen out whether their organisational civilization and support will promote the employees to portion their cognition with their co-workers. The findings could besides assist the organisation to be after enterprises to heighten and promote cognition sharing among their employees.
A better understanding about cognition sharing besides will assist the organisation, particularly TNB Kota Tinggi, to increase their public presentation without holding employees that reiterating the same errors while working.
1.10 Conceptional Definition
Percept can specify as the representation of what is perceived ; basic constituent in the formation of a construct. It besides can be a manner gestating something, and the procedure of perceiving.
Harmonizing to Oxford Dictionary, perceptual experience means the act of comprehending. Some said that perceptual experience is cognizance by the senses or mind and apprehensiveness by the bodily variety meats, or by the head, of what is presented to them. Other than that, the quality, province, or capableness, of being affected by something internal or external state of affairss is besides the definition of perceptual experience.
1.10.2 Knowledge Sharing
When we discuss about cognition sharing, it comes from two different words. First, cognition, and 2nd is sharing. We will discourse it otherwise foremost, before we explain what is knowledge sharing.
Oxford Dictionary Knowledge is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as an expertness, and accomplishments acquired by a individual through experience or instruction ; the theoretical or practical apprehension of a topic, or what is known in a peculiar field or in entire ; facts and information or consciousness or acquaintance gained by experience of a fact or state of affairs.
Harmonizing to Becerra-Fernandez et Al. ( 2004 ) cognition is rather distinguishable from informations and information, although the three footings are sometimes used interchangeably. A more simplistic position considers knowledge to be at the highest degree in a hierarchy with information at the center, and informations to be at the lowest degree. Then, cognition can be defined as the information that enables action and determinations, or information with way. In other word, cognition can mention in an country as justified beliefs about relationship among constructs relevant to that peculiar country ( Nonaka, 1994 ) .
While sharing, it can be defined as to let person else to utilize or bask something that one possesses. It besides means that to take part in, usage, enjoy, or see jointly or in bends. Sharing besides indicate that person volitionally to state a secret or experience, for illustration to another or others. So, cognition sharing can be conclude as one individual being volitionally to state others about his experience or cognition due to derive benefit together.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Previous Research Relating to Knowledge Sharing
Previous research models are considered to obtain a comprehensive position of the assorted factors that affect cognition sharing. A few models are found to be relevant to this survey as listed below:
I ) A theoretical account of organisational cognition direction by Arthur Andersen and APQC ( 1996 )
Harmonizing to Arthur Andersen and APQC ( 1996 ) , there are three chief elements in cognition direction. That are includes the organisational cognition, organisational cognition direction processes, and factors that enables knowledge direction in one ‘s organisation.
These three elements along with their sub-elements are shown in figure 1. Harmonizing to this theoretical account, seven procedures are lending to an organisation ‘s cognition which are create, place, roll up, adapt, form, use and portion cognition. The four organisational enablers that influence the executing of these knowledge direction procedures are leading, civilization, engineering and measuring.
Figure 1: Organization KM theoretical account ( adapted from Arthur Andersen and APQC, 1996 )
Share create place cod adapt form apply portion
two ) A theoretical account of factors that contributes to knowledge sharing and its consequence on public presentation by Norizah Supar et Al. ( 2008 )
I ) Sociability ( Goffee & A ; Jones, 1996 )
two ) Solidarity ( Goffee & A ; Jones, 1996 )
three ) Power Distance ( Hofstede, 1997 )
I ) Handiness of IT substructure ( Gottschalk,2002 )
two ) Handiness of IT for cognition sharing
two ) Expert vs. distributed theoretical account ( Dixon, 1999 ; 2000 )
three ) Problem of codification ( Nonaka & A ; Takeuchi, 1995 )
( Jones, 2001 ; Wiig, 1999 ; Elliott & A ; O’Dell, 1999 ; Riesenberger, 1998 )
( Gottschalk, 2002 )
I ) Trust ( Pan & A ; Scarbrough, 1998 ; Clarke & A ; Rollo, 2001 ; Empson, 2001 )
two ) Face-to-face interaction ( Dixon, 2000 ; Haldin-Herrgard, 2000 ; Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 )
three ) Reciprocity ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 )
four ) Repute ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 )
V ) Altruism ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 )
six ) Acknowledgement ( Dixon, 2000 )
Organizational Support Factors:
I ) Management Support ( Jones, 2001 ; Anthes, 2000 )
two ) Rewards ( Jones, 2001 )
three ) Mentoring ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 )
Harmonizing to Norizah Supar et Al. ( 2008 ) , there are four classs that contribute to knowledge sharing. That includes cultural factors, information engineering ( IT ) factors, communicating factors, and organisational support factors.
So, before we further accounts about employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that impacting cognition sharing, I will get down this treatment with the definition of cognition direction, which can be seen as major for cognition sharing. Then, we will research about the past literature reappraisal on cognition sharing. Finally, we will discourse about employees ‘ perceptual experience on factors that impacting cognition sharing.
2.2 Knowledge Management
It ‘s become about an disused to speak about the speed uping gait of alteration in concern environment. But undeniably, today ‘s organisation seems to see evolutionary alteration faster and radical alteration more often. This has made it imperative for houses to pull off cognition actively. Indeed, cognition direction will be the key to organisational success presents.
Before researching how better knowledge direction can drive better hazard direction, it is of import to specify some cardinal footings. Borrowing from the Western Rationalist and Empiricist traditions, cognition is argued to be a set of justified beliefs. Gregory Bateson ( 1979 ) , information is the significance that human existences assign to incoming informations. He described it as “ those differences that make a difference ” .
It follows that the direction of cognition goes far beyond the storage and use of informations, or even of information. It is the effort to acknowledge what is basically a human plus buried in the heads of persons, and leverages it into an organisational plus that can be accessed and used by a broader set of persons. Harmonizing to Nonaka ( 1995 ) , knowledge direction requires a committedness to “ make new cognition ” disseminate it throughout the organisation and embody it in merchandises, service, and systems.
Harmonizing to Checkland ( 1981 ) , knowledge direction ( KM ) refers to the systematic organisation, planning, programming, monitoring, and deployment of people, procedures, engineering, and environment, with appropriate marks and feedback mechanisms, under the control of a public or private sector concern, and undertaken by such a concern, to ease explicitly and specifically the creative activity, keeping, sharing, designation, acquisition, use, and measuring of information new thoughts, in order to accomplish strategic purposes, such as improved fight or improved public presentation, capable to fiscal, legal, resource, political, proficient, cultural, and social restraints.
To do it easy to understand that those statement, the effect is about “ to ease explicitly and specifically the creative activity, keeping, sharing, designation, acquisition, use, and measuring of information new thoughts, in order to accomplish strategic purposes, such as improved fight.
2.3 Knowledge Sharing
As cognition becomes more specialised, so does the demand for information and cognition sharing, which can be achieved through unwritten and written communicating among those who possess different pieces of specialised cognition. This demand is motivated by the fact that even though cognition tends to turn really specialised, most procedures in society require the battle of several persons, each of them lending their ain piece of cognition. Therefore, guarantee the cognition sharing occurs.
Knowledge sharing can be seen as the exchange of tacit or explicit cognition between persons. Harmonizing to Al- Hawamdeh ( 2003 ) , knowledge sharing in his position refers to “ the communicating of all types of cognition ” including expressed cognition ( information, know-how, and know-who ) and silent cognition ( accomplishments and competence ) . McDermot ( 1999 ) besides describes cognition sharing as the procedure of enabling partakers to steer partakers ‘ thought, or utilizing their penetrations to help partakers to analyze their ain state of affairss.
Harmonizing to Alavi & A ; Leidner ( 2001 ) , cognition sharing is frequently viewed as a procedure. Knowledge sharing is a procedure between persons which can non be seen straight nor ascertained. Van den Hooff et Al. ( 2003 ) defined cognition sharing as a procedure where persons exchange cognition ( silent or expressed ) and together make new cognition. Harmonizing to Al-Hawamdeh ( 2003 ) , knowledge sharing in a broader perspective refers to ‘the communicating of all types of cognition ‘ including expressed cognition ( information, know-how and know-who ) and silent cognition ( accomplishments and competence ) . Senge ( 1990 ) besides defined cognition sharing happens when an person is truly interested in assisting others to develop a new capableness for action. Therefore, cognition sharing refers to the willingness of persons in an administration to portion whatever they have or have created.
Harmonizing to ( Becerra and Fernandes, 2004 ) , knowledge sharing can be defined as the procedure to which explicit or tacit cognition is communicated to other persons. Organizations have recognized that cognition constitutes a valuable intangible plus for making and prolonging competitory advantages. They besides mentioned that there are two sub-processes in cognition sharing that includes exchange, and socialisation. Exchange, fundamentally concentrate on the sharing of expressed cognition. While socialisation, facilitates the sharing of silent cognition. Knowledge sharing activities are by and large supported by cognition direction systems. However, there are many factors that affect the sharing of cognition in organisations, such as organisational civilization, trust, and organisational support.
The critical end product from cognition sharing is new cognition and invention that will increase organizational public presentation ( Al-Hawamdeh, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Cong and Pandya ( 2003 ) , the benefits of cognition sharing by and large derive from two degrees: person and organizational. At the degree of the person, knowledge direction provides the chance for workers to heighten their accomplishments by working together and sharing cognition while bettering their ain public presentation. At the organizational degree, knowledge direction gives two important benefits: ( 1 ) Improves organisational public presentation through increasing efficiency, productiveness, quality and invention ; and ( 2 ) Better determination devising, bettering procedures, informations integrating and wide coaction. Although cognition sharing exists among employees, it is nonmeaningful unless the quality can be assured and besides applicable to their work ( Mohd Bakhari and Zawiyah, 2009 ) .
The Challenges of Knowledge Sharing
The major jobs of cognition sharing are to convert, coerce, direct or otherwise acquire people within organisation to portion their information ( Gupta et al, 2000 ) . Because sharing is ever voluntary, the challenges is to make an environment in which people both want to portion what they know and make usage of what others know.
Harmonizing to Chen et Al ( 2008 ) , employees fear to portion cognition with other colleagues as they are non clear on the aims of sharing and the purpose of senior direction. Sharing of cognition was viewed as cut downing the employee ‘s place, power or and position. Wheatley ( 2000 ) besides mentioned that many employees will portion their cognition voluntarily if they perceive the procedure to be of import to their work, if they feel encouraged to portion or if they wish to back up a certain co-worker.
Although persons recognize the clear advantage for the organisation when they contribute to the shared pool or cognition or reuse cognition developed and tested someplace else in the organisation, they besides have a figure of grounds for make up one’s minding non to lend their cognition. The graduated table of attempts and resources needed for sharing and recycling the cognition, and lost chances associated with prosecuting in cognition sharing are some parametric quantities in the determination about affecting or non in cognition sharing.
Besides transporting the cost of sharing, persons might experience that they loose economic value and therefore dickering power when they portion their cognition. In that sense, cognition sharing requires clip and carries a menace of loss their power or position ( Porter, 1985 ) . Besides persons who receive cognition from co-workers in the organisation may hold reserves that make them lazy from seeking new cognition.
Another that, construction is besides of import to optimise cognition sharing procedure within the house. And the most important hurdle of cognition direction or cognition sharing in peculiar is organisational civilization. Formative civilization is the cardinal of house ‘s ability to pull off its cognition. Husted et Al ( 2005 ) reveal that extrinsic incentives such as wages ( pecuniary inducements ) are related to knowledge sharing.
Earlier, we examined how to promote cognition to come frontward. But, this is a somewhat different. In this instance, you know the employee has the cognition the squad demands but is loath to portion it. Often people or groups of his mind- set claim their cognition is so particular that it ca n’t or must n’t be shared.
To convert your expert to portion his cognition, you need to work through to do him cognizant of why it ‘s of import to him to portion the cognition. Pay attending to why he thinks it ‘s of import for him to keep onto his cognition. If it ‘s his manner of guaranting he ‘ll ever be value- added, assist him set his position of value from stashing to sharing. Reward him for the little sharing he does.
At single degree, barriers are of two sorts: those impacting the ability to portion cognition, and those impacting them will make so. The ability to portion knowledge depends chiefly on the person ‘s endowment for communicating and his or her societal behaviour. Willingness, on the other manus, is influenced by many factors. In add-on, employees frequently fear that if they pass on their cognition to others, they will jeopardize their ain place in the organisation.
While by and large the large issue is to further cognition sharing, be cognizant that sharing has two major bounds. First, there is the issue of confidentiality ( O’Dell, Grayson, and Essaides, 1998 ) . Second, privateness issues are going more and more of import, particularly as profiling engineerings are progressively being used ( Masterton and Watt, 2000 ) .
Based on the literature reappraisal, we have identified that there are many factors that contributes to knowledge sharing. But, there is limited research that focused on elements in organisational civilization and organisational support factors that employees perceive contribute to knowledge sharing.
The assorted elements identified to be studied under these two factors includes, for organisational civilization, there are two dimensions by Hofstede ( 1997 ) which are low versus high power distance, and individuality versus Bolshevism. For organisational support factors, we have direction support and wagess functions in promoting cognition sharing in one ‘s organisation based on Jones ( 2001 ) .
2.4 Organizational Culture Factors
As we all know, organisational civilization play an of import function to make cognition sharing environment in one ‘s organisation. A civilization of cognition sharing does non go on by accident. In fact, the old pattern of stashing cognition is so profoundly ingrained in concern that altering the civilization is a major constituent of switching into a learning mentality. The cardinal elements of a cognition civilization are a clime of trust and openness in an environment where changeless acquisition and experimentation are extremely valued, appreciated, and supported.
It is frequently cited that organisational civilization is one of the most hard factors to accomplish every bit good as one of the biggest challenges in advancing cognition sharing in one ‘s organisation. Harmonizing to Alazmi & A ; Zairi ( 2003 ) , Davenport et Al ( 1998 ) , and Hasanali ( 2002 ) the civilization that encourages cognition sharing is critical to the success of cognition direction in one ‘s organisation.
De Long and Fahey ( 2000 ) besides have established four models sing the connexion between organisational civilization and cognition direction. They conclude that organisational civilization involves premises about what cognition is of import, defines the relationship between group and single cognition, creates a context for societal interaction, and shapes the procedure by which new cognition is created.
Hofstede ( 1980 ) defined civilization as “ … the corporate scheduling of the head, which distinguishes the members of one group from another ” . Organizational civilization besides can be defined as the shared, basic premises that an organisation learnt while get bying with the environment and work outing jobs of external version and internal integrating that are taught to new members as the right manner to work out those jobs ( Park et al. , 2004 ) .
A civilization is based on a set of premises and beliefs about how the universe works. Edgar Schein has defined five classs of premises that make up our worldview: the nature of the environment, the nature of world or truth, clip and infinite, human activity, and human nature. If we would alter a civilization to back up cognition, so we must dispute our predominating organisational premises and beliefs in each of these countries. We must specifically turn to the inquiry of how we understand knowledge as it relates to each of these.
Culture alteration must be handled with great sensitiveness to both the worlds of the existing civilization and the concealed facets of the new civilization that is emerging. Peoples are non of course immune to alter. We change things all the clip when we have the freedom to make so. Peoples do non defy being manipulated. Peoples besides must be collaboratively engaged in the originative procedure of civilization alterations themselves.
Harmonizing to Rosabeth Kanter ( 1994 ) , there are “ Five Fs ” qualify the most desirable knowledge- orientated civilization: fast, flexible, focused, friendly, and merriment. Similarly, the knowledge- orientated house needs to be flexible, which altering concern theoretical accounts with the competitory environment. To guarantee the cognition sharing go on, employees want their houses to be focused on the concern issues that matter to their houses ‘ success. And because life is short and work is long, employees want their occupations to be friendly and merriment.
Specific knowledge-oriented behaviours must besides be an built-in portion of civilization. It should be absolutely acceptable, and the most of import the civilization should besides back up determination devising and action based on cognition and facts, non because feel and intuition. To
Cultural barriers to sharing cognition exist in the absence of elements of company civilization that would legalize or back up such cognition sharing ( Goodman & A ; Darr, 1996 ) .Thus, the company need to make the right conditions, chiefly in the countries of employee direction and company civilization. The purpose of all intercessions will be to make sufficient willingness to pass on and portion their cognition.
Organizational civilization is of important importance for all cognition direction undertakings ( Cook, 1999 ) . Knowledge direction will non acquire anyplace unless the cognition employees concerned are willing to take portion in it ( Huysman, De Wit, and Andriessen, 1999 ) . Organizational civilization is a cardinal driver and inhibitor of cognition sharing ( O’Dell & A ; Grayson, 1997 ) . An appropriate civilization is a inquiry of balance. Contending entrenched corporate civilizations and making a knowledge-friendly civilization is non merely one of the most of import factors for success, but likely besides the most hard of all challenges in presenting cognition direction.
Organizational civilization should emphasize the value of cognition for both the single employee and the company as a whole. Everybody should be cognizant of the fact that most of the value resides in the heads of the employees ( Godbout, 1998 ) . A positive orientation to knowledge is indicated by employees who display non merely intelligence, but besides wonder and a willingness to research and larn both on and off the occupation, who look to see and expertise and non merely hierarchy, and by executives who encourage the creative activity and usage of cognition ( Davenport, De Long, and Beers, 1998 ) .
Organizational civilization should therefore promote cognition sharing ( Friedman, 2000 ) . Most significantly, this includes chase awaying employees ‘ frights that sharing their cognition will diminish their power, or in the long tally, even be them their occupations ( Davenport, De Long, and Beers, 1998 ) . Through an appropriate civilization, cognition sharing and use may take to grater power, both formal and informal, than stashing cognition ( Cook, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Artail, 2006 ; Reige, 2005 ) , the most effectual manner to make successful cognition sharing environment is by furthering trust and advancing a cognition sharing civilization.
Harmonizing to Hofstede ( 1997 ) , there are four points in cultural dimensions in one ‘s organisation. Its may include low versus high power distance, individuality versus Bolshevism, maleness versus feminity, and uncertainness turning away. So, our following treatment will merely concentrate on the functions of low versus high power distance, and the individuality versus Bolshevism as the factors that impacting cognition sharing based on organisational civilization.
2.4.1 Power Distance
This dimension measures how much the less powerful members of establishments and organisations expect and accept that power is distributed unevenly. In civilizations with low power distance, such as in America, people expect and accept power dealingss that are more advisory or democratic. Peoples relate to one another more as peers irrespective of formal places. Subordinates are more comfy with and demand the right to lend to and review the determinations of those in power. In civilizations with high power distance such as in Malaysia, the less powerful accept power dealingss that are bossy or paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others based on their formal, hierarchal places. Therefore, Low vs. High Power Distance does non mensurate or try to mensurate a civilization ‘s aim, “ existent ” power distribution, but instead the manner people perceive power differences.
Harmonizing to Hofstede ( 2001 ) , low power distance supports a participative attack to determination devising. The employee tend to be interested and volitionally to portion their cognition with their equals. In contrast, high power distance required that employer seeing their employees as their subsidiaries instead than as their equal. In this instance, the employee will stash their cognition as they want to experience secure and safe with their place in the organisation.
As we all know, traditional organisation constructions are normally characterized by complicated beds and lines of duty with certain inside informations of information coverage processs. Nowadays, most directors realize the disadvantages of bureaucratic constructions in decelerating the procedures and raising restraints on information flow. In add-on, such processs frequently consume great sum of clip in order for cognition to filtrate through every degree.
Harmonizing to Vallas ( 1998 ) , employees will non portion their cognition among all group members if the groups are constrained by hierarchies or perceived power imbalanced. In other word, people are inhibited by their superior. In fact, hierarchal organisations are non likely to to the full prosecute the accomplishments and cognition of all employees.
Most employees have a justifiable antipathy toward bureaucratism. They would wish to be able to make their work without inordinate regulations, policies, or formal procedure. Therefore, top direction demand to be given off the bureaucratism whenever possible, or at least supply a buffer between it.
A bureaucratic construction works good when conditions are stable, since it emphasizes control and predictability of specific maps. Bureaucratic construction, which is extremely formalized, specialized, centralized, and mostly dependent on the standardisation of work procedures for organisational coordination, is suited for carry oning everyday work expeditiously on big graduated table. It is common in stable and mature industries with largely rationalized, insistent type of work.
However, bureaucratic control can come at the cost of limping single enterprise and can be highly dysfunctional in periods of unsure and rapid alteration ( Burns and Stalker, 1961 ) . Bureaucracy can bring forth other dysfunctional features, such as intra- organisational opposition, ruddy tape, tenseness, fiddling of duty, means going aims, and provincialism ( Merton, 1994 ) .
Nonaka ( 1994 ) argued that the bureaucratic construction is excessively sulky in reacting to unsure environments. So, he proposed the theoretical account of flatten organisation that includes some features, such as tend to be flatter than their hierarchal predecessors, assume a changeless moral force instead than a inactive construction, back up the authorization of people in constructing familiarity via clients, stress the importance of competencies- alone engineerings and accomplishments, and acknowledge mind and cognition as one of the most leverage able assets of a company.
One of the illustration of flatten organisation is a company can plan undertakings that require cross- functional coaction to win. This order will coerce persons and groups off from the silo outlook and begins to portion their cognition horizontally. That means, all the cognition from all employees will be accepted by the employer.
2.4.2 Individualism/ Collectivism
This dimension measures how much members of the civilization define themselves apart from their group ranks. In individualist civilizations, people are expected to develop and expose their single personalities and to take their ain associations. In individuality, ties among persons are really free. Such civilizations are by and large driven by opportunism instead than by group involvement ( Leyland, 2006 ) . Within individualist civilizations besides, a strong “ I ” consciousness is operational, self-actualization is valued, and people are encouraged to show private sentiments ( de Mooij, 2004 ) .
In other word by holding individuality position, people tend to utilize “ I ” individuality and promotes to accomplish single ends, and inaugural. Peoples are encouraged to make things on their ain, to trust on themselves. Beside that, each individual is promote standing out, being alone, and expresses them. Individual rights seen as most of import and sometimes, suiting in and conforming to group norms is unneeded or even discouraged.
On the other manus, in Bolshevism perspective people are defined and move largely as a member of a long-run group, such as the household, a spiritual group, an age cohort, a town, or a profession, among others. In Bolshevism, it more requires to reenforce the impression of group and inclusion instead than exclusion. They operate on the impression that opportunism is subservient to the society ‘s involvement ( Trice and Beyer, 1993 ; Triandis, 1995 ) .
Beside that in leftist civilizations, people normally perceived “ we ” and non “ me ” orientation. Each individual is encouraged to conform to society, to make what is best for the group and to non openly express sentiments or beliefs that travel against it. The most of import thing, in leftist, working with others and cooperating is the norm. Refusal to collaborate and desiring to be independent or stand out is seen as black. In the other word, everyone in group must assist and back up each others.
2.5 Organizational Support Factors
The theory that has been utilized in order to analyze cognition sharing and motivations for cognition sharing is the societal quandary theory. Seen from a societal quandary theory, cognition sharing assembles a public- good quandary where persons can optimise their ain personal addition by using cognition shared by others and at the same clip non lending with their ain cognition.
Social quandary theory suggests three intercessions to decide a calamity of the parks job and thereby advance cognition sharing behaviour and hence the volume of cognition sharing in organisations ( Cabrera and Cabrera, 2002 ) . First, houses should rebalance the pay- off map either by increasing the perceived wages by sharing or cut downing the sensed cost of sharing. Another possible intercession is to increase efficaciousness perceptual experiences of organisational members. Increasing the employees ‘ belief in that the cognition they possess really is valuable to others in the organisation do them more inclined to demo organisation citizen behaviour ( Connelly and Kelloway, 2003 ) and really portion their cognition with others, besides when it is more resource demanding. The last intercession is to advance group individuality and a sense of shared aims and duty towards the group ( Cabrera and Cabrera, 2002 ) .
2.5.1 Management Support
The support of top direction and leading for formal organisational cognition direction enterprises is important, as it is with other organisational enterprises that involve chages in procedures and employee behaviour ( Alazmi & A ; Zairi, 2003 ; Davenport, De Long, & A ; Beers, 1998 ) .
Wong ( 2005 ) suggested that it is critical for top direction and leading to back up cognition sharing attempts within the organisation as their behaviour will act upon the likeliness that other employees will prosecute in cognition direction attempts. Similarly, Davenport et Al. ( 1998 ) found that holding the support of top direction and, specifically, holding the attitude by executives who model knowledge sharing themselves, fostered an organisation that knowledge- oriented.
Management ‘s function should non be limited to sponsorship, but include active engagement as good ( Ramhorst, 2001 ) . In peculiar, direction should assist specify the ends and place which sorts of cognition are the most of import 1s to the company and by and large concentrate the cognition direction attempt on the nucleus concern precedences ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, 1998 ) .
At organisational degree, cognition should be seen as a resource which must be used by all for the general benefit, irrespective of its birthplace. The of import inquiry is non where the cognition came from, but how it can be used good and expeditiously to gain the organisation.
Management should non merely endorse the cognition direction attempt, but really force it frontward ( Seemann, 1996 ) . Active engagement is besides required for honoring behaviour that is to be reinforced, for case by advancing the right people. The most of import, senior direction support is indispensable for any knowledge direction attempt ( Storey and Barnett, 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Expectancy Theory by Vroom ( 1964 ) , it said that single will move in a certain mode based on the outlook that the act will be followed by a certain result and on the attraction of this result for the person. On the footing of anticipation theory Isaac et Al. ( 2001 ) suggested that since directors have small control over intrinsic incentives, they can concentrate on actions such as increasing subsidiaries ‘ cognition, accomplishments and abilities, heightening their self- assurance, making a clime of common respects and some others.
Top direction support besides influences other factors critical to the success of cognition sharing in one ‘s organisation. Hasanali ( 2002 ) suggested that the impact of top direction and leading support is greater for cognition direction as it is an emerging subject and employees may necessitate the added inducements of a entire committedness from their organisations exceed direction and leading. Management has an of import portion to play in making the right civilization. It is hard to increase the sharing and distribution of cognition in the absence of knowledge-oriented inducements and wagess.
Persons are said to be extrinsically motivated when they satisfy their demands indirectly, chiefly through fiscal compensation. Extrinsic motive constitutes of inducements for acting in a certain manner based on the usage of a monetary value system. A basis in the usage of extrinsic motive in organisations is honoring employees for their fringy productiveness by doing the minutess between employees more expressed and associating the fiscal wages of single employees to their part to the public presentation of the organisation.
Harmonizing to Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland ( 2004 ) , employees need a strong incentive in order to portion cognition. It is unrealistic to presume that all employees are willing to easy offer cognition without sing what may be gained or lost as a consequence of this action.
Directors must see the importance of coaction and sharing best patterns when planing reward systems. The thought is to present procedures in which sharing information and horizontal communicating are encouraged and so rewarded. Such wagess must be based on group instead than single public presentation ( Goh, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to Horibe ( 1999 ) , there are three chief types of wages that includes, money, personal, and award plans. The farther accounts are as follows:
Money. This includes fillips, incentive plans, net income sharing, stock options, every bit good as merely field salary.
Personal Rewards. A minute of public congratulations for some background work, is by far and off the most powerful manner to acknowledge people.
Award Programs. Many companies have formal award plans. “ Employee of the Month ” certifications, “ Most Valuable Contribution ” plaques, instant awards, and others.
Paying more attending on money as a wages is an apprehensible and automatic premises. Using the money at least can guarantee the workers to portion their cognition with their other equals in the organisation. In this instance, money as wages has a function in pulling and guaranting the sharing cognition occurs within those people.
Personal wagess believed have the large impact in one ‘s single. As the director, you can give them a personal wages such as congratulations for their willingness to portion the cognition. So, it ‘s merely non give satisfaction to that worker, but it besides will actuate the other workers to portion their cognition next clip.
Following, award plans may include the personal acknowledgment. Personal acknowledgment is a powerful manner to honor employees one- to-one. As already mentioned, the award should be the touchable look of the personal acknowledgment, non a replacement for it. By all agencies, manus over the plaque, trophy, but accompany it with words that will remain longer in the receiver ‘s bosom and inculcate the award itself with the significance you intend. It is how the award plans can hold the power to animate and actuate the workers to portion their cognition.
Incentive and reward systems entirely will non be plenty to actuate employees, but they may assist ( Seemann, 1996 ) . Both corporate betterment and single parts should be rewarded ( O’Dell & A ; Grayson, 1997 ) . Knowledge sharing must at least receive appropriate acknowledgment ( Smith and Farquhar, 2000 ) .
Precisely what behaviours should be rewarded will differ from instance to instance. The most hard behaviour to accomplish, and hence the most obvious campaigner for inducements, is by and large knowledge sharing Often, it may besides do sense to honor employees for taking the clip to seek out and utilised available cognition ( O’Dell & A ; Grayson, 1997 ) . Honoring teamwork or the usage of cognition direction application has besides proven utile in many instances ( Hildebrand, 1999 ) .
Indeed, wages are relevant non merely to knowledge sharing, but besides to other facets of incorporating cognition, such as get the better ofing the not-invented-here syndrome by acquiring employees to look for and incorporate cognition available outside the company.
The most of import, harmonizing to Bartlett and Goshal ( 1998 ) , they suggest that one manner to honor in order to promote cognition sharing is based on groups instead than entirely fiscal success. This is because, if organisation gives reward based on the person, honoring will merely be given to promote competition among employees. Following, it will do the employees to stash their cognition.
The best illustration of the organisation that gives wagess based on group is Nucor Steel. In that instance, they believed that honoring groups for sharing their cognition is more effectual than based on single. This is because they believed when there is one of the group members did non desire to portion her or his cognition, all the group members will non acquire the wages, such as fillips, and etcetera.
1.6 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Below is the theoretical model of how employees ‘ perceptual experience on organisational civilization and organisational support factor will impact cognition sharing in TNB organisation.
Employees ‘ Percept on Organizational Culture
Low/ High Power Distance
Individualism vs. Collectivism
( Hofstede, 1998 )
Employees ‘ Percept on Organizational Support
( Jones, 2001 )
In this subdivision, we try to see whether those factors truly have important relationship to knowledge sharing in that peculiar organisation. This hypothesis that we want to analyze include these three facets as follows:
Holmium: There is no important relationship between employees ‘ perceptual experience on
organisational civilization factor with ability to impact cognition sharing.
H1: There is important relationship between employees ‘ perceptual experience on
organisational civilization factor with ability to impact cognition sharing.
Holmium: There is no important relationship between employees ‘ perceptual experience on
organisational support factor with ability to impact cognition sharing.
H1: There is important relationship between employees ‘ perceptual experience on
organisational support factor with ability to impact cognition sharing.