Failure incident on fire control Essay

The Bradford City Fire catastrophe will be the topic of this study, whereby I will look into how the failure to implement proper fire control and ordinance process led to the human death of 56 individuals, with 100s injured.

The catastrophe occurred on May 11 1985, whereby a flash fire engulfed and destroyed one side of the Valley Parade football bowl during a football lucifer ( BBC 2005 ) . The cause of the fire is known to be inadvertent, by agencies of a lit coffin nail. It is thought that leftovers of a lit coffin nail had ignited a polystyrene cup it had been stubbed out in. The fire was so fuelled by the litter that had cultivated behind the wooden stands over a sustained period of clip ( BCC 2005 ) . The fire foremost became identified by a radiance visible radiation, but no emptying process was initiated. Spectators seemingly began to experience their pess going heater, and one informant stated he had seen the fire nine inches below the wooden floor boards and yet no safety process was instigated. However, efforts by a constabulary officer and witness to obtain a fire asphyxiator were made, but resulted in being unsuccessful, due to none being provided. The fire service was telephoned alternatively ( Wikipedia 2010 ) .

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The roof shortly caught ablaze and was made from non-fire immune stuffs, such as, wood, tarpaulin, asphalt and bitumen which helped fuel the fire alongside the air current. Intensive combustion of stuffs resulted in, jeopardies falling in to the witness sphere, and overpowering plumes of fume, which was fatal and elating. The clip it took the fire to enfold one half of the bowl was about four proceedingss. Many witnesss became entrapped by the falling dust and fume. Additionally the bulk of the issues were blocked doing flight impossible. Some managed to interrupt down some of the issues, but many were locked with no stewards nowadays to assist the emptying process, or unlock the issues. The bulk tried to get away via the pitch, which was more successful than those who tried to get away by traveling up towards the dorsum of the bases ( Wikipedia 2010 ) .

From the original commentary ( Youtube 2009 ) the observers exclaim that the bowl is so on fire. He describes how one base is on fire and he can see “ the orange of the fires ” ( Youtube 2009 ) . As known, fire can take a clasp highly rapidly ; nevertheless, there seems to hold been no huge action to evacuate individuals within the installation before the fire became this fierce. The observer returns to depict how the game has now stopped, but beforehand there was “ shaking of fists and a spot of a who-ha at that one terminal ” ( Youtube 2009 ) proposing that cipher was gaining the dangers of the incident at manus, and were more interested in the game. As he continues to talk, you can hear terror in his voice, and that lawlessness has given manner as people try to get away. In add-on, the fire is distributing really rapidly, he describes the extent of the fume and heat coming from the fire and that they should evacuate the installation every bit good.

It is apparent that the incident got out of manus really rapidly due to the deficiency of fire safety and process that should hold been in topographic point and in add-on stewards should hold been in topographic point supervising the witness ‘s sphere at all times for any incident such as this to go on, with old preparation in how to cover with such an incident.

Before this incident had taken topographic point, a old incident in 1972 had prompted recommendations for the safety of athletics, therefore the Safety of Sports Grounds Act 1975 came to be. This act applied “ to all athleticss evidences with adjustment for witnesss ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) and gave inside informations “ about, issues, entrywaies, agencies of entree, clang barriers and agencies of flight in instance of fire ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) . Furthermore processs for “ the constabulary and edifice authorization representatives to inspect the premises ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) were set up. In add-on it was an offense to non obtain a “ safety certification or for interrupting its demands ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) .

Obviously it is rather clear that Bradford had non enforced any safety processs or developing for its staff, moreover, the deficiency of fire asphyxiators and unbarred fire issues meant that 56 individuals who lost their lives could hold potentially been saved, and many more left uninjured.

In avoiding such an incident as described, Bradford should hold initiated the undermentioned pattern. In the edifice of the bowl the usage of flammable stuffs should hold been limited. Those stuffs that could hold been made fire cogent evidence with appropriate merchandises should hold been made so.

Further, fire asphyxiators and fire covers should hold been placed at certain cheque points around the bowl ; this would hold limited the burn injuries that occurred. Fire safety instructions seeable to the populace should hold been adequately placed around the bowl ; this would hold been utile in restricting the lawlessness that occurred as the fire spread across the bowl. Wide gangways to the issues should hold ensured the demands of the Safety of Sports Ground Act were met, such as “ agencies of entree ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) “ and agencies of flight in instance of fire ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) . In add-on, to forestall such an incident go oning once more, a proportionate sum of issues to the capacity of the locale should hold been recommended to guarantee as many people would be able to get away.

Furthermore, stewards and security should hold been given the appropriate preparation in fire control and fire safety. This would guarantee that these individuals would be prepared for such an incident and bound terror and fright. Stewards should besides hold been assigned to each issue or entryway during the ‘game ‘ , so if a fire incident was to occur they would hold been able to direct individuals to their nearest fire issue.

It should hold been imperative that all issue paths and doors were unbarred and free from obstructor, before individuals entered the installation. Emergency phone lines besides should hold been set up around the bowl, whereby stewards could either advise a control room/ security or have a direct nexus to the fire services etc in instance of any originating incident that was a menace. Furthermore, near circuit telecasting would be utile in supervising the bowl in doing certain it is a safe environment. Additionally, stewards should be assigned to bases and cognize about how many people are present in that one country for emptying intents ; possibly an terminal of ticket rake off strategy could be implemented to assist number the sum of people in that country. Last, processs should be put in to put such as stewards being able to alarm the people within the installation that they need to evacuate the premiss without doing unneeded terror, where people can acquire hurt, for illustration, non leting the populace to cognize straight there is a fire.

After the Bradford incident an question was conducted, headed by Sir Oliver Popplewell, it became known as The Popplewell enquiry ( J.B. Priestley Library 2001 ) . The enquiry gave rise to new statute law such as “ The Fire Safety and Safety of Place of Sports Act 1987, and the alteration of the Green Guide issued by the Home Office ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) Since grounds from the study demonstrated “ that there were fire hazards, the study recommended that indoor athleticss installations besides, where 500 or more witnesss were provided for, should come under the Fire Precautions Act for fire certifications ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel August 2009 ) .

Concluding, farther statute law has been late released guiding “ fire safeguard in Topographic points of Sports ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel December 2009 ) The Regulatory Reform ( Fire Safety ) Order 2005. “ The order is designed to supply a minimal fire safety criterion in all non domestic premises ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel December 2009 ) . Additionally they “ are required to transport out certain fire safety responsibilities which include guaranting the general fire safeguards are satisfactory and carry oning a fire hazard appraisal ” ( Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel December 2009 ) . Last, “ due to the recent alterations in the jurisprudence sing smoking in enclosed infinites ” ( Hill and Simpson 2009 ) , smoke has been banned from all public states, therefore hopefully extinguishing any opportunity of a repetition of this incident.


  • BBC On This Day. 2005. 1985: Fans killed in Bradford bowl fire. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • Hill, D, M, Simpson, Learn: Loughborough University Virtual Learning Environment. 2009. Health and Safety for Performance. [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: // id=99587 [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • J.B. Priestley Library, University of Bradford Making Knowledge Work. 2001. The documents of the Popplewell enquiry into crowd safety at athleticss evidences: aggregation description. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel, Note For Guidance The fire Safety Advice Centre. 2009. Fire Safety and Safety of Places of Sport. [ Online ] ( Updated 26 August 2009 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // & A ; spos.htm [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • Merseyside Fire Liaison Panel, Note For Guidance The fire Safety Advice Centre. 2009. Regulative Reform ( Fire Safety ) Order 2005. [ Online ] ( Updated 28 December 2009 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • Northgate Arinso employer services. 2009. Health & A ; Safety in Football Stadiums, Responsibility for the safety of witnesss prevarications at all times with the land direction. [ Online ] ( Updated April 2009 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 13/01/10 ]
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia. 2010. Bradford City Stadium Fire. [ Online ] ( Updated 12 January 2010 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // # cite_ref-i361_9-10 [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ] .
  • Youtube Broadcast Yourself. 2009. Bradford City FC Fire Original Radio Commentary ( HQ ) . [ Online ] ( Updated 08 May 2009 ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // v=DkTFG9c1QfY [ Accessed: 13/01/10 ]

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