The manner a company manages its human resources is of a great importance. A bulk of human resource professionals agree that human resource direction patterns are positively associated with superior organisation public presentation and even claim that a decently designed and implemented HR scheme can lend to a better fiscal public presentation of the house ( Becker and Huselid, 2006 ) .
Employees ‘ motive is one of the most controversial and debatable issues in the preparation of the HR scheme and directors necessarily face the inquiry ‘How do I acquire an employee to work towards the accomplishment of the concern aims? ‘ Motivation at work has been the focal point of legion surveies and assorted theories have been tested both in experimental and work scenes. Not, surprisingly one of the consequences is that persons are different and what motivates one individual might be detering for another ( Lazenby, 2008 ) .
Another restriction of the motive theories is that they tend to be influenced by variables such as the civilization, nationality and personality of the persons and if a certain theory is applicable and helps directors generate the coveted consequences in one company it might be wholly irrelevant in another ( Robbins, 1998 ) .
Furthermore, employees ‘ motive is a cardinal factor for the success of any concern because it is straight related to other of import facets such as the quality of service provided, keeping of employees, productiveness and employee public presentation. For illustration, in his article “ A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Deductions for Employee Retention within Organizations ” , Ramlall shows how effectual employee keeping patterns every bit good as the improved organisational public presentation can be explained through motive theories while at the same clip outlines the costs for a company that consequence from employees who leave the organisation.
From the surveies, the research conducted and the motive theories two chief decisions can be derived:
First, motive is a enormously complex procedure because people are different and are encouraged to work towards the accomplishment of the organisation ‘s aims by different factors. This represents a significant job for directors because they have found out that a one-size-fits-all attack to motive is non effectual ( Lazenby, 2008 ) .
Second, understanding what motivates employees and planing schemes to heighten the degree of motive is important for the success of any concern because motive is non a standalone in a company but is instead interrelated and has great influence on other critical countries of the concern ( Ramlall, 2004 ) .
Therefore, understanding employees ‘ motive will be really good for the direction of the International University College.
The complexness of explicating why people behave in a certain manner has been recognized by research workers and troughs old ages ago and as Vroom and Deci ( 1970 ) put it: ‘The inquiry of what motivates workers to execute efficaciously is non an easy one to reply. ‘ Cole ( 2004 ) adds that research on motive becomes even more hard due to the fact that there is ever an component of subjectiveness in any opinions made about motive.
However, even though understanding which are the factors that motivate employees to work towards the accomplishment of the organisation ‘s aims is a existent challenge, efforts have been made for more than 35 old ages chiefly because, as said by Cole ( 2004 ) : ‘ The nexus between motive theory and the pattern of direction is important to direction success ‘ . He besides draws attending to the fact that while people are the greatest plus of an organisation, they are the lone plus that can actively work against the ends of the concern.
Endeavoring to understand the procedure of motive scientists have developed assorted motive theories. They can be divided into two chief classs: theories that focus on what causes motive are referred to as content theories while those which are concerned with behavior are called procedure theories. Content and procedure theories are utile for directors as they help them to more to the full understand how to actuate employees. While content theories show the importance of carry throughing higher and lower-order demands, procedure theories remind directors that they have to take into history the single differences between employees ( Pinnington and Edwards, 2000 ) . As some of the taking motive theories will function as the footing for the proposed research a brief reappraisal will be provided.
Maslow developed a hierarchy of five basic demands: physiological, safety, societal belonging, regard and self-actualization. He argued that the first two-physiological and safety demands are lack demands and the societal belonging, regard and self-actualization demands are growing demands. Maslow ‘s chief thought was that people start by fulfilling their lower-level demands first and they move on to carry through their higher-level demands ( Maslow, 1954 ) .
This theory was radical because it viewed human potency as immensely underestimated district ( Stephens, 2000 ) . One deduction of the theory was that directors started to develop patterns that aimed at fulfilling emerging or unmet demands ( Ramlall,2004 ) and another was that they started to take the clip to look into what are the employees ‘ demands ( Kreitner, 1998 ) .
The Motivator-Hygiene Theory developed by Herzberg ( 1966 ) besides divides demands into two sets. The first he calls hygiene factors, which are extrinsic to the work an employee does and the 2nd set is named actuating factors. Motivating factors were argued to be those that lead to occupation satisfaction while hygiene factors were those which if non present lead to dissatisfaction ( Pinnington and Edwards, 2000 ) . Herzberg ( 1966 ) argued that in order an employee to be to the full motivated, directors should supply more than good on the job conditions. Herzberg ‘s theory brought about the redesign of occupations as a direction tool to heighten motive through doing occupations more enriched therefore supplying employees with chances for promotion and acknowledgment.
Another motive theoretical account that is concerned with the nature of the occupation itself is the Job Characteristic Model developed by Hackman and Oldham ( 1980 ) , which outlines three specific nucleus factors that make occupations meaningful for employees. Those are reported to be skill assortment, undertaking individuality and undertaking significance. The writers argued that occupations that require multiple accomplishments, include assorted undertakings and supply employees with the opportunity to see how their work tantrums in with that of other employees has a positive influence on intrinsic motive. As Pinder ( 1984 ) noticed this theory has a nexus to the construct of growing need satisfaction every bit good as to the incentives described by Herzberg.
For the intent of the proposed research three more motivational theories deserve attending. Those are as follows: The McClelland ‘s Need Theory, The Equity Theory and The Goal-directed Theory.
McClelland ‘s Need Theory ( McClelland, 1961 ) explained the motive procedure utilizing three chief demands: accomplishment, power and association. Achievement theories province that motive and public presentation are influenced by the strength of the demand for carry throughing something hard ( Kreitner, 1998 ) . This theory recognizes three types of personalities depending on which one of the three demands is prevailing therefore assisting directors to better understand employee behavior and make up one’s mind on the best patterns to actuate them. For illustration, if a individual has high demand for association he is likely to bask societal activities and working in groups. It is the occupation of the director to supply him with the most suited on the job environment.
The Equity Theory is very-well summarized by Cole ( 2004 ) : ‘ … it suggests that people at work compare themselves with others making similar work in similar fortunes and justice whether they are being reasonably treated by comparing ‘ . If employees perceive that they are non being treated reasonably this might act upon employee motive in assorted ways. As outlined by Champagne ( 1989 ) people tend to cut down their input through seting less attempt in their mundane work or even to retreat wholly, which means for the employee to discontinue the occupation.
The Goal-directed theory posits that employees who are given specific, mensurable and ambitious ends tend to be better performing artists than employees working towards obscure and ill-defined aims ( Latham and Locke, 1979 ) . Harmonizing to this theory, directors should guarantee that they are able to supply a supportive attack in order for the employees to be committed to the aims set.
The above mentioned theories view motive from different angles therefore supplying a more complete apprehension of the procedure. In order for the research to be effectual, factors outlined by the literature to hold influence on employees ‘ motive will be taken into consideration when planing the questionnaires.
The purpose of this research is to research which are the chief factors that have an influence on employees ‘ motive and to analyze the overall relevancy of assorted motive theories to the specific instance of the International University College. Furthermore, the survey of employees ‘ motive will take at detecting any possible relationship between societal representation variables such as income, instruction, age, civil position, etc. and the degree of motive at the workplace.
The aim of the research is to critically reexamine the relevant literature refering employee ‘s motive at work and based on the consequences from the research to advice on which of the motive theories are likely to be most good and to hold positive influence on the degree of motive among the employees of the International University College every bit good as on the most suited motive patterns to be adopted by the direction.
The research worker has chosen this subject chiefly because the nature of the job is really complex and her experience in the cordial reception industry has proved that the ability to understand the factors that motivate people and to pull off successfully employees is a important accomplishment for every Human Resource Director that requires a batch of attempt to be improved. As the research worker is interested in a future calling in this domain, she finds such a survey to be really good for her personal development as a professional. Furthermore, while in the developed states directors have recognized the importance of human resources and employees ‘ motive it is still an aspect extremely neglected by Bulgarian directors that requires farther development.
In order for the research worker to be able to place the factors which have an influence on the degree of motive of employees at work and to supply utile advice on possible techniques aimed at heightening motive the chief research inquiry will be broken down in the undermentioned sub-questions:
Is there a relationship between societal representation variables such as age, civil position, income, etc and the degree of motive employees show at work?
Which of the motive theories outlined by the literature are consistent with the replies of the participants in the study?
Which patterns and policies ( wages system, public presentation assessment system, leading manner, preparation, etc. ) participants outline to hold direct influence on their degree of motive?
What patterns the direction should follow in order to keep and heighten employees ‘ motive?
Is there a relationship between the degree of motive of employees and their committedness to the organisation?
Is there a relationship between motive and employees ‘ public presentation and productiveness?
Scope of the research
The range of this research will be restricted to look intoing the factors that straight affect employees ‘ motive at the International University College, Bulgaria every bit good as to the designation of the motive techniques that seem to be applicable in this peculiar instance because the cogency of the assorted motive theories is reported to be altered by different factors such as the civilization of the company ( Pinnington and Edwards, 2000 ) . Approximately 180 employees work at the International University College and a representative sample will be selected for the intent of the study as it will non be possible to make all of the staff members.
Population and sample size
The population of the research is about 180 employees of the International University College. Because the clip frame of the research limits the possibility all employees to take part in the study, a representative sample of about 60 employees will be selected. The sampling technique used will be stratified random trying chiefly because it will enable the research worker to obtain the necessary assortment of information for the intent of the study. Furthermore, this technique contributes to more efficient statistical estimations when information is analysed. The choice of topics will be done in such a manner so that to guarantee that there are representative employees from the assorted section of the organisation.
Harmonizing to the research procedure ‘onion ‘ outlined by Mark Saunders ( 2000 ) , the research worker should make up one’s mind on the research doctrine, research attacks, research schemes, clip skylines and informations aggregation methods prior to the beginning of his work. Therefore, these issues are addressed in the undermentioned subdivisions.
The doctrine of the proposed research will be that of phenomenology because of several grounds. First, it is believed to be applicable in concern and direction research and 2nd, the research worker agrees that, as stated by Mark Saunders ( 2000 ) : ‘Not merely are concern state of affairss complex, they are alone. They are a map of a peculiar set of fortunes and persons. ‘
Due to the fact that motive is a really complex procedure in its nature, and the cogency of the assorted motive theories alters from one organisation to another, the research worker views the International University College and its employees as an alone instance and purposes at understanding the factors that influence motive in order to be able to advice on schemes to heighten it.
In order for the research inquiries to be answered a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods will be used therefore the multi-method attack will be adopted. The combination of both qualitative and quantitative attacks in a individual survey consequences in methodologic triangulation ( Cobb, 2000 ; Lincoln and Guba, 2000 ) . As stated by Thurmond ( 2001 ) : ‘Methodologic triangulation has the potency of exposing alone differences or meaningful information that may hold remained undiscovered with the usage of merely one attack or informations aggregation technique in the survey ‘ . Hammond ( 2005 ) besides stresses on the advantages of the usage of a triangulation attack reasoning that uniting different methods allows the research worker to see a job from different positions. Furthermore, Hammond ( 2005 ) draws attending to the fact that each method has restrictions and imperfectnesss and intermixing assorted methods help get the better of those as they complement one another in the manner informations is collected, understood and taken. This is the ground why the research worker programs on utilizing both Semi-Structured Interviews and Self-Administered Questionnaires as research instrumentality.
It is believed to be good the assorted schemes and attacks to a research non to be isolated wholly from each other but on the contrary, to be assorted and matched because the different methods can function for different intents in one and the same survey ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) . This is the ground why, the research worker has decided to utilize a combination of two research schemes: the instance survey and the study.
The study method will be applied in order for the research worker to be able to hold more direct control over the research procedure and to pull off to garner larger sum of primary informations in an economical manner ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) . The questionnaires will besides supply quantitative informations that will be easy movable into numerical values, which will let the usage of statistics in the analyses of the information. This method will supply the research worker with the ability to compare the attitudes and degree of motive of the respondents while commanding for variables such as age, business, income, etc.
The informations collected by the study, nevertheless, is extremely likely to be deficient for the intents of the survey because of the complex nature of the job being explored. While the study will supply replies to the ‘how? ‘ and ‘what? ‘ inquiries, it is the instance survey that will bring forth the reply to the ‘why? ‘ inquiry ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) . As the research worker is interested in happening what are the factors that affect employees ‘ motive at work and how they affect it, in order to look into the existent grounds behind the degree of motive of people working at the International University College she will necessitate to develop in-depth cognition and apprehension of this peculiar instance.
The research will be carried out as a portion of the MBA class of the pupil and hence, will be time-constrained. This is the ground why, it will be a cross-sectional survey and will analyze employees ‘ motive at a peculiar clip.
Primary informations aggregation methods
Self -Administered Questionnaires
The questionnaires will be structured and the participants will be asked chiefly to measure different statements and factors refering motive on Likert-type graduated tables. This instrument for informations aggregation was selected by the research worker because it has several advantages. As outlined by Mitchell and Jolley ( 2007 ) , Self-Administered Questionnaires are clip and cost-saving, and are suited if the research worker aims at obtaining honest replies from the participants as they allow the respondents to stay anon. . In order to avoid the chief hazard associated with this type of research method: the low response rate ( Mitchell and Jolley, 2007 ) the questionnaires will be personally handed and collected by the research worker. The questionnaires will supply the quantitative informations needed for the intents of the research.
Personal interviews in the signifier of semi-structured interviews will be carried out with a limited figure of participants in order for the research worker to be able to promote the respondents to lend extra information to the research subject, which was non captured by the questionnaires, while still commanding for the possibility one interview to be easy compared to another ( Kothari, 2004 ) . This type of informations aggregation methods will bring forth the needful qualitative informations that will lend to more full apprehension of the job.
Secondary informations aggregation
Secondary informations needed by the research worker will be derived from:
Academic books and journal articles on motive theories
Newspaper and magazine articles
Relevant electronic beginnings
Validity and dependability
The cogency of quantitative information is reported to be influenced to a great extent by the construction of the inquiries included in the questionnaire and the relevancy of those to the nature of the research subject ( Collis and Hussey, 2003 ) . Therefore, in order for the cogency and dependability of the questionnaire to be examined, a pilot trial will be carried out prior to the research. A sample of 10 employees, who have experience or significant cognition relevant to the research country, will be asked to make full in the questionnaire and study any uncomfortable diction of the inquiries or disagreements between the purpose of the study and the inquiries asked. Their remarks and unfavorable judgment will be afterwards taken into consideration by the research worker and the questionnaire will be revised and improved.
Qualitative informations analyses
In order for the qualitative informations obtained via the semi-structured interviews to be analysed and decisions to be reached the research worker has chosen to utilize narrative analyses. This method argues that the research worker should seek to keep the coherency of the information gathered and complete sets of notes produced during the interview should be analysed instead than taking to break up the information into different classs ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) .
This type of qualitative information analyses is reported to be consistent with the chosen doctrine of the research – phenomenology. Furthermore, narrations will take at supplying intending to the facts that will be generated by the questionnaires therefore enabling an in-depth apprehension of the job. The narrative analyses are utile in happening relationships and supplying accounts. While the research worker expects to happen out which are the factors that affect motive at work via questionnaires, she will take to explicate why these factors are more of import than others for the respondents via narrative analyses of the consequences from the semi-structured interviews.
Quantitative informations analyses
The quantitative informations will be generated by the usage of a 5-point Likert-type graduated tables and closed inquiries within the questionnaires. The information will be analysed utilizing SPSS because the research worker finds this type of package to be equal for the intents of the survey. The information from the questionnaires will be entered in the signifier of a information matrix, where each column will stand for a individual variable and each row the replies of each respondent ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) . After the information is entered it so will be checked for any possible mistakes.
For the initial phase of the information analyses the exploratory information analyses attack will be adopted. It argues that utilizing diagrams can assist the research worker understand the information gathered and frequently reveals relationships that were non planned to be explored when ab initio planing the research instruments ( Mark Saunders, 2000 ) . With this attack the research worker expects to be able to demo highest and lowest values and to happen out which of the factors outlined in the questionnaire are likely to act upon to a great extent employee ‘s motive.
The information will be farther described utilizing appropriate statistical methods. The normal theory category of statistics is believed to be most appropriate when analyzing ordinal and interval graduated tables ( Newsom, 2009 ) . Therefore, the research worker is be aftering to utilize the undermentioned methods in the information analyses:
Correlation – in order to be able to measure the strength of the relationship between the degree of motive and the assorted factors impacting it.
T-test – in order to be able to prove whether two groups are significantly different ( work forces and adult females )
ANOVA – in order to be able to sketch any important differences in the responses among people grouped on the footing of the sections they are working in.
As the research worker is a pupil at the International University College and participates in the MBA programme she is extremely likely to be allowed to carry on the proposed study and receive aid and any information required.
The research should be completed in three months and is likely to get down on June 2010 until September 2010. As alterations in the day of the months might happen, the research worker is ready to accommodate her agenda. However, the Gantt chart attached shows a proposed clip model and distribution of undertakings.
To sum up, although the literature reappraisal outlines assorted surveies and theories refering employee motive at work and how directors can heighten it by utilizing different techniques, in the context of Bulgaria human resources still remain an country that does non have the necessary sum of attending by directors and demands to farther develop.
Therefore, the research worker believes that the proposed survey of the factors that have an influence on the degree of motive of employees working at the International University College will lend to a better direction of human resources and to the overall success of the organisation in the hereafter.