Fear Of Violent Crime Geography Essay

As a construct ‘fear of offense ‘ has caused much academic treatment since it was foremost developed as a school of idea in the sixtiess. Even though involvement in fright of offense has gone though extremums and troughs since its reaching in the societal scientific disciplines, it has doubtless found its manner into governmental thought and subsequent policies ( Lee & A ; Farrall 2008 ) . There are those who claim that fright of offense is a larger job than offense itself and this is mostly due to anxiousnesss over violent offenses such as sexual assault which is peculiarly outstanding ( Warr 1995 ) . The populace are informed that official rates of offense are falling hence this appears to confirm the claim that public frights are disproportional to world or even ‘irrational ‘ ( Skogan 1987 ) . For illustration, the latest British Crime Survey ( BCS ) undertaken by the Home Office ( 2009 ) revealed that people ‘s fright of violent offense in the UK out-weighs their opportunities of victimization. However a determination from the same study showed that all parts in the UK experienced a decrease in the proportion of people with a ‘high degree of concern ‘ about violent offense between 2001-2 and 2008-9 ( Home Office 2009 ) .

Beginning: BCS, Home Office ( 2009 )

We will write a custom essay sample on
Fear Of Violent Crime Geography Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Percentage of people with ‘high degree of concern ‘ about violent offense, 2001-2 and 2008-9

There have been many differences as to how to specify fright of violent offense and as such, official statistics are capable to unfavorable judgment. Lewis and Salem ( 1981 ) claim that emotional feelings entirely define fright of offense whereas other bookmans place accent on cognitive judgements or behaviors ( Garland 2001 ) . There are besides assorted findings on the connexions between socio-demographic factors and frights of force. Differential frights of violent offense have been strongly attributed to factors such as age, sex, race, vicinity, personal experience and media ingestion ( Clemente & A ; Kleiman 1977 ) . It has been posited that farther research on the fright of offense ‘must be focussed spatially and socially upon peculiar populations ‘ ( Weaver 2008: 4 ) . This thesis will look into the frequently cited connexions between fright of violent offense and vicinity focusing on the University of Nottingham pupil population. It will research the impact these frights have on their usage of public infinite and highlight any restraints on activities or chances as a effect of behavioral alterations.

Nottingham: safe for pupils?

The City of Nottingham ‘s violent offense rates are higher than the UK norm. However, recorded force in Nottingham against the individual has decreased from a rate of 34.5 per 1000 in 2006/07 to 29.79 rates per 1000 in 2008/09 ( Home Office 2009 ) . As a effect possibly, headlines in the media portraying Nottingham as being ill-famed for gun offense or as being an ‘Assassination City ‘ ( Sewell 2007 ) have decreased. Nevertheless the mass media continue to label Nottingham as being a hotbed of force.

It has been argued that Nottingham is ‘a victim of its ain success ‘ ( Tiesdell 1998 ) . This can be attributed to the figure of bars and clubs the metropolis possesses, advancing a vibrant but volatile night-life. In 2008 Nottingham City Council announced that the metropolis was an Alcohol Disorder Zone ( ADZ ) . This declaration was met with incredulity and choler amongst the local imperativeness and the University of Nottingham. It was argued that the City Council had shot itself in the pes once more. In 2002, the Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire gave his sentiment that the metropolis was out of control ; he referred to the frequence of force and in peculiar, the usage of pieces. ‘The City Council agreed with him before it rapidly back-tracked, but it was excessively late, Nottingham acquired a repute as a number-one offense metropolis. The impact was stupefying, with The University of Nottingham, one of the best in the state, losing about a 3rd of pupil appliers ‘ ( M & A ; C Report 2008 ) .

Avoidance actions can hold negative impacts on metropoliss. For illustration, turning away behaviors can take to important fiscal costs as the ‘Nottingham Safer Cities Project ‘ ( NSCP ) discovered. The undertaking conducted a public study ; the findings from which illustrated that a important figure of metropolis occupants normally avoided the metropolis Centre after dark. The undertaking calculated that this turning away scheme led to the loss of ?12 million in turnover and 442 occupation chances in Nottingham ‘s cardinal concern territory during the 6 months of the survey ( Beck & A ; Willis 1995 ) . Though outdated the undertaking indicates the importance of look intoing fright of force amongst Nottingham ‘s university population as they are widely regarded to be a critical contributer to the metropolis ‘s income and substructure ( Beck & A ; Willis 1995 ) .

Promotion of the Aims and Aims


· To detect whether fright of violent offense amongst university pupils in Nottingham is dependent on a ) gender B ) topographic point of domicile abode degree Celsius ) mass media ingestion vitamin D ) personal victimization

· To detect how university pupils react to fear of violent offense and how this shapes their usage of public infinite in Nottingham

Nottingham has higher degrees of reported violent offense than the national norm and is widely regarded amongst the mass media as being a peculiarly violent topographic point. Furthermore pupils aged 16-24 old ages of age, statistically, are one of the most likely groups to fall victim to violent offense ( Home Office 2009 ) . Despite these findings, a thorough reappraisal of the old literature showed that there are really few diary articles look intoing frights of force amongst university pupils and none were focussed on the metropolis of Nottingham.

Extensive research on gender as a correlative of fright wages most attending to the fright spread between work forces and adult females. Fear of sexual assault is frequently given as the chief ground for differential degrees of fright ( Balkin 1979 ) and as a consequence work forces ‘s frights are neglected ( Goodey 1997 ) . This thesis will compare the frights of both male and female pupils whilst concentrating on violent offenses.

Most faculty members agree that being a victim of sexual assault leads to escalate frights ( Box et al 1988 ) . However, there are assorted findings on the impact personal victimization of other violent offenses has on the person. Some bookmans argue that all physical assaults and muggings lead to greater fright of offense ( Tulloch et al 1998 ) whilst others argue that they really cut down frights ( Sparks et al 1977 ) . These inconsistent findings show that there is room for farther research into the effects of violent victimization on public frights, which this thesis aims to make.

Social scientists, on the whole, accept that fright of violent offense is place-dependent and as such ; how persons relate to thoughts of topographic point and community is an of import index of frights ( Girling et al 2000 ) . However, surveies in the UK analyzing the relationships between fright of force and acquaintance with topographic point of abode are missing. This thesis will look into the impact acquaintance of topographic point has on frights by comparing the fright index of pupils whose domicile abode is in Nottingham to those who lived someplace else prior to go toing University of Nottingham.

The mass media provide the populace with much of their information. This information is frequently distorted through ‘popular ‘ yellow journalisms which tend to sensationalise offense. It has been argued that the media cause frights of violent offense to increase ( Gunter 1987 ) but findings are assorted. First twelvemonth pupils, many being new to the metropolis, will be an interesting focal point group as many of them would hold received much of their cognition about ‘Assassination City ‘ through the media.

As aforementioned, alterations of behavior in response to frights can hold a important impact on a metropolis ‘s income hence research in this country ( the second chief purpose ) could arguably be of import for future policy enterprises pulling more pupils to Nottingham. There may besides be wider societal effects for single pupils with high degrees of fright as it could restrict chances, finally impacting wellbeing.


1. To reexamine bing literature to get an apprehension of the different theories and positions on fright of violent offense

2. To carry on quantitative studies on male and female University of Nottingham first twelvemonth pupils followed by statistical analysis to find the relationship between fright of violent offense and the undermentioned variables: a ) gender B ) topographic point of domicile abode degree Celsius ) mass media vitamin D ) personal victimization

3. To carry on group treatments with first twelvemonth Geography and Law pupils at the University of Nottingham to derive a more thorough penetration into their fright of violent offense and whether it effects their usage of public infinite in Nottingham

Fear of Violence: Academic treatment


Research into the thorny issue of gender and fright of violent offense has found that adult females are much more fearful of violent offense than work forces yet adult females are less likely to be victims ( Hale 1996 ) . This fright amongst adult females was chiefly viewed as being irrational by some bookmans as adult females ‘s high degrees of fright do non compare to existent hazard of victimization ( Clemente and Kleiman 1977 ) . It is widely acknowledged, nevertheless, that adult females have different experiences in public infinites than work forces. The BCS shows that immature work forces are at greatest hazard of exploitation for overall force, although adult females are more likely to see domestic force and sexual assault ( Home Office 2009 ) . ‘In public, fright of colza is a central fright for adult females ‘ ( Riger et al 1994: 78 ) and is widely acknowledged as being the greatest factor taking to ‘men and adult females sharing a consensus that females are much more fearful than males ‘ ( Sutton & A ; Farrall 2008: 15 ) . The “ shadow of sexual assault ” hypothesis ( Ferraro 1996 ) states that adult females ‘s fright of sexual assault shadows their fright of other types of offense, peculiarly violent offense. This thesis aims to bring out the influence all violent offense has on female and male university pupils.

The gendered stereotypes of ‘fearless male/fearful female ‘ ( Goodey 1997 ) are challenged by faculty members who suggest that work forces are socialised in society to be less fearful than adult females therefore work forces have a inclination to understate and conceal their frights. This recent theory of the ‘Socially Desirable Reacting ‘ ( Farrall et al 2009 ) has of import deductions for research findings as it has been suggested that work forces are more likely to under-report their concerns in order to suit the hegemonic masculine ideal ( Goodey 1997 ) . This could be to such an extent that when this was taken into history, work forces ‘s fright outstripped adult females ‘s ( Sutton & A ; Farrall 2005 ) . This is in contrast to the position that adult females describe higher frights because they are physically weaker than work forces and may hold colza foremost in their heads when replying inquiries about violent offense ( Stanko 1990 ) .

It has been posited that fright diminutions with age amongst misss and to a greater extent, boys. Young male childs are comparatively unfastened about their frights yet as they mature their frights are slightly ‘downplayed as normative grownup individualities are adopted ‘ ( Goodey 1997: 402 ) . This thesis compares female frights of violent offense with the ‘neglected sphere of male frights ‘ ( Goodey 1997: 52 ) focusing on first twelvemonth university pupils who are in a liminal phase of neither being viewed by wider society as kids nor grownups.

First Year University Students and the Fear of Violent Crime

First twelvemonth University pupils, being immature grownups, are frequently stereotyped as ‘strong, unafraid and are frequently construed as the wrongdoer instead than the victim ‘ ( Tulloch 2000: 452 ) . However a comprehensive study by Tulloch et Al ( 1998 ) found that immature grownups are more fearful of offense than antecedently recognised. In add-on statistical analysis has indicated that they have the greatest fright of violent offense when compared to other age groups ( Ferraro 1995 ) . These frights are arguably justified by The British Crime Survey ( Home Office 2009 ) which asserted that reflecting their younger age profile, pupils ( 8.6 % ) had a higher than mean hazard of being a victim of violent offense throughout the twelvemonth 2008/09. The BCS claim this is likely to be related to lifestyle. For illustration, people who visited nightclubs more than one time a hebdomad in the month prior to interview had a higher hazard of violent offense ( 12.4 % ) than those who had visited cabarets or discos less than one time a hebdomad on norm ( 6.6 % ) or non at all ( 2.5 % ) .

First twelvemonth university pupils or ‘Freshers ‘ do non suit into one clearly defined class or stereotype. Some see university pupils as belonging to a ‘problem population ‘ inducing moral terrors through orgy imbibing and yobbish behavior. ‘As metropolis Centres are perceived to be unsafe, they are given over to packs of revelers and rummies after dark ‘ ( Trench et al 1992 ) . Others see pupils as jurisprudence staying citizens who are likely to be victims of violent offense at the custodies of excluded local young persons who, like pupils are demonized through the media.

Topographic point of Domicile Residence and Fear of Violent Crime

‘Perception of community has a strong influence on subjective estimations of being a victim of violent offense ‘ ( Jackson 2004 )

Literature on fright of offense has shown that it is an absorptive subject bound up in how persons relate to thoughts of topographic point and community ( Farrall et al 2009 ) . In a recent survey Farrall et Al ( 2009 ) use in-depth qualitative interviews to research the connexions people make when speaking about offense, their environment and community. The survey suggested that at the root of fright of offense is public malaise about the wellness of local vicinity order and concerns about societal diminution and community atomization. They concluded that public perceptual experiences of offense are strongly linked to nonsubjective and subjective appraisals of community, environment and alteration. It was besides acknowledged that this can hold changing grades of significance for respondents ‘depending on a participant ‘s ain fortunes or history ‘ ( Farrall et al 2009: 137 ) . Due to university pupils ‘ varied experiences and histories they will be an interesting population to research.

There is a sufficient spread in research on dimensions of topographic point and fright of violent offense ; there are few place-based surveies that have considered relationships between fright of offense and acquaintance with topographic point of abode. Nevertheless, an illustration of one such survey in Washington DC found that the per centum of a occupant ‘s life spent in the same vicinity was associated with a lessening in fright of violent offense ( Roman & A ; Chalfin 2008 ) .

Mass media ingestion and fright of Violent Crime

‘It is widely recognised that offense narratives and treatments about ‘law and order ‘ are the staple diet of the written imperativeness ‘ ( Sparks 1992 ) .

The mass media provide a major beginning of our cognition. As such there is much academic argument as to what extent media in the UK influences single fright of violent offense. Academicians such as Jewkes ( 2004 ) have argued that that the mass media harbours the power to instil fright in the populace by the manner in which it presents offense. Such statements fit the ‘Hypodermic Syringe Model ‘ which focuses on the mass media representation of offense and how that representation is perceived by the populace. It is argued that ‘the media inject values, thoughts and information straight into the inactive reader or spectator ‘ ( Jewkes 2004: 9 ) . The information that the ‘popular ‘ media ‘inject ‘ into the populace is frequently distorted as they tend to sensationalise offense by following the regulation that ‘if it bleeds it leads ‘ . They pay privileged attending to some offenses at the disbursal of others, frequently violent offenses at the disbursal of non-violent ( Keating 2002 ) .

‘In Britain, readers of yellow journalism newspapers which have more sensational offense coverage reported higher degrees of fright than readers of circular documents, whose offense coverage is less prevailing and less dramatic ‘ ( Grabosky 1995 ) .

By overstating the hazards of violent offenses the media may orchestrate ‘moral terrors ‘ or ‘media terrors ‘ ( Cohen 1972 ) . These moral terrors frequently correspond to BCS statistics. The popular imperativeness use one statistical country such as Nottingham and falsify the truth by sensationalising the factual information utilizing nomenclature such as ‘epidemic ‘ , which in bend, may take to moral terrors. Although there is some basic truth to what the media are showing to the populace, it normally becomes dramatised to the point of disjunction from the truth. This may take to a ‘deviancy elaboration spiral ‘ ( Cohen 1972 ) deducing that the country is peculiarly unsafe. Another effect for such vicinities is that, one time the diminution begins, the community becomes portion of the media generated folklore on offense and rare events such as firearm offenses seem to be platitude ( Keating 2002 ) .

Fear of violent offense degrees can besides be rationalised by utilizing Post-Modernist attacks. Hall et Al ( 1978: 46 ) suggest that the populace are interested in the mass media representation of offense, particularly violent offense, as ‘violence represents a basic misdemeanor of the individual. ‘ The populace are hence more affected by violent offenses, as they worry for their ain safety. The BCS ( Home Office 2009 ) statistics show that the figure of violent offenses is diminishing yearly, but this information is non yet reflected by public sentiment.

The ‘Hypodermic Syringe Theory ‘ , ‘Moral Panic Theory ‘ and Post-Modernist attacks have been widely criticised by research workers who have found the causal relationship between media and fright of violent offense to be at best, inconclusive. One key happening from Tulloch et Al ( 1998 ) stated that the media are non every bit influential as antecedently thought. It has been suggested that the media entirely can non do fright of offense but ‘they can turn to frights, play upon them, exploit or reassure them ‘ ( Sparks 1992: 155 ) .

Behavioral Responses to Fear of Violent Crime

A reappraisal of the quantitative grounds to day of the month illustrates that the findings for a causal relationship between fright of violent offense and alteration of behaviors are slightly inconsistent ( Foster & A ; Giles-Corti 2008 ) . Numerous surveies exhibit that people frequently avoid actions which they view as being unsafe such as going on public conveyance or traveling out after dark ( Box et al 1988 ) . On the contrary an of import determination from Tulloch et Al ( 1998 ) found that even though immature grownups are more fearful of violent offense than any other age group, they still go out at dark and utilize public conveyance.

Episodes of being afraid of violent offense are frequently short lived. For illustration, one may go fearful if they hear footfalls behind them when walking down a dark back street. Farrall et Al ( 2009 ) depict these frights as ‘experiental ‘ . Experiental frights are ephemeral episodic experiences that are in response to external direct stimulation bound up in inside informations of clip and topographic point. It has been argued, nevertheless, that although there may be heightened awareness in state of affairss whereby one perceives there to be a possible menace of force, this does non needfully take to straight-out fright but a deliberate set of behavioral responses ( Garland 2001 ) .

By carry oning in-depth interviews, Farrall et Al ( 2009 ) found that many participants believed it was their duty to protect themselves from violent offense and that precautional behavior is a necessary portion of every twenty-four hours life. Some modified their behavior, avoided certain topographic points at certain times and purchased security equipment. It has been suggested that fright of force is non ever detrimental to an person ‘s wellbeing. Some grade of fright might be healthy in certain state of affairss as it creates a natural defense mechanism against offense. When there is a sensed hazard of existent force, a certain sum of fright might really be good. Experiental frights of violent offense stimulate ‘responsiblization ‘ which leads to precautional behaviors, makes people experience safer and finally lowers the hazard of victimization. This has been described as ‘functional fright ‘ ( Jackson & A ; Gray 2009 ) . This ‘functional fright ‘ can be illustrated in the ‘Health Belief Model ‘ ( Rosenstock 1974 ) . This theoretical account has been applied by societal scientists to explicate why some people change their behavior to battle violent offense ( Hammig & A ; Moranetz 2000 ) . The theoretical account asserts that persons who fear being a victim of force will alter their lifestyle wonts if they believe that changing certain behaviors will heighten their overall wellbeing.

‘For adult females, offense is a considerable ground as to why they do non travel out after dark at dark ‘ ( Crawford et al 1990: 49 ) .

As aforementioned, societal scientists have indicated that gender is one of the strongest forecasters of fright of force ; adult females are more fearful of violent offense than work forces. Some bookmans such as Warr ( 1985 ) and Ferraro ( 1995 ) have suggested that this differential ‘irrational ‘ fright among females is largely due to their fright of sexual victimization. As a consequence of this fear adult females restrict their lives in private and public infinites due to the sensed menace of condemnable victimization ( Gilchrist et al 1998 ) . Findingss from Warr ( 1985 ) substantiate this claim uncovering that 40 % of adult females do non travel out at dark compared with 9 % of work forces. This indicates that fright of violent offense could hold existent effects for female university pupils, restricting their usage of public infinite and curtailing them from carry throughing legion chances in Nottingham. However, findings from surveies can change depending on the different behaviors that are measured. For illustration, a survey in the US which investigated immature male preventative behaviors against violent victimization found that 27 % of respondents reported practising preventative behaviors against violent offense on a regular basis ( Hammig & A ; Morinetz 2000 ) . Existing surveies hence do non supply concrete grounds for a strong relationship between fright of violent offense and alterations of behavior.

Victimization and the ‘Irrational ‘ Fear of Violent Crime

Tulloch et Al ( 1998 ) found that people ‘s fright of violent offense depends on personal experience and that an person ‘s fright of force is likely to be heightened if the person has been victimized. However, past research on the issue has been surprisingly inconclusive. In a reappraisal of the research, DuBow et Al ( 1979 ) concludes that there has been no converting grounds that victimization increases one ‘s fright of violent offense. In a more recent survey utilizing qualitative analysis, Farrall et Al ( 2009 ) make a similar decision that many who had experienced force did n’t acknowledge to amplified degrees of fright. Furthermore, they found differential degrees of fright between ‘isolated ‘ and ‘repeat ‘ victims with the latter coverage greater frights.

Skogan ( 1987 ) claims that due to the deficiency of a strong relationship between fright and direct experience of violent offense, some people ‘s frights such as adult females ‘s has been branded ‘irrational ‘ . ‘Interest in the ‘irrationality ‘ of high degrees of fright of violent offense was fuelled by the weak correspondence of many study steps of fright of offense to people ‘s ego reported victimization experiences ‘ ( Skogan 1987: 112 ) . Rifai ( 1982: 193 ) denotes that fright of offense is ‘irrational ‘ merely because many people do n’t make much about it ; ‘There is normally small behavioral alteration that is reflected in what could be termed offense preventive or victimization preventive behavior ‘ ( Rifai 1982: 193 ) . As antecedently discussed, nevertheless, findings on behavioral alterations are assorted and inconclusive.

Violent offense does non impact on all members of society in the same manner. A controversial statement put frontward by Rifai ( 1982 ) stated that victimization and fright are non strongly linked because most offenses and a big proportion of violent offenses are fiddling in their effects hence they are n’t fear provoking. ‘A figure of instance surveies have suggested that in most happenings of victimization there is small consequence on the day-to-day lives of the victims ‘ ( Rifai 1982: 199 ) . The experience of victimization can function to chase away some of the myths and anxiousnesss about what going a victim of offense might experience like. The latest BCS statistics for 2008/09 indicate that, go oning a similar form to old old ages, assault without hurt accounted for the largest proportion ( 40 % ) of all violent incidents ( British Crime Survey 2009 ) . Possibly so, Sparks et Al ( 1977 ) are justified in reasoning that victimization by assault reduces fear. They explained a negative correlativity between victimization and fright by speculating that people ‘fear the worst ‘ before they have any direct experience with offense, but when they are victimized and are physically unhurt, their anxiousnesss may be alleviated.

Furthermore, it has been suggested by Skogan ( 1987 ) that the exclusion of non-victims from most of the literature has left unanswered the inquiry of to what extent victims differ from comparable non-victims as a consequence of that experience. For this ground my thesis will compare the frights of both ‘victims ‘ and ‘non-victims ‘ of violent offense.

Summary of Literature

The literature I have reviewed screens the most relevant constructs on the fright of violent offense put frontward by influential faculty members who have worked within the kingdom of this discourse. One may reason that due to the sheer copiousness of research that has been advanced by taking bookmans, a comparatively infinitesimal undertaking such as mine based on Nottingham university pupils would turn out insignificant. It could besides be suggested that the field has been exhausted hence there is n’t any room for farther research. Yet it is recognised by the bulk of faculty members that there is ever room for farther geographic expedition. This is peculiarly true for look intoing the fright of offense as many findings are inconsistent or inconclusive. Girling et Al ( 2000: 136 ) describe fright of offense as ‘a subject that ne’er rather corsets still and submits itself for dispassionate scrutiny ‘ . My thesis is hence relevant as it is a modern-day probe into an ever-changing subject that focuses on a antecedently neglected group, university pupils, in the undiscovered context of Nottingham.



There is much argument within the societal scientific disciplines as to what ‘fear of violent offense ‘ really agencies and how it should be measured. For illustration, legion faculty members such as Hale ( 1996 ) believe it is chiefly based on emotions i.e. really experiencing fearful. Other research workers criticise the emotional facet of ‘fear ‘ and maintain that other facets are more of import such as what an single ‘actually does ‘ to battle sensed menaces of force ( Garland 2001 ) . Alternatively, knowledge i.e. what people perceive to be the hazard of victimization has besides been measured in old surveies. My research has investigated the complex relationships between the emotional, behavioral and cognitive facets discussed. By admiting all three elements, fright of violent offense will be measured more accurately ( Weaver 2008 ) .

Data aggregation involved both quantitative and qualitative methods. Chiefly, merely fixed studies ( Farrall et al 1997 ) were traveling to be used as it would bring forth a big measure of consequences for analysis. However, this method used entirely has come under much unfavorable judgment. It has been argued by taking faculty members such as Girling et Al ( 2000 ) and Pain ( 2000 ) that the ‘tick-box study ‘ is excessively blunt an instrument on its ain to derive apprehension of public fright of offense. Taking this into consideration, it was decided that fixed studies would be used to cover a big sample of the first twelvemonth pupil population in Nottingham. Focus groups would so be used to carefully uncover frights, behaviors and cognitive opinions that arguably do non go apparent from analyzing questionnaire consequences.

A self-completion, closed ‘tick-box study ‘ was assembled and distributed to first twelvemonth pupils analyzing a broad scope of academic classs at the University of Nottingham. Once studies had been completed and returned, face-to-face treatment groups or ‘focus groups ‘ with first twelvemonth Geography and Law pupils were so conducted. Roll uping quantitative informations from the studies prior to the group treatments enabled the latter to dig deeper into pupils ‘ frights of force and uncover any behavioral responses that could non be explained in the closed tick-box studies.

Some study inquiries have a inclination to arouse socially desirable responses ( Farrall et al 2009 ) . These are replies that do n’t needfully reflect the respondent ‘s existent feelings but ‘the one which they feel best fits the image of themselves ; the image which they wish to demo to the individual questioning ‘ ( Farrall et al 2009: 146 ) . As aforesaid, work forces are peculiarly likely to give socially desirable responses. Sutton and Farrall ( 2005 ) do this point in a reappraisal of old quantitative informations on fright of offense. They suggest that when replying study inquiries aimed at mensurating fright of offense, work forces frequently suppress the extent of their anxiousnesss. This may hold deductions for study consequences. Furthermore, ‘it is non uncommon for people under the research worker ‘s regard to experience self witting or threatened ‘ ( Flowerdew and Martin 1997: 129 ) . For these grounds, questionnaires were non conducted face to face but were handed out and returned within a hebdomad to a ‘pigeon hole ‘ in the University of Nottingham chief response.

Sampling Methods

Concentrating on first twelvemonth pupils at the University of Nottingham placed restraints on possible trying techniques. The thesis, ideally, would hold an equal figure of female and male respondents, and an equal figure of pupils ‘ whose domicile abode was in Nottingham and elsewhere. In the pilot trial a quota trying method was adopted. This trying method was conducted at the University of Nottingham ‘fresher ‘s carnival ‘ . This method encountered jobs. First, the study did non ensue in a 100 % response rate. Second, it proved about impossible to happen an equal figure of respondents whose domicile abode was in Nottingham as those that were n’t. The concluding determination was to utilize bunch trying. Cluster sampling was used as it was deemed to be an appropriate and realistic method of appraising first twelvemonth university pupils. Survey participants were therefore recruited through the University of Nottingham. Questionnaires were distributed to the university, with permission, which so handed them out to first twelvemonth pupils for completion. As such, all participants met the survey demands. 200 studies were distributed, 124 of which were returned projecting a 62 % response rate. First twelvemonth geographics and jurisprudence pupils were recruited for the focal point groups by administrating voluntary mark up sheets to the University of Nottingham which were so placed in the Geography and Law edifices of the university.

Ethical Issues in the Research

‘Maintaining high ethical criterions is highly of import in societal research as it protects participants and research workers, improves the quality of the informations retrieved and ensures that future research workers will hold entree to participants within the community ‘ ( Broom 2006 )

First twelvemonth university pupils or ‘freshsers ‘ are at a sensitive phase of their lives in an unfamiliar environment. Care must be taken throughout the undertaking to keep high ethical criterions. This is of greatest importance when carry oning the studies and group treatments. This undertaking probes into sensitive issues of a personal nature sing pupils ‘ experiences, feelings and ideas about violent offenses. Probing into such issues could do hurt to respondents. As such, it was critical that the research methods used were formulated to do minimum disturbance. The questionnaires were distributed to the University of Nottingham for pupils to finish in private. A page was attached to each questionnaire explicating to respondents the survey aims, methods and what the information was to be used for. The cover-sheet besides informed the pupils that they would stay confidential ; names and contact references were non needed. The studies were returned to the university within a hebdomad. As with the group treatments, no 1 was coerced into take parting.

The usage of focal point groups has been criticised by faculty members on ethical evidences reasoning that group treatments can uncover personal anxiousnesss and magnify them ( Nachmais & A ; Nachmais 2008 ) . When one conducts research, the wellbeing of research participants must be the top precedence. The research inquiry is ever of secondary importance. Therefore, the inquiries were formulated to be sensitive and did n’t examine into subjects which are known to do great hurt or anxiousness. As such, inquiries about sexual assault were non asked in the face-to-face treatments as it is widely acknowledged that conversations about sexual assault can be highly intrusive and disconcerting, particularly for adult females ( Warr 1995 ) . However, as the treatments were in focal point groups participants were non discouraged from speaking about any experiences they wanted to portion. Consent signifiers were attached to the voluntary mark up sheets, which pupils had to subscribe before they were allowed to take portion. These consent signifiers contained the same information as the cover-sheet for the questionnaires. Additionally, it besides informed possible participants that the group treatments would be recorded for analysis and if they wanted to take portion they had to accept to this. Transcripts of the cover-sheet for the focal point groups can be found in the appendix.

Survey/Questionnaire Construct for Quantitative Analysis

The study included nonsubjective inquiries about the person ‘s personal information and experiences in society. These inquiries formulated the control variables. These control variables were measured against dependent variables. These dependent variables were in the signifier of attitudinal points ; subjective inquiries in the questionnaire based on personal experience, emotional feelings, cognitive opinions and behavioral responses to violent offense. Answers to the study inquiries were coded with categorical or ordinal values. The values were so analysed utilizing the statistical programme ‘SPSS: An IBM Company ‘ in which a ‘fear of violent offense index ‘ was generated out of 25. As the information was usually distributed, independent sample T-tests were conducted to place the relationship between fright of violent offense and the dependent variables. Consequences were displayed in box-plots as they enable clear comparings to be made between the informations sets.

The Control Variables

The following control variables were chosen because they all play a important portion in the bing literature on fright of violent offense. The first half of the study asks inquiries that determine the informations sets for each control variable.

Factual information

The initial subdivision, ‘Factual Information ‘ covers the pupils ‘ demographics. These demographics, Gender and Place of Residence, generate the two independent variables. For gender ‘female ‘ was given a categorical valley of 0 and ‘male ‘ was given a value of 1. For topographic point of domicile abode ‘Elsewhere ‘ was given a categorical value of 0 and ‘Nottingham ‘ was given a value of 1.

Personal experience of Violent Crime

The following control variables were measured on personal experience of offense. Victimization by ‘Physical Assault ( Non sexual ) ‘ , ‘Robbery/mugging ‘ and ‘Sexual assault ‘ were all used as control variables. These were coded with values of 1 for victimization and 0 for negative responses.

Mass Media Consumption

The concluding of the control variables was media ingestion. Respondent were asked ‘Are you a regular reader of a ‘popular ‘ newspaper? ‘ The cryptography followed the same form ; if respondents answered ‘Yes ‘ it was coded 1 and ‘No ‘ was coded 0.

The Dependent Variables: Attitudinal Questions

The 2nd half of the questionnaire was based on the dependant variables which were comprised of attitudinal points. These were used to set up the fright of violent offense index against which the control variables were measured. Numerous faculty members assert that each of the undermentioned facets affect fright of violent offense well hence they are used to explicate the fright index for this thesis.

Emotional Feelingss about Violent Crime in Nottingham

A revised version of the inquiries used by Bazargan ( 1994 ) and BCS ( Home Office 2009 ) with was used to research pupils ‘ emotional feelings towards violent offense in Nottingham. Bazargan ‘s ( 1994 ) method and BCS have been approved and used in multiple surveies on fright of offense. Three inquiries were asked in this subdivision. Possible replies to inquiries on emotions ranged from ‘very safe ‘ to ‘very insecure ‘ and replies were coded from 1 to 4 severally.

Cognitive Opinions on Violent in Nottingham

This subdivision explored first twelvemonth pupils ‘ perceptual experiences of force in Nottingham. The first inquiry asks the respondents how they perceive Nottingham ‘s violent offense rate to compare with other UK metropoliss. Answers range from ‘much lower ‘ to ‘much higher ‘ and were coded 1 to 4 severally. The 2nd inquiry based on cognitive opinions asks respondents how disquieted they are of being a victim of violent offense in Nottingham whilst at university. ‘Physical assault ‘ , ‘Sexual Assault ‘ and ‘Robbery/Mugging ‘ are all measured. Possible replies range from ‘very improbable ‘ ( coded 1 ) to ‘very probably ‘ ( coded 4 ) .

Behavioral Responses to Violent Crime in Nottingham

The concluding dependant variable is based on alterations of behavior. Respondents are asked how frequently they avoid certain activities in Nottingham. Answers range from ‘never avoid ‘ ( coded 1 ) to ‘always avoid ‘ ( coded 4 ) .

Focus Group for Qualitative Analysis

Two group treatments took topographic point ; the first of which was with first twelvemonth geographics pupils and the latter with first twelvemonth jurisprudence pupils both analyzing at the University of Nottingham. Questions were asked in an synergistic group puting where participants were encouraged to speak with other group members about fright of violent offense. The focal point groups were freeform and in-depth. Both started with the research worker inquiring general inquiries about offense with the purpose of doing the group experience more relaxed. Questions so moved on to a more inquisitory nature with specific mention to alterations of behavior. Despite being in a relaxed, informal environment it was of import that the group treatments ‘carefully but persistently probed the relationship between what people thought ( knowledge ) , said ( history ) , really did ( behavior ) and felt ( emotions ) ‘ ( Farrall et al 2009: 52 ) . The focal point group with geographics pupils lasted 52 proceedingss and lasted 33 proceedingss with the jurisprudence pupils. Both focal point groups were recorded.

Once recorded the treatments were formulated into two transcripts. Both were read through and initial notes were taken on anything that appeared relevant to the purposes of the thesis. The transcripts were so read more exhaustively. All subjects were expanded and connexions were made between them in the write up. Smith ( 2003: 71 ) possibly best describes this method of qualitative analysis by deducing that one should ‘imagine a magnet with some of the subjects drawing others in and assisting do sense of them. ‘

Quantitative Consequences from Questionnaires

Fear of violent offense and topographic point of legal residence abode

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

Nottingham 113 15.080 3.706 0.349 ( 14.389, 15.770 )

Elsewhere 11 13.636 2.335 0.704 ( 12.067, 15.205 )

Fear of Violent Crime and Gender

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

Female 75 15.880 3.564 0.412 ( 15.060, 16.700 )

Male 49 13.531 3.260 0.466 ( 12.594, 14.467 )

Fear of Violent Crime and Media Consumption

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

Frequent reader 64 15.469 3.568 0.446 ( 14.578, 16.360 )

Non-frequent reader 60 14.400 3.628 0.468 ( 13.463, 15.337 )

Fear of Violent Crime and Victimization by Physical assault ( Not Sexual )

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

Yes 19 15.053 3.240 0.743 ( 13.491, 16.614 )

No 103 14.932 3.713 0.366 ( 14.206, 15.658 )

Fear of violent offense and victimization by mugging

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

yes 12 17.000 3.133 0.905 ( 15.009, 18.991 )

no 112 14.777 3.626 0.343 ( 14.098, 15.456 )

Fear of Violent Crime and Victimization by Sexual Assault

Independent Sample T-test

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95 % CI

yes 3 20.67 2.08 1.20 ( 15.50, 25.84 )

no 121 14.851 3.551 0.323 ( 14.212, 15.490 )

Analysis: So what are the Biggest Influences on Fear of Violent Crime?


Males are absent from much of the research on fright of violent offense yet it is dominated by faculty members denoting that gender is the strongest index of disparate fright degrees among all populations. As both male and female pupils were used as participants in this thesis, statistical analysis of the completed questionnaires enabled comparings to be made between the two sexes. As aforesaid, emotions, behaviors and cognitive opinions were all measured via the studies. T-tests were conducted for all control variables. T-tests for gender differences showed that there was a strong important relationship between fright of violent offense and gender. Male pupils aggregated an mean fear index of 13.5 whilst females had a higher overall mean fright index of 15.9 out of 25 bespeaking that male pupils were significantly less fearful than female pupils. This determination is consistent with many other quantitative surveies on fright of offense. However, many of the societal scientists carry oning these surveies besides accept that some responses may non match with the respondent ‘s true frights. This is peculiarly relevant for immature grownup males who frequently under-report their frights ( Goodey 1997 ) .

‘If confirmed, the determination that work forces may hold suppressed their degrees of fright when coverage demonstrates that replies to study inquiries ought non to be treated uncritically ‘

( Farrall et al 2009 )

Topographic point of Domicile Residence

Extensive research asserts fright of offense is place dependant. T trial consequences in this thesis show that topographic point of legal residence abode has a important consequence on overall fright of violent offense and in peculiar, alterations of behavior. Students whose domicile abode is in Nottingham have an mean fright index sum of 13.6 whilst pupils whose domicile abode is elsewhere have a higher fear index of 15.1. Despite taking bookmans admiting that fright of offense is influenced by dimensions of topographic point few surveies have investigated the relationship between acquaintance of topographic point and fright of offense. Nevertheless the important relationship calculated from the quantitative analysis is consistent with the findings of Roman and Chalfin ( 2008 ) who concluded that increased acquaintance with topographic point frequently leads to a decrease in overall frights of violent offense.

Mass Media Consumption

There is much argument amongst faculty members as to the consequence media ingestion has on frights of force. It is by and large accepted, nevertheless, that popular/tabloid newspapers often overplay violent offenses and sensationalize them, particularly in topographic points with comparatively high degrees of violent offense ( Jewkes 2004 ) . Over 50 % of the respondents surveyed are regular readers of a ‘popular ‘ newspaper in the UK and the T-test signifies a positive relationship with fright of violent offense. Though important, the average fright of violent offense index is merely somewhat higher for frequent readers ( 15.5 ) than non-frequent readers ( 14.4 ) . This infers that Doob and Macdonald ( 1979 ) may be justified in reasoning that people who read a batch of ‘popular ‘ newspapers report holding greater frights than less frequent readers. On the other manus the averment that the media are non every bit influential as first idea ( Tulloch et al 1998 ) can non be discounted either. More research is needed into all types of media ingestion before any sound finding of fact is reached. Surveying pupils of different age groups such as 2nd and 3rd twelvemonth university pupils in Nottingham would let farther comparings. It would besides enable the research worker to find to what extent pupils becomes more critical of the cognition they receive from the media over clip.

Personal Victimization

Tulloch et Al ( 1998 ) found that being a victim of violent offense is likely to increase one ‘s frights. Other bookmans have claimed that this is non ever the instance. It is argued that other factors should be considered such as whether the person is an ‘isolated ‘ or ‘repeat ‘ victim. Researchers claim that frights vary depending on what violent offense the person had been a victim of. Contrary to some research, T-tests showed significantly higher frights of violent offense, on norm, amongst pupils who had been a victim of any force.

Unsurprisingly, victims of sexual assault had a much higher mean fear index ( 20.7 ) than those who had n’t been victimized ( 14.9 ) . All three victims were female. Fear of sexual assault has frequently been advanced as the chief ground for differential frights amongst work forces and adult females. However, due to the little sample size studied in the quantitative analysis it can non be derived from this thesis that victimization by sexual assault increases frights of violent offense across the pupil population. This premise is farther justified as inquiries about sexual assault were non asked in focal point groups due to ethical concerns.

Out of the 124 pupils surveyed many more of them had been mugged ( 10 % ) or physically assaulted ( 15 % ) than the 2 % that had been sexually victimized. Victims of mugging and physical assault had significantly higher frights than those who had n’t experienced personal victimization. Students who had been a victim of ‘mugging ‘ had an mean fear index of 17 and those who had n’t experienced it personally had an mean index of 14.8 bespeaking a broad spread in frights. Victims of physical assault ( 15.1 ) merely had an mean fright index 0.2 points higher than pupils who had n’t personally been a victim ( 14.9 ) . Even though statistical analysis calculates this little difference to be ‘significant ‘ , in world there was really small unsimilarity between the two informations sets on the whole as the median, upper and lower quartile values show. Furthermore, 82 % of those who had been physically assaulted were males. Males are known to stamp down their frights in studies. One could therefore speculate that the ground why there is so small difference in fright degrees between respondents who have been physcially assaulted and those who have n’t is because the former informations set are dominated by males desiring to suit the ‘hegemonic masculine ideal ‘ ( Goodey 1997 ) . Males may give socialised responses to study inquiries which would so bring forth a lower fright index for the group: victimized by physical assault.

Diging deep into fright of violent offense

‘Some of these people in quantitative questionnaires may hold high degrees of fright. It is merely during open-ended qualitative interviewing that we are able to badger apart more precise inside informations about the emotional responses to offense ‘ ( Farrall et al 2009 ) .

Analysis of the group treatments uncovered spacial fright forms at the local degree. Even though responses were assorted, some pupils stated that they were at least ‘more cognizant ‘ if non ‘fearful ‘ of being a victim of force in certain ‘dangerous ‘ countries in Nottingham.

‘You have to be more cognizant when making material like shopping in the town Centre. Round the halls your alright ‘cuz no 1 is gon na seek and mug you or anything. But in town there ‘s ever that hazard ‘

( Female jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

Two female geographics pupils whose domicile abode is elsewhere said they ‘had their marbless about them ‘ when walking through countries ‘notorious with gun-crime ‘ . Intelligibly, being in first twelvemonth at university, other pupils admitted to holding a hapless cognition of Nottingham but had heard narratives in the media and from other pupils about violent offenses that had been committed and which countries to avoid.

‘I have heard the Meadows is reasonably bad for gun offense and muggings. Apparently person got shot at that place at the weekend. Dunno where it is though. I ‘m a spot lazy ‘n ‘ tend to remain around the halls. Everythin ‘ we need is here truly ‘

( Malegeography pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

Knowledge about violent offenses in Nottingham was absorbed from legion beginnings. Participants said they had been told about shots, muggings and assaults from other pupils and seen them in the media. Awareness of such incidents appeared to do some pupils feel insecure and led to alterations of behavior in certain topographic points.

‘I read in ‘The Nottingham Evening Post ‘ that some cats got stabbed in the lacing market merely last hebdomad. I wo n’t be traveling round there for a piece ‘

( Female geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

The female geographics pupil ‘s mention to the local imperativeness coverage violent offense in Nottingham sparked a long treatment amongst the participants about bloodstained histories of violent offenses in the ‘Popular ‘ newspapers. Keating ( 2002 ) claim that, through the media, ‘fear discourses gather impulse. ‘ This was the instance in the focal point group with geographics pupils as mention to one local intelligence narrative stimulated a sequence of disking histories of force witnessed through the mass media.

However, it was recognised amongst the jurisprudence focal point group that the mass media frequently exaggerate violent offense narratives, pull stringsing anxiousnesss. These pupils refused to be influenced by the ‘culture of mediation ‘ ( Keating 2002 ) or ‘mean universe syndrome ‘ which one pupil argued are created by the Government for matter-of-fact terminals.

‘It ‘s all a burden of bunk. The media know what they ‘re making ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

‘And the authorities. It ‘s them that are making moral terrors through their usage of the media. Peoples so accept inhibitory societal policies ‘cuz they become petrified of force. Well, I ‘m non falling under their enchantment ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode in Nottingham )

Many faculty members emphasise that frights of force are inherently linked to nonsubjective and subjective appraisals of one ‘s physical environment. Through in-depth interviews Farrall, Jackson and Gray ( 2009 ) found that physical visual aspect was peculiarly important for respondents ; a ‘clean and tidy ‘ infinite was of import for one ‘s sense of safety. Qualitative analysis in this thesis discovered that physical visual aspect was non as of import an influence on fright of violent offense as other surveies have suggested. When a participant made mention to physical visual aspect they were instantly rebuked.

yeh. Like you merely have to look at the topographic point to recognize your gon na acquire more problem on your doorsill. I ‘ve got a friend who lives there whose in 2nd twelvemonth and she ‘s been mugged already this term!

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

nah Lenton ‘s aright. Yeh its non the cleanest of topographic points but that ‘s ‘cuz of all the pupils!

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode in Nottingham )

Less accent is placed on physical visual aspect for this undertaking than other research on fright of offense. This goes against Ferraro ( 1995 ) who maintains that an person ‘s perceptual experience of their physical environment has a strong influence on their subjective estimations of victimization. One could theorize as to the grounds why this is so ; perchance because pupils themselves are non tidy as one participant suggested! More research into this topic country would be needed before pulling together any decisions.

It is widely acknowledged that fright of offense is heightened at dark in interior metropolis countries ( Box et al 1998 ) .

Temporalty emerged as a cardinal subject from the focal point groups, which were concentrated with talk about ‘dangerous ‘ topographic points being described in footings of ‘night ‘ or ‘after dark ‘ . When asked, most pupils admitted that their frights were amplified at dark. From the focal point groups it appeared to be the instance that frights were influenced temporally to a greater extent than spatially. During the treatments, pupils would frequently talk in a temporal sense when speaking about their frights.

‘You would n’t believe twice approximately goin ‘ out in the twenty-four hours to pinch over to the local store but at dark you merely would n’t travel entirely ‘

( Female geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

Precautionary behavior at dark was more prevailing amongst female than male pupils. From the studies, 67 % of female respondents said they ‘sometimes ‘ or ‘always ‘ avoid walking or ramble oning entirely at dark compared with merely 22 % of males. One male geographics pupil admitted in the group treatments that he believed pupils were more likely to be a victim of violent offense at dark. However, this did n’t halt him and other males from go forthing their abode after dark.

‘Yeh its common sense that your much more likely to acquire assaulted or whatever after dark. Your more cognizant of it but does n’t halt me or my couples leavin ‘ the level at dark! ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

Responses from the study highlight that this attitude towards alterations of behavior was prevailing amongst many male respondents. When responses were aggregated merely 28 % of males ‘often ‘ or ‘always ‘ avoided walking/jogging entirely at dark, walking through ill illuminated countries at dark, and utilizing public conveyance at dark. This was compared to 71 % of females. However, 58 % of male pupils whose domicile abode is elsewhere did acknowledge to ‘often ‘ or ‘always ‘ avoiding clubbing at weekends in Nottingham. Of the 11 male and female pupils surveyed whose lasting abode is in Nottingham, merely 1 admitted to ‘often ‘ or ‘always ‘ avoiding clubbing at weekends. This subject was discussed in the focal point groups. Certain male persons were surprisingly unfastened about the issue.

‘What ‘s the point in goin ‘ out at weekends. Student darks are cheaper and better plus you do n’t hold to set up with all the ‘locals ‘ who merely go out to do a battle. ‘

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

This shows that topographic point of domicile abode does act upon alterations of behavior in response to fear of violent offense. The demonisation of ‘locals ‘ dominated much of the treatment in both focal point groups. It led to a few differences between pupils ‘ whose domicile abode is in Nottingham and those whose topographic point of domicile abode is elsewhere. The chief ground given for avoiding locals was that participants had old bad experiences with them in Nottingham. An alternate point of view put frontward by one participant in the geographics focal point group was that the media are to fault for hapless dealingss between pupils and locals across the UK.

‘The media are ever after a whipping boy for society ‘s jobs. Sometimes its ‘locals ‘ and other times its pupils like that chap who got caught urinatin ‘ on the war commemoration. He had that slaughter T shirt on ‘n ‘ everyone started pointin ‘ the finger at pupils ‘

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode in Nottingham )

The media represent culprits of offense through simple stereotypes ( Keating 2002 ) Sometimes pupils are portrayed by the media as being bibulous bully ; the media craze environing the university pupil in Sheffield ‘urinating on the war commemoration ‘ is a premier illustration. It is the ‘young grownups of the urban lower class ‘ ( Keating 2002 ) nevertheless, who are persistently depicted in the mass media as being a ‘problem population ‘ associated with hanging about on street corners and arousing force in town Centres.

In the focal point groups a figure of participants of all socio-demographic backgrounds spoke about utilizing a assortment of schemes to guard against the menace of violent offense, largely after dark. Some of these behaviors were really elusive and as such were non exposed in the statistical analysis of the study consequences. These precautional behaviors included non flashing valuables, remaining in groups of friends on darks out and non go forthing drinks unattended.

‘You ever lodge together with couples on a dark out so if there is any problem so you ‘ve got more of a opportunity of managing it ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode in Nottingham )

Male pupils ‘opened up ‘ in the focal point groups and radius of modifying their behavior in response to the menace of violent offense ; something that was non apparent in quantitative analysis of the studies. Yet, male participants spoke in such a manner that complied with their ‘hegemonic masculine life ‘ ( Goodey 1977 ) .

In the latter phases of the focal point group with jurisprudence pupils, two male respondents admitted to being dying in state of affairss which they believe could take to them being victimized.

‘There are times when you get a spot paranoid like when I was walking back from uni the other twenty-four hours n think ahh shit persons following me but so you snap out of it after like a 2nd ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

‘Yeh ( express joying ) it happens to the best of us mate ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

However, as Goodey ( 1997 ) found, ‘any sense of exposure is most frequently accomplished as a signifier of jesting raillery within all male groups ‘ . Furthermore, male participants said that they merely experienced these feelings and took appropriate action in mention to peculiar fortunes and that these were grounded in the particulars of clip and topographic point. Farrall, Jackson and Gray ( 2009 ) depict these as ‘experiental frights ‘ . Yet several male pupils were in fierce resistance to this term and to a great extent criticised the usage of the word ‘fear ‘ in this undertaking.

I hate that term ‘fear ‘

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

Yeh yeh it ‘s a burden of bullocks int’it

( Male geographics pupil, domicile abode in Nottingham )

Participants of both sexes said that the word ‘fear ‘ was excessively emotional in depicting their feelings, cognitive opinions and behaviors towards violent offense. All respondents used their ain footings. ‘Anger ‘ , ‘concern ‘ and ‘awareness ‘ were merely three of them. This demonstrates that ‘fear of violent offense ‘ is complex and diverse. ‘People ‘s talk about offense is heavy and tangential ‘ ( Girling et al 2000:5 )

The studies indicate that the huge bulk of pupils ( 87 % ) from all backgrounds modified their behavior in at least one facet. In the focal point groups respondents said that it was everyone ‘s duty to guard themselves from violent offense. Many pupils were surprisingly unsympathetic to those who did n’t take safeguards and were so victims of even the most serious offenses.

‘You can travel out and hold a good clip. Drink every bit much as you want but you have got to take accept the effects if you get attacked or even raped on your manner place. ‘

( female geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

‘How can you state it ‘s the miss ‘s mistake if they get raped? ! ‘

( Male geographics pupil. Domicile abode elsewhere )

‘That came out incorrect but everyone has a duty to look after themselves ‘

( female geographics pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

This unsympathetic attitude and an accent placed on duty for oneself is related to Farrall, Jackson and Gray ‘s ( 2009 ) ‘Responsibilization theory ‘ and Jackson and Gray ‘s ( 2009 ) impression of ‘Functional fright ‘ . A certain sum of fright is needed in society so one can protect themselves against victimization. As aforementioned a big figure of pupils modified their behavior to some extent as a consequence of this political orientation.

There were besides a little figure of pupils ( 6 % ) that were all ‘female, whose domicile abode is elsewhere ‘ , who modified their behavior in every facet ; ‘often ‘ or ‘always ‘ exhibiting precautional behaviors. These participants have been described as ‘chronically fearful ‘ ( Garland 2001 ) . One female jurisprudence pupil reported being highly fearful in ‘everyday ‘ state of affairss.

‘Ever since I was a small miss I have been afraid of being attacked. Even when I ‘m walking about in wide daytime I keep looking over my shoulder ‘

( Female jurisprudence pupil, domicile abode elsewhere )

The focal point groups provided a valuable penetration into this issue. Two male pupils who had similar experiences of being physically assaulted had really different readings of the effects it has had on their lives.

‘You get used to it truly. When you go out in Nottingham you got ta accept that you may acquire some problem. I ‘ve been assaulted before in town. It did n’t truly consequence me every bit much as I thought it would. I merely though oh good and got on with my life ‘

( Male jurisprudence pupil A, domicile abode in Nottingham )

‘Since I got attacked some old ages ago and ended up in infirmary


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out