Mungo Park was a Scottish explorer who led one of the first
expeditions to investigate the course of the Niger river in Western Africa.
Mungo Park was a 23 year-old scottish surgeon surgeon who had just returned
from a journey to Sumatra on a ship of the East India Company. There he had
discovered 6 species of fish, he had published descriptions in a Scientific
Journal. In 1795, Park had gone to Piscina, on an offer to research further
into Africa. Park had accepted and a severe fever overcame him during his
journey. Park also had been captured by certain muslim leaders. After he
had got out of the Prison he had wandered around and had finally found the
Niger River. Park was amazed at how beautiful the River was. Park had
stated “I saw with infinite pleasure, the object of my, mission”. Park had
returned home to London where became famous on his publications of his
voyage across Africa.
Later in 1806 he sailed downstream to the Bussa rapids, where he
drowned, trying to escape an attack by the Africans.
Rene Callie was a 27 year old man who was fascinated by the stories
told about peoples travels to Africa. His readings of Mungo park also
stimulated his fascination. Callie had entered a contest for the first
person to reach Timbuktu and reach back. He had reached Timbuktu. During
Callie’s trip he did not find it easy to prove to the French Authorities
that a young man with no experience could discover Timbuktu. On his way
back Callie had joined a Arab Caravan preparing to cross from Western
Sahara to Morocco. Callie had stated “I am the first European to cross from
the sandy ocean from the south to the north”. On his return to Paris,
Callie was known as a hero. Later, questions were asked if he was telling
the truth or not.
Johann Rebmann was a German missionary, who was not like Mungo Park or
Rene Callie. The purpose of Rebmann’s explorations is to find a place where
he might serve God. His most helpful weapon was a umbrella, which he used
to fight off lions and would be attackers. Rebmann was the european
explorer who kept a careful record of his journey. Together with his
partner he paved the way for later explorers. Rebmann had found the Mount
Kilimanjaro which was located in Tanzania. His missionary work was more
difficult than his exploration efforts.
David Livingstone was a scotsman who also was intrigued by the
mysteries of vast unexplored areas of South Africa. He as Johann Rebmann
was also a missionary. ivingstone started working at a mission in sotho and
had also left because of dissagreements with the boers. In 1849 Livingstone
had gone with 2 game hunters to be an interpreter for an expedition
northward. They had gone north to Lake Ngami in Botswana but they could not
go further because of Livingstone’s families’ sickness at the time. After
about a year Livingstone resumed his explorations.
Livingstone had heard tales of the rushing waters of the Zambezi
River. He wanted to know the source of this River. Livingstone had to
return to England for his families safety and when he returned his mission
was destroyed by boers. Livingstone was ill and tired but he kept on his
journey. In 1855 Livingstone had gone about two thousand miles when he
reached the Victoria Falls. Livingstone had returned to Engaland in 1856.
In 1862 Livingstone had returned to Central Africa with a backing of the
British Government. He was on his journey and he become sick and was in a
African hut for 6 months. Livingstone had been in Central Africa for 8
years and the outside world had little information of his health and his
In 1871 Henry Stanley a 28 year-old foriegn correspondent had heard
rumors that a white man was living at the Vilage of Ujiji near lake
Tanganika. On November 10,1871 Stanley entered the village and there he
found the sick Livingstone. Stanley had brought the correct medical
supplies to let Livingstone recover. In 1872 both Stanley and Livingstone
had gone to explore lakes and rivers of Central Africa. Livingstone had
died and was remembered as a hero for his explorations in Central Africa.
Stanley had then left Livingstone to research further. Speke finds
Lake Victoria and names it after the Queen of England.
Richard Burton was one of the most famous explorers in Africa .
Burton’s Life story is filled with adventure. In 1853 Burton was
disguiseeed as a Moslem he made dangerous pilgrammages to Mecca. In 1854 he
went to Harar in Ethiopia where capture meant death. Burton and his
companion John Speke were the first Europeans to visit Somalialand. In
1856, again with John Speke, Burton returned to East Africa to look for the
source of the Nile River. The trip was dangerous from Zanzibar. In 1858
they came upon Lake Tanganika but it wasn’t the source of the NIle either.
Burton returned home. But Speake had gone with James Grant to find the
source of the Nile. Six months later they saw a lake as large as a sea.
Then they were convinced that Victoria Lake was the source of the Nile
John Speke had recieved most of the glory for his works on the
exploration the source of the Nile. In 1860 James Speke and James Grant had
gone for further research of the Nile. On this Expedition Speke reported of
how the kingdoms along the Nile. Speke had said “I saw that old father Nile
without any doubt rises in the Victoria Lake , and as I foretold, that the
Nile is the great source of the holy river which cradled the first
exfounder [moses] of our religious belief”.