Features of data and information

Identify the characteristics of informations and information


Data is defined as the aggregation of facts about events. This aggregation of facts is in natural signifier means that an unorganized and unrefined signifier, which can non be usage for meaningful intent for illustration Name, Age, Price etc.


Information is defined as a well-organised, well-processed and meaningful signifier of informations generated from natural informations. The terminal users utilises this meaningful information for doing a determination easy for illustration Employees Records, Sale Report etc.

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Accessibility, Relevance, understandability, seasonableness and truth:

In any administration it is of import that handiness to information must be provided to all sections employees it means that handiness of information to the direction and other staff. The accessible information must be relevant to the procedures, functionality and operations of that section. The information must be comprehendible i.e. clear, good organised and structured, must be timelines i.e. suited to finish related undertaking and must be accurate to bring forth the expected consequence decently.

Determine the standards to be applied when choosing informations and information to back up decision-making

In concern environment informations is a valuable plus for any administration. The information must be collected carefully because administration decision-making procedures are based on the generated information from this information. While choosing informations and information for decision-making we must use some standards to this choice such as truth, cogency, lucidity etc.

Data choice standards:

Accuracy, completeness, cogency, consistence


Data truth is critical function in direction information because an accurate informations can bring forth extremely valuable consequences. For informations truth seasonableness is of import otherwise there will be mistakes in the consequence.


The completeness of the informations means the handiness of latest informations for decision-maker. The uncomplete informations can take to hapless decision-making direction information.


The cogency of informations average informations must be collected carefully and from an reliable beginning. The beginning of informations must be known and verified.


The consistence of informations is cardinal function in good direction information because it generates dependable, steady, well-organised and well-structured information.

Information choice standards:

Data quality, definition lucidity, relevancy, presentation, seasonableness, handiness

Data quality:

To bring forth extremely valuable and standard information informations must be harmonizing to certain quality criterions such as informations must be in the appropriate format, good construction, well-organised and standard reassigning method must be used.

Definition lucidity:

The generated Information must be clearly and easy apprehensible, this will let administration employees to utilize the right information in the right topographic point.


Information must be relevant to a undertaking that it can be examined and packaged into an effectual format. This is helpful that the direction information is holding to the point information but the information must non be uncomplete.


The direction information must be able to show information in the right format, order, well-structured and attractive design. This will depict a clearer image of the administration.


The information must non take longer clip i.e. must be concise and to the point that the direction information can rapidly response.


The regular handiness of information must be guaranteed to the direction information that all undertakings can run swimmingly and the direction information is able to bring forth up to day of the month consequences.

Measure the impact of a direction information system to an administration

Increasing productiveness and creativeness:

Management information system provides cognition to workers accessing information resources. Using this cognition the productiveness of administration is increased quickly i.e. industry more merchandises in short clip. Not merely this but besides it brings new thoughts and inspiration into the administration.

Developing policies:

Management information system helps administrations to acquire maximal benefits from the extended usage of these information resources in developing policies i.e. planning, execution and rating in the administration.

Use of strategic information resources:

In the direction information system the strategic information resources helps administration in increasing productiveness and brings new invention. Administrations are able to make better planning, implement new policies expeditiously. Strategic information resources improve the usage of information resources in concern, authorities and non-profit administrations schemes.

Understanding ICT as a tool for accessing information

In the direction information system the Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) tools are the most normally used beginning for accessing information. These tools allow organisation to entree any type of information such merchandises, researches, new developments, quality criterions, communicating with employees and clients etc.

Pull offing external, corporate and internal information in organisation

The direction information system consistently and expeditiously manages the external information i.e. client demands and picks, corporate information i.e. administration values, trade name names, advertisement and selling process, and internal information i.e. effectivity of undertakings, speedy processing, reading and response of the administration staff.

Using information to support concern procedures

Information supports the undermentioned concern procedure.

Market and client information

Using Market information administration can larn about the rivals in the market leting them to better merchandise quality, increase productiveness etc. utilizing client information administration will hold a better apprehension of client demands and picks.

Merchandise information

Using merchandise information administration can better merchandises quality, addition production, monetary value comparing and easy handiness.

Specialist cognition

Using specializer cognition administration can fabricate new advanced merchandises, add new client to concern, reduced cost and outgo.

Business procedure information

Business procedure information supports the internal information about the public presentation of the administration such Fundss, Customer, internal procedure and acquisition and growing.

Management information and programs

Management information and programs supports the developing policies, future planes, and betterment of services of the administration.

Human resource information

Human resource information is indispensable for administrations repute, merchandise support, future planes and inventions.

Supplier information

The Supplier information allows the administrations to take from a big figure of providers offers low-cost monetary value, best quality and speedy service.

LO2: Understanding the importance of information sharing within the administration

Information sharing within the administration doing employees as squad leting them to set forward their thoughts, inspiration, new creative activities, discourse different affair and happen solution for critical issue. This improves the overall efficiency of the administration in footings of employees, merchandises, policies, clients and rivals.

Appraisal Standards

Determine the legal duties in sourcing, sharing and hive awaying information

Confidentiality and privateness:

Particular attention must be taken when sourcing, sharing and hive awaying information such that this must to the full compliance with the Data Protection Act. Information about administration and employee must non be disclosed with out their consent.

Copyright and package protection

Any type of informations, information and package must be used under right of first publication and package protection Act. This means that utilizing person work must be authorised by that individual or any administration to which it belongs.

Contractual duties

In instance of conditional understanding information sourcing, sharing and hive awaying must non transgress the conditions i.e. all these operations must be harmonizing to the footings and conditions of contract.

IS and Crime ( condemnable non civil jurisprudence )

This includes frauds i.e. venally use of information, violation i.e. misdemeanor of regulations and ordinance, miss used of information i.e. for the intent of doing administration or single unpopular.

Discuss when information should be offered and entree allowed.

Information obtaining, accessing and processing must be harmonizing to the Data Protection Act, which gives the right to persons Person, administration etc to cognize what information is held about them, the intent of information retention every bit good ensures them that personal information is handled decently.

Anyone who is treating person personal information must follow with the eight rules of Data Protection Act, which are explained below.

Reasonably and lawful procedure:

Harmonizing to 1st rule, Personal informations must be processed reasonably and legitimately. This means that the informations capable i.e. individual, administration permitted the processing of their personal information for any legal and legitimate intents such as employment, justness, wellness and safety etc.

Procedure for limited intent:

Harmonizing to 2nd rule, Personal informations must be obtained and procedure for a limited intent merely i.e. one or more peculiar and lawful intents. If the farther processing of personal information is required for other intents than the specified so the informations topic must be informed and further processing should be harmonizing to the informations object consent.

Adequate, relevant and non inordinate:

Harmonizing to 3rd rule, Personal informations must be equal, relevant and non inordinate in relation to the intent it is obtained and processed. This must guarantee the informations topic that the processing of personal informations is relevant to the specified intent and is non unneeded.

Accurate and up to day of the month:

Harmonizing to 4th rule, Personal informations must be accurate and up to day of the month if necessary. This means that the truth of the informations must be guarantee whatever it is straight obtained from the informations topic or it is through 3rd party. It is the duty of the informations object to inform the about any alterations or inaccuracy in the information.

Not maintain for longer than is necessary:

Harmonizing to 5th rule, Personal informations must non be kept longer than is required for the intent or intents after it is processed.

Procedure in line with a individual ‘s right:

Harmonizing to 6th rule, Personal informations shall be processed with the informations capable rights under the Data Protection act. This means the information topic has the right to bespeak for the rectification, barricading and canceling of their personal informations after processing.


Harmonizing to 7th rule, the security of personal informations must be ensures. This means that in instance of unauthorized or improper processing, inadvertent loss and devastation to the personal informations appropriate proficient and organizational steps should be taken to forestall such incidents.

Datas Transportation

Harmonizing to 8th rule, Personal informations must non be transferred outside the European Economic Area i.e. to outside states. If the outside states can guarantee that personal informations will hold equal degree of protection and will be processed with the consent of informations object and for the specified intent, so in such state of affairs informations can be transferred.

Measure the formats in which information can be offered.


In Electronic format information are provided through electronic agencies computing machine generated such as E-mail, Ms Word file, Excel sheet, Data Bases etc. while manual information are about are provided on documents i.e. printed or handwritten such as log books, manual order book, letters, books, studies etc.

Lists of Persons

List of person could be computing machine generated or manual, which contains inside informations about organisation employees, managerial halt and other staff responsible for different undertaking. Normally this contains names, appellation, contact etc.


Libraries are good organized and well-structured informations storage system used in computing machine to holds informations files, booklets, records, images, and pictures in a proper order etc. now yearss there are many electronic libraries keeping e-book, e-journal etc. non merely electronic libraries are used still most organisation utilizing big figure of manual libraries contains books, diary, research documents, studies etc.


Booklet is container used by computing machine system for forming booklets, plans and files on a disc in graphical user interfaces largely represented with a graphical image ( icon ) of file booklet on the screen. Manual booklets usually used for keeping documents i.e. bills, study, disbursals etc.


Computer generated papers is any self-contained piece of work created with aid of any application plan is saved with a alone file name. This alone name is used to recover that papers. While manual paperss are difficult transcripts or handwritten records, personal item, manual etc.

List points inside the lists

This is dissident or tree construction, similar points are list under individual class the inside list are known as sub classs of the chief class. This keeps points in an organized construction and it is easy to happen and turn up a specific point.

List points present in the libraries:

In the libraries all points are divided in classs, each class contains a list of interconnected points as good sub points, this classification helps in seeking and turn uping points within the huge sum of the available points.

LO3: Use information to inform and back up strategic decision-making

Appraisal Standards

Analyze information to place forms and tendencies

With the aid of information system administrations can place and foretell the forms and tendencies in all facet of the concern such as market, competition, client demands etc and based on the information analysis they can do good strategic determinations.

The market

The Information system analyses the informations collected from the market and based on the analysis the administration can make up one’s mind about the merchandise quality betterment, addition productiveness, adjust merchandise monetary value and can make up one’s mind about the launching of new merchandises and administration hereafter planes.

The competition

Based on the Information system analysis of the market informations administration can make up one’s mind about the merchandise monetary value decrease, improves quality, better advertisement run, more installations to client and stockholder, easy handiness etc as competition with other administration.

The province of economic system

Based on the Information system analysis administration can fabricate economical merchandise with low cost and can use available resources expeditiously i.e. decrease in fabrication clip, proper usage of stuff, needed sum of merchandise, decrease in fabrication defects etc.

Legislative development

Information system improves the legislative system of the administration. They are to the full conformity with the informations protection act, international Torahs and criterions, legal rights. Based on the information analysis the administrations can take legal stairss to pull Customers, compete with their rivals, can use information resources, portions information ‘s, utilise hardware and package etc.

Customer demands

Based on the Information system analyses of the collected information from the market organisation can foretell the client demands such as what client wants, is their demand of betterment in merchandises, is at that place a possibility to establish new merchandise, are merchandises easy available to client, is at that place a demand of alteration in the policy and statute law, are clients able to perpetrate complains and advices etc, are they happy with monetary values etc.

Measure a scope of determination devising tools and techniques available to back up a strategic determination


SWOT ( Strength weaknesses chances and Threats ) analysis tools provide an organisation a structural analysis of its Strengths, Weaknesses, the chances and menaces they are confronting. The SWOT analysis is based on the treatments and people point of views and it is non the terminal but measure before any action be aftering take topographic point. The organisation use the analysis consequence to appreciate its strength ( personal, competition, cognition, production etc ) for taking determination to minimise its failings ( better developments, competition, merchandise quality, client communicating etc ) , utilize most of the chances ( possibilities, value in following five old ages, merchandise demands etc ) available and handling possible present and future menaces ( restrictions, losing merchandise values, equipment and package mistake etc ) in a planned and good organized manner.

Critical success factor ( CSF )

Critical success factor is an attack takes by the administration to find organizational demand for information. There are a Numberss of cardinal factors required for any administration to be successful, these factors are known as critical success factors. If administration is unable to accomplish these critical success factors, so this will hold a high impact on the administration and as a consequence there is possibility of administration failure.

Model Driven DSS

Model-driven is a complex Decision Support System ( DSS ) system assisting in analysing determinations or taking different options between the available. This type of system is used by the organisation / Business directors and staff members, or by other peoples normally interact with the organisation. The usage of the system is for a figure of intents, which is depending on the apparatus of the theoretical account such as programming, determination analyses etc. there are a figure of ways for the deployment of Model Driven DSS system such as in base entirely PCs through hardware and package in, through client / waiter systems, or through the web.

Data Driven DSS

The organisation director largely uses the Data Driven Decision Support System ( DSS ) system every bit good staff and the product/service providers used it. The usage of the system is for a specific demand by directing question to a database or informations warehouse, which so returns the requested specific information. This type of system is largely deployed through a mainframe system, client/server system and trough the web. Computer-based databases are the illustration such system, holding the capableness to response to question and valuable consequences value from bing databases.

Data Mining

Data Mining is the informations analysing procedure from different positions and after treating coevals of utile information sum-up. This drumhead information are utilized by the organisations to increase gross, cuts costs etc. Data excavation package is one of the analytical tools available to analyse informations. This tool allows users to make analysis of the informations from different angles, categorise informations, and eventually designation of the relationships in a summarized information.

Determine the beginning available to help in analysing informations information

Information resources such as Data, Information and cognition

In concern environment information resources are the most valuable assets for any administration. The information i.e. informations, information or cognition must be collected carefully and with genuineness because the administration decision-making procedures are based on these information. These beginnings of these information resources could be organisation employees, client and other administrations but there must be some standards for utilizing these resources such as truth, cogency, lucidity etc.

Technology resources such as hardware and package

For the processing of administration informations and information such as merchandises item, employee ‘s inside informations, fabrication, stock and histories information appropriate engineering resources such hardware i.e. computing machine systems, pressmans etc and package database system, informations analysis tools etc must be available to directors and staffs of the administration. Using such resources reduces production clip, cost, improves communicating within the administration and with the clients.

Peoples resources such as employee and directors in organisations

Administration employees and directors are the critical portion in analyzing informations because they provides the administration internal informations such as manufactured measure, cost, stock etc and every bit good they are runing the available equipments, computing machine systems and package. In administration largely there are people specially trained for operating specialised hardware and package for information processing, analyzing, study coevals.

LO4: Monitor and reexamine direction information

Appraisal Standards

Identify methods of measuring direction information within an organisation

For high degree of direction information administrations utilise different information rating methods to guarantee a dependable, trusted and quality of information direction system.

Datas administration

Datas administration ( DG ) is the overall direction of the informations employed in the endeavor. The Data administration ensures the handiness, serviceability, unity, and security of the employed information. A regulating organic structure or council runs a well-organized information administration plan with a chiseled set of processs and programs for the executing of defined processs in the right way. The followerss are the three cardinal elements of the successful informations administration in an organisation.

The ability to utilize seasonably, dependable, sure information to drive the concern

The information administration plan must be able to guarantee the information handiness within the prescribed clip frame to the receivers that it can be processed at in early phase. This information must be dependable i.e. consistent that executing of different procedures can be performed in proper order and in the right way. Equally good the information must be trusted i.e. accurate, update and must be gathered from the trusted beginning otherwise it will take to plan failure.

Bettering the quality of concern decision- devising

The information administration programme must be able to use certain standard determination support systems for the accomplishment of high quality of concern decision-making such as Model Driven DSS, Data Driven DSS etc. The available informations for decision-making must be harmonizing to certain choice criterion, appropriate format, good structured and good organised.

Guaranting consistent usage of information

The information administration plan must guarantee the consistent usage of information in administration for dependability and smooth flow of concern different procedure. The information flow must be regular to different constituent of the overall system that the system can bring forth dependable, trusted and high quality of consequence otherwise incompatibility will bring forth wrong consequence and will take to system failure.

Management information value


Seasonableness is a high importance in direction information, which means that the receivers must have information within the prescribed clip frame. The seasonableness can guarantee an early phase information executing, which generates the accurate information consequence. The feature of seasonableness of information must be effectual as good must includes the current up to day of the month information.


Management information system provides valuable contents for administration internal and external procedure support. These contents support concern different procedure such as contents for determination devising procedure, for fabricating procedure, for marketing procedure, fiscal procedure, client and services support etc.


Management information system provides information in an appropriate and clear format, which is easy apprehensible. The provided information clearly describe the demand, the intent and topographic point where it can be used such as market related information clearly describes the value of the administration and its merchandise that can be used to better quality and services.


Management information systems help organisations in cost decrease in the overall concern i.e. internally and externally. It allows organisations to present their merchandises and services to clients at lower monetary value than their rivals. Therefore, due to information system organisations can last in hard state of affairss and can turn quickly.

Discuss procedure for analysing impact of information on strategic determination made

Set aim of procedure or organisation

The information analysis allows the decision-maker in the organisation to develop and put aims and allocates resources required for the accomplishment of these aims. Thus the organisation top-level direction is profiting from information analysis in doing strategic planning.

Evaluate conditions ends achieved

The information system allows the administration to measure weather the coveted ends are achieved from the information analysis or non. In instance of failure the procedure is refined with using more resources, expertness, attention and exhaustively probe to do certain a quality of consequence achieves. Gap analysis is used for the rating of conditions ends achieved or non.

Assess grounds for discrepancy from mark to existent

The public presentation diagnosing is done by using cognition to public presentation to look into weather the procedures, operations and maps are bring forthing the quality consequences or non. Each procedure is judged exhaustively weather the overall procedure is running swimmingly and will finish successfully.

Revision and implement new attacks or modify ends

If there is any error in the procedure it is revised and retest. Some times the accomplishment of the desired resulted new attacks is implemented and some clip the troubles in accomplishing consequence can take to alteration in ends.

The ASHEN factors is used for the appraisal of cognition quality at the points described below

  • Decisions
  • Problem solutions
  • Solution creative activity
  • Opinion
  • Learning points

The ASHEN factors are one of the of import properties used in DIKAR theoretical account for cognition quality appraisal. It helps in doing the determinations in the right topographic point and way, helps in happening the solution for the jobs, helps in happening solution in an appropriate manners, helps in opinion of the undertaking, jobs, solutions and eventually leting stop user to larn different attacks for the solution of the coveted undertaking.


  1. Dr.L.Ali, ” 7004_Strategic Information Management, 2009 ” , Lecture Notes, Cromwell college of IT & A ; Management
  2. Manga Singh, ” Management Information System ” , 2010, Thesis
  3. “ Data Protection Act 1998 – The Principles explained ” , at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.northtyneside.gov.uk/pls/portal/NTC_PSCM.PSCM_Web.download? p_ID=29520

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