Family Violence

CHAPTER 1 1. ) Based on your reading of this chapter, how would you define family violence? Family violence occurs in many forms; the most prominent are domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. Family violence affects many persons at some point in their life and constitutes the majority of violent acts in our society. Family violence requires that a relationship exist between the parties before, during and after the incident of the family violence.

Family violence differs within each family and is any act committed between family or household members, which are intended to result in physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or is a threat that place the person in fear of immediate physical harm or bodily injury. 2. ) What is the most accurate method to measure the incidence of family violence? Why is this method more reliable than others? The Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) measures the prevalence of family violence.

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The scale is based on the premise that conflict is an inevitable aspect of all human association, and that the use of coercion (including force and violence) as a conflict-resolution tactic is harmful. The CTS focuses on conflict tactics being a method used to advance one’s own interest. The CTS is oriented towards behaviors, not attitudes, and seeks to measures the behavior of both the respondent and their partner. The CTS also measures three variables by using the rational discussion and agreement; the use of verbal and nonverbal expressions of hostility, and the use of physical force or violence.

The CTS can be conducted in-person interview, via telephone interview, a self-administered questionnaire, or through the use of a computer-administered questionnaire. 3. ) Which of the theories discussed in this chapter appears to offer the most hope for understanding the cause of family violence? Why is that theory more complete or acceptable than the others? Although there is not one theory that identifies a single cause or multiple cause of family violence, I would point out that The General Systems Theory focuses on the system’s structure instead of on the system’s unction, and suggests that family violence is a result of a system rather than individual pathology of family members. General systems theory describes the processes that characterize the use of violence in family interactions and explains the way in which violence is managed and stabilized. 4. ) What should we do about violence in the media? Which argument carries the most weight? Television, music, video games, music videos, and movies all have a direct impact on everyday lives. The question becomes who do we place the blame on?

No one willingly accepts responsibility; whether it is the writers or the directors, the television and movie executives, or the advertisers. The first step would be for the directors, producers and all involved in the production of the Television, music, video games, music videos, and movies can take responsibility for their production of such material that infuriates society. Parents and guardians must be hid responsible for the movies, videos, games, and music that are permitted within their home.

One of the positive benefits of television as noted by Wallace is that television can be effective in the development of a variety of academic skills such as reading, math, and other skills. 5. ) Is the cycle of violence theory valid? Why? Why not? The cycle of violence theory asserts: that violent behavior is learned within the family and bequeathed from one generation to the next. This becomes a never ending chain of violence that is passed from one generation to the next. This would mean that behaviors are learned from observation.

This would lead a person to believe that violence is the way to deal with conflict. Pro-social behavior can be learned in the same way as more negative behavior, such as aggression; and if aggression is learned behavior it is possible to modify or change such behavior. 6. ) In your own words, describe why you think people abuse others in the family. When there are family issues, lack of social support, alcohol problems, drug issues, or mental health problems, a person may feel angry and or powerless and may choose physical violence to find comfort within themselves.

Some abusers learned to abuse from their parents. Their early history may have consisted of receiving abuse themselves and/or seeing others abused, and this abuse becomes a normal condition of life for them. By choosing to be the aggressor and abuser, the abuser may get their first sense of taking control over their own destiny and not being at the mercy of others. Chapter 2 1. ) Although young children are often prone to bruising because of their level of activity, questionable bruising should always be reported.

It is not the physician’s responsibility to decide if it is abuse but, it is the physician responsibility to act on his or her concerns and do something about it, which would be to report it . Furthermore, physicians mandated reporters and they are designated as such because they are in a position to receive information that a child is or may be at risk, and to pass this information on to the agencies that can intervene to protect the child. Whether the physician knows the parents or have visited them in their home, this should not be considered as a factor in a child abuse case; the goal of mandatory reporting is to protect children.

By protecting one child in a home, the mandatory reporter may also be protecting other children in the home. This may also provide help for the parent or caregiver who may be unable to ask for help directly and this may also assist in bringing about a change in the home which may assist in lowering the possibility of abuse within the home. 2. ) Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is neurological damages caused by shaking the child violently back and forth; this creates injuries particularly to the head. It is the leading killer of abused children. The shaking is directly proportional to the degree of frustration felt by the parent or caretaker.

The injury or even death occur when the child is shaken back and forth, causing the brain to move in the skull. 3. ) The child should only be returned to the mother only if the mother is deemed “parentable” by the Court. The Court may determine that the injuries were not the fault of the mother or the mother attempt to prevent the injuries. One can argue that it is child abuse when a parent deliberately inflicts an injury that causes severe pain or seriously impairs a physical function or if the parent is aware of the occurrence of the abuse..

If the parent were not the cause of the injuries, punishing the mother or revoking parental rights will not help the child recover. 4. ) A Judge does have the authority to order a a mother who has a criminal record of physically abusing her children to take birth control. This Court order can be justified if the mother is not sentenced to prison, but is placed on probation with the ability of being in the community, which would also give her a high probability of becoming impregnated. . ) If the convicted child abuser is required to register as a sex offender it would be in the best interest of all parties involved that this information is shared, especially if any of the convicted child abuser’s friend have children and there exist legal stipulations are Court orders that prevent the convicted child abuser from being in the presence of any children under a certain age unless supervised by a responsible adult.

This would also prevent the convicted child offended from watching or babysitting their social partners’ children. Chapter 3 1. ) According to the by the Standing Committee on Sexually Abused Children, a comprehensive definition of child sexual abuse is “any child below the age of consent may be deemed to have been sexually abused when a sexually matured person has engaged or permitted the engagement of that child in any activity of a sexual nature which is intended to lead to sexual gratification of the sexually mature person”.

According to the The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, child sexual abuse is defined as “Contacts or interactions between a child and an adult when the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or another person when the perpetrator or another person is in a position of power or control over the victim. ” At any point that a child is involved in a sexual encounter with an older person, this is considered sexual abuse.

Such abuse would include any physical contact, fondling, or rape, forcing a child to watch or participate in any sexual acts or pornography. 2. ) I believe that most offenders sexually abuse children is because they are pedophiles because they are attracted to prepubescent children. Also, many offenders that sexually abuse children may have been sexually abused themselves as a child.

The physical indicators of child sexual abuse would include: Sexual abuse may be non-touching: obscene language, pornography, exposure, touching: fondling, molesting, oral sex, sexual intercourse, torn, stained or bloody underclothing, pain, swelling or itching in genital area, difficulty walking or sitting, bruises or bleeding in genital area, venereal disease, frequent urinary or yeast infections; discoloration, discharge in genitals, anus or moth; pain during urination or bowel movement, and wetting or soiling clothes or bed discoloration, bleeding or discharges in genitals, anus or the mouth. . ) The behavioral indicators of child sexual abuse would include: displaying sexual behavior that is not age appropriate, taken on a parental role with other children; weight change suicide attempts; inappropriate sex play or premature understanding of sex; the child is uncomfortable being around or left alone with certain individuals. The medical indicators of child sexual abuse would include: sexual abuse cases involve activities such as genital fondling and not penetration of the vagina or anus, and do not cause any marks or damage to the tissues.

Sexual abuse can be proven if an underage pregnancy has occurred, or if a sexually transmitted disease is detected. If there is semen on the genital area also indicates sexual contact, but this point may only be proven if the child is examined directly after the sexual assault. If there has been vagina or anus penetrated by fingers or a penis, there may be some bruising, tearing or bleeding. 4. ) Some clues for child abuse may be: unusually sad, less communicative than usual, changed eating or sleeping patterns, consistent nightmares, or fear of a person or place they didn’t have before. . ) 6. ) The majority of child molester are family members, close relatives or people who have close proximity to the child. Most of these people are called incest perpetrators because they’re family members to the children. What’s been found for these individuals who get reported is that they are likely to have more than one victim, and usually only abuse within their family. As a result, it’s hard to measure whether they would abuse again, or with other children. Pedophiles are a different class of child molesters, and are considered sexual addicts.

A pedophile will abuse children as long as there is opportunity. The type of child molester most resistant to treatment is called a fixed pedophile. These people primarily abuse children of their own gender, and within their family. This would not indicate that individuals that sexually abuse children should be locked up for life. Most people who sexually abuse `children will probably be able to stop if they are held accountable, punished appropriately, and also given the proper kind of therapeutic treatment. 7. Expert witnesses who may give expert opinions regarding sexual abuse and may provide professional information regarding child molestation, child sexual abuse, coercive sexual activity, pornography, non-consensual sexual activity, forced physical sexual behavior, rape, and incest. Such experts may or may not have a major impact on the Judge or jury’s decision making; however, I believe that whatever services or mechanisms that would be in the best interest of the child should be deemed effective in Court. Chapter 4 1. Parents who physically abuse their spouses or are abuse by their spouse or partner are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. Substance abuse can be a major factor in child abuse. parents with documented substance abuse, such as alcohol or drugs are more likely to neglect their children, and are also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. There is not just a single known cause of child maltreatment or neglect. Child maltreatment occurs across socio-economic, religious, cultural, racial, and ethnic groups.

While no specific causes can be specifically identified that may lead a parent or are giver to abuse or neglect a child, there may be risk factors that are associated with maltreatment. Children within families and environments in which these factors exist have a higher probability of experiencing maltreatment. I believe that the parent or caregiver factors that may contribute to maltreatment relates to personality characteristics and psychological well-being, previous history of maltreatment, involvement in substance abuse, age, attitude towards the child. . If professional rely solely on a chart that list possible indicators of neglect, the professional may over-look some other in-depth risk factors that are not listed of a specific chart because there is not complete or all-inclusive list of physical or behavioral actions that signal that a child is a victim of neglect. 3. When the physician or nurse unintentionally misdiagnosed a child as a failure to thrive, the child’s parents or caretaker may turn to suing the treating physician or nurse for malpractice. he child bears the brunt of the abuse and suffers a great degree of harm, often in the form of extensive treatment and illness, or death. Physicians are left to determine how best to treat an illness without a complete and accurate description of a child’s condition. If there is suspicion of a parent or caretaker interfered with a child’s well-being, the misdiagnosed should not fall on the responsibility of the physician or the nurse; however, I think that it would be important for the physician must also determine how to confront the parent responsible for causing the child’s condition. . Emotional neglect is when a loved one ignores a person’s feelings, accomplishments, and when a loved one doesn’t meet a person’s needs. Emotional neglect means ignoring or rejecting a child’s emotional needs or emotional well-being. It can happen when parents overlook a child’s signals for help or attention or comforting. Emotional neglect happens when kids do not get the love and attention that they need to feel good about themselves. Their parents will not tell them how loved they are.

Their parents will not show them affection, like hugs and kisses. Their parents will not tell them how important they are. Their parents will not say “Good job! ” when they do something right. Although emotional neglect can happen to children of any age; some of the signs of emotional neglect would include: delinquent or destructive behavior, extremes in behavior from being overly aggressive to shy, passive or withdrawn, or even displaying regressive behavior such as rocking back and forth or sucking on ones fingers. 5.

People with drug and alcohol problems are often secretive about their use, or blind to the idea that a problem exists. The uses of drugs during a pregnancy can be considered neglect. The fact that the mother is using drugs during her pregnancy means that she is exposing her baby to all the dangersof addiction and withdrawal that she as a mother would face faces, including potential for any high risk disease. This should place the mother in the position to be prosecuted by the Court for endangering the life of her baby; thus making the baby a ward of the Court.

CHAPTER 5 1. Sibling abuse may be the most common form of family violence in the United States; many people consider sibling aggression to be just a part of growing up, thus minimizing sibling aggression. Sibling abuse may affect the victim in the same way in which a rape may affect the victim, especially in the sibling abuse is that of sibling sexual abuse. The victim may feel a sense o betrayal because of the trust in which they once had in their sister or brother. 2.

A child may have normal curiosity that many children experience regarding body differences; or the child may still have the curiosity but is more likely to be sexual abuse, this would depend on the age differences and the type of activities engaged by the siblings. 3. Sibling sexual abuse, like all forms of sexual abuse, is an abuse of power. If a more powerful sibling, who may be older or stronger, bribes or threatens a weaker sibling into sexual activity, that is called sexual abuse. The abuser usually wins the trust of the victim first, and then violates that trust in order to commit the abuse.

The abuser may use force, the threat of force, a bribe, the offer of special attention, or a gift to make the victim keep the abuse secret. This may include such situations as foster or step-siblings. When one child is obviously afraid of their sibling, something must be done! If the child is doing everything they can to stay away from their sibling and avoid them, this is apparently a tell-tale sign that something is amiss. It is not to be ignored or taken lightly. If a child is afraid of their sibling, this should be a red flag for the parent or caretaker.!

If the child is doing everything they can to stay away from their sibling and avoid them, this is apparently a tell-tale sign that something is not right within the home. It is not to be ignored or taken lightly. The age of the perpetrator should not matter, if the parent suspect that the abuse is beyond his or her scope of trying to deal with the situation within the home, it would be in the best interest of all parties to notify the proper authorities, being either CPS and or the police in order to gain the needed support within the home. . if a father is sexually abusing his ten year old daughter, it would be in the best interest of the ten year old daughter to remove her and her eight year old sibling and five years old sibling from the home. This would be done to protect and provide safety for the victim and any siblings within the home. 5. Sterilization doesn’t prevent child abuse, it only responds to abuse after it has occurred. I believe that there are abusive parents who should be sterilized.

For these parents to be sterilized, this would served s the best interest for the patient and for society. If a mother can mistreat her own children she should never be allowed to have any more. She ought to be forcibly sterilized. If a man is involved, as it was in the case above, then he too, whether he knew what was going on, or took actual part in the cruelty, should be made to have a vasectomy. I would conclude that if the Court finds that a person is unfit for procreation; then yeas sterilization would be the correct direction.

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