Final Oceanography Exam

The science of classifying and naming organisms is called taxonomy.
Bacteria are found in both Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Protoctista.
Which of the following statements concerning bacteria is false?
Bacteria were the first type of cells to evolve on earth.
Bacteria are found in both Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Protoctista.
Bacteria lack membrane-bound organelles and a distinct nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Bacteria have a cell membrane and a cell wall.
Bacteria can be found living in extreme environments (heat, salinity, cold, etc.).
We will write a custom essay sample on
Final Oceanography Exam
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Kingdom Plantae—algae
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
Kingdom Animalia—dolphins
Kingdom Plantae—algae
Kingdom Fungi—mushrooms
Kingdom Protoctista—phytoplankton
Kingdom Monera—bacteria in hydrothermal vents
B. Archaea
Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below.

A. Animalia
B. Archaea
C. Fungi
D. Plantae
E. Protoctista

The first (capitalized) word of an organism’s two-part scientific name denotes the _________.
Carolus Linnaeus
The scientist who in 1758 created a system that is the basis of the modern system of classification of organisms is __________.
taxonomic classification
The scientific discipline concerned with naming and grouping organisms is called __________.
genus and species
The two most specific groupings in taxonomic classification are __________.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
The correct sequence of taxonomic groupings, from the most to the least comprehensive, is
Delphinus delphis
Which of the following is the correct genus and species name of the common dolphin, a marine mammal?
Spend their entire lives as plankton
Spend their adult lives and nekton or benthos spend their juvenile and/or larval stages as plankton
zooplankton and meroplankton
Which pair of planktonic subdivisions correctly describes a crab larva?
The plankton classification includes all organisms such as bacteria, algae, and animals that actively swim independently of ocean currents.
live buried in the sand, shells, or mud
live on surface of sea floor
lug worm.
An example of an organism that might be part of the infauna is a/an:
Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below.

A. seagrasses
B. krill
C. jellyfish
D. floating Sargassum
E. zooplankton

brown algae
Giant kelp is a member of the _________ group.
Where they live (their habitat)
Their mobility (how they move)
Of the following factors, which is/are used to classify marine organisms as plankton, nekton, or benthos? Select all that apply.
Classified as phytoplankton
A type of autotrophic organism
Living within the euphotic zone
Of the following characteristics, which apply to a planktonic organism that photosynthesizes?
benthic environment.
Most marine species are found in the:
The group comprising the largest number of species on Earth is the _________.
At what time of day would you expect an increase in the number of crepuscular predators in deep water?
sonar signals in WWII reflected off of densely packed concentrations of organisms creating a “false bottom”Organisms within DSL ascend to surface only at night to feed under cover of darkness and then migrate to deeper (darker) water to hide during the day
Deep Scattering Layer (DSL)
daytime predators
Phytoplankton are small in size as a result of predation pressure.
Streamlining in fishes and other nektonic organisms means that the minimum amount of energy is expended to swim through the water.
coastal organisms that can tolerate large changes in salinity
organisms that can only tolerate very small changes
A euryhaline organism would be poorly adapted to living in coastal environments.
Species diversity and total biomass are greater in warm-water marine environments in comparison to cold-water marine environments.
One reason that polar climates support a higher biomass is that colder water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warmer water.
increases the ability of wastes to diffuse out of the organism.
increases the surface area to volume ratio that in turn reduces frictional resistance to sinking.
increases the ability to absorb nutrients.
A small size is advantageous for marine organisms because it:
are larger in size.
When compared to their warmer water counterparts, cold-water plankton often:
tapers at the back end.
A common body shape that streamlines an organism in the marine environment is a flattened body that:
An organism that tolerates a wide range of salinities is referred to as:
difference in salinity increases.
Osmotic pressure increases as the:
pressure that must be applied to the more concentrated solution to prevent water molecules from passing into it
Osmotic pressure
if salinity of organism’s body fluid equals that of the ocean. Equal osmotic pressure (no net transfer of water in either direction)
salinity of organism is higher than the surrounding fluid. Seawater will pass through the cell walls into cells (INTO HIGHER CONCENTRATED SOLUTION)
salinity in organism is less than that of the surrounding water. Cells pass through cell membranes into seawater
tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal salt concentration is lower than that of seawater.
Compared to freshwater fishes, marine fishes:
The seasonal temperature range in the deep ocean is usually:
the effects of osmotic pressure
Marine fishes usually do not survive in freshwater because of _________.
Warm-water species tend to be individually smaller and reproduce earlier than cold-water species.
Warm-water species comprise a greater number of species and reproduce more frequently than cold-water species.
Warm-water species constitute a much smaller biomass than cold-water species.
Of the following statements about temperature of water and its effect on marine life, which is/are true?
An increase in the ratio of surface area to volume
The development of intricately shaped body surfaces, such as unusual appendages or rings
The development of lots of spines
Of the following adaptations, which tend(s) to increase an organism’s ability to float?
The neritic province is associated with the continental shelf.
False (mesopelagic)
The oxygen minimum layer is found in the bathypelagic zone.
epipelagic zone.
The euphotic zone is confined to the:
bathypelagic zone.
Organisms with small bodies, extremely large mouths, and sharp teeth are likely to be found in the:
Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below.

A. abyssopelagic
B. bathypelagic
C. benthopelagic
D. epipelagic
E. mesopelagic

benthic, littoral
You are about to go out and harvest some Pismo clams. The environment you find them in will be _________.
within the neritic province
highly productive waters
within the epipelagic zone
Waters of the continental shelf are generally _______.
floats for a portion of its life
lives in benthic sediments
Match the marine zone with its correct location.
Single celled but lack discrete nuclei and the internal organelles present in all other organisms
Multicelled plants
Multicelled animals
Decomposers in marine ecosystem
Diverse collection of single-celled and multicelled organisms that have a nucleus
The products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)
Compensation depth is the depth in the ocean where the photosynthetic rate exceeds the rate of cellular respiration.
depth at which net photosynthesis becomes zero
Compensation depth for photosynthesis
Tropical open ocean waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world’s oceans.
there is a net gain in organic carbon by organisms.
In primary production:
primary productivity.
In general, the rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter is called:
compensation depth for photosynthesis.
The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the:
The color of light most readily absorbed by water is _________.
pseudo-nitzschia, because it causes amnesic shellfish poisoning.
Mass mortality events of marine mammals and birds may occur after ingesting prey items that contain algal toxins. What organism that can cause harmful algal blooms should humans be concerned about if animals in the area are having seizures and exhibiting erratic, “drunken-like” behavior?
The group of marine macroscopic algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the Division Rhodophyta (red algae)
Diatoms are classified as members of the Division Chlorophyta.
Class of algae that are contained in a microscopic shell called a test (made of silica)
Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division:
Important marine autotrophs that have silica incorporated into their cell walls are:
A. Avicennia (black mangrove)
B. Rhizophora (red mangrove)
C. Sargassum (Gulf weed)
D. Spartina (marsh grass)
E. Zostera (eelgrass)
In dead zones resulting from eutrophication, animal life is absent due to the lack of _________.
Primary productivity in temperate marine systems is limited solely by the amount of available solar radiation.
Equatorial upwelling decreases primary productivity in tropical waters.
The percentage of biomass regularly decomposed within the euphotic zone is about:
temperate waters, polar waters, tropical waters.
The relative productivity in the world’s oceans from most productive to least productive is:
Productivity in polar oceans is:
equatorial upwelling zones
coastal upwelling zones
coral reefs
Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have unusually high primary productivity rates?
nutrient concentrations are low, solar input is high, and dissolved oxygen decreases.
In temperate oceans of the northern hemisphere during the summer months:
a strong thermocline
Summer productivity in temperate waters typically is hampered by _______
in polar oceans, there is incredibly high productivity in the summertime.
In polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter
In polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do NOT limit productivity
Of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions, which is/are true?
In middle-latitude oceans, the fall bloom is limited by the lack of sunlight.
In tropical oceans, productivity is limited year-round by the lack of nutrients.
In middle-latitude oceans, the fall bloom is limited by the lack of sunlight.
In tropical oceans, productivity is limited year-round by the lack of nutrients.
Of the following statements about oceanic productivity, which is/are true?
The permanent thermocline presents a barrier that keeps nutrients in deeper water from mixing with surface waters.
The sunlight penetrates deep into the tropical ocean, warming the surface waters and creating stratification of water masses.
Which of the following statements correctly explain why biological productivity in the tropical ocean is so meager when compared to biological productivity on land in tropical environments?
accounts for vertical space and distance in the ocean water
Euphotic zone
bacterial decomposition
In the biogeochemical cycling of matter in marine ecosystems, which process re-mineralizes nutrients back into the dissolved state?
Energy flow in photosynthetic marine ecosystems is unidirectional in contrast to nutrients, which cycle through ecosystems.
Energy flow in an ecosystem is:
100 kcal (10%)
If 10,000 kilocalories (kcal) of energy were contained in the primary producers (trophic level 1), on average how many kcal of energy would you expect to be transferred to second-order consumers (trophic level 3)?
A. bacteriovores
B. carnivores
C. decomposers
D. biogeochemical cycle
E. herbivores
deposit feeders
Amphipods are _________.
farming of commercial fish and shellfish
maximum catch without reducing the population of target species
maximum sustainable yield
If the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250,000 kilocalories (kcal), then the expected caloric value for the trophic-level consumers at the second level would be 2,500 kcal.
The standing stock of a population is the maximum number or biomass of individuals that can be removed sustainably.
the mass present in an ecosystem at a given time. What fisheries harvest from
Standing stock
standing stock.
The mass of a population of fish present at a given time is called its:
result in overfishing.
Catches above the maximum sustainable yield:
multinational boundaries.
incident catch or bycatch.
regulations on the number of fishing vessels
All the following are challenges to managing fisheries except :
most deep-water organisms have lower metabolic rates; therefore, they grow, mature, and reproduce at a slower rate
With the depletion of fish stocks in coastal waters, more fishing is being conducted in deeper waters. Deep-water species are becoming endangered at a rapid rate, primarily because _________.
photosynthetic bacteria
Of the following types of organisms, which one is considered to be LOWEST in a marine food web?
In U.S. waters, 80% of commercial marine fish stocks are fully exploited or overfished.
A recent study indicates that if fishing practices continue, marine fish stocks will be depleted by 2048.
Fishing practices have removed 90% of large marine predatory fish species.
Of the following statements about marine fisheries, which is/are true?
an organism that feeds on plants or animals
The Earth’s climate system involves the exchange of heat and water among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere.
A decrease in cloud cover due to a higher moisture content in the atmosphere is an example of a positive-feedback loop.
All the following are parts of Earth’s climate system except the:
negative-feedback loop.
An increase in cloud cover and a corresponding decrease in absorption of solar radiation is an example of a:
the presence of fine atmospheric particles called aerosols
heat uptake by the oceans
the role of clouds at different altitudes
the shading effect from air pollution
the addition of water vapor into the atmosphere
Of the following, which are examples of climate feedback loops?
The continental bodies on which these zones are found are too large for the whole land mass to be affected by the ocean.
Atmospheric circulation primarily occurs from west to east. These regions are more eastern; therefore, they are impacted by circulation from the west.
Which of the following explains why these climates are nevertheless found along the continental margins of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans?
in these climates, the net precipitation is greater than the evaporation, even though there is little precipitation
In cold climates, the low temperatures mean there is little evaporation.
Polar and subarctic climates generally have small precipitation totals. However, these climates are classified as humid rather than dry. Which of the following explains this apparent paradox?
volcanic eruptions
What natural cause of climate change is most similar to the major anthropogenic source?
caused by humans
There is a significant positive correlation between sunspot activity and recent changes in mean global temperature.
Volcanic eruptions have no impact on global climate patterns; they only affect local climate.
The fourth IPCC report on international climate change (2007) confirmed that human activity has produced climate change beginning in the mid-20th century.
the tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation (obliquity).
the shape of Earth’s orbit (eccentricity).
the wobbling of Earth’s axis of rotation (precession).
Variations in Earth’s orbit that influence long-term climate changes include:
A. anthropogenic CO2 inputs
B. changes in solar input
C. tectonic plate movement
D. variation in the Earth’s orbit
E. volcanic activity
Using proxy data, scientists have compiled a detailed record of Earth’s climate over the recent geologic past. This science is called _________.
climate change models can mimic present-day conditions only if human emissions are taken into account
The fourth IPCC Report of 2007 concluded that _________.
the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates
volcanic eruptions
changes in solar energy
variations in Earth’s orbit
Of the following natural factors, which have caused past climate changes on Earth?
radiation coming into and radiation going out of Earth’s atmosphere
In general, which two factors determine the overall temperature of Earth’s atmosphere?
In general, what is the difference between the energy that comes into Earth from the Sun and the energy that Earth emits back to space?
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane
Which three gases are most important on Earth for inhibiting the release of longwave radiation back into space?
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon. Human activity has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the past 250 years.
Which set of statements is correct?
the warming of Earth’s atmosphere caused by the production of greenhouse gases due to human activity
Global warming is _________________.
infrared heat radiated from rocks
What form of energy is absorbed by atmospheric carbon dioxide?
Greenhouse gases are compounds in the Earth’s atmosphere that dissipate heat.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has the greatest relative contribution to increasing the greenhouse effect compared to other anthropogenically produced greenhouse gases.
The concentration of methane (natural gas) exhibits the greatest current rate of increase compared to other greenhouse gases.
If all greenhouse gas emissions by humans were reduced to zero, Earth is still projected to keep warming for the foreseeable future.
water vapor.
The atmospheric component that naturally contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth is
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Which of the following atmospheric constituents has the greatest ability to absorb heat on a per-mole basis?
Since 1750, the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has increased by more than:
methane (CH4)
Domestic cattle production and rice agriculture release relatively large amounts of which gas into the atmosphere?
Over the past 30 years, Earth’s average surface temperature has risen by:
water vapor (H2O)
Of the following atmospheric gases, only _________ is an important greenhouse gas.
an increase in oxygen-depleted dead zones
The scientific consensus is that global warming has led to __________.
Sea surface temperatures have remained unchanged during the past 50 years.
The oceans have absorbed the majority of the increased heat in the atmosphere.
Melting ice on land and thermal expansion of water are two of the most important factors causing sea level rise.
SOFAR channel.
The zone ocean where sound can travel extremely long distances is called the:
geological uplifting of ocean basins.
Recent worldwide sea level rise can be attributed to all of the following except the:
permanent inland flooding.
increasing damage from storms.
accelerated coastal erosion.
drowning of beaches.
All the above are correct.
Hazards associated with sea level rise include all the following except :
A. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet melting
B. deep ocean water thermal expansion
C. melting of terrestrial glaciers and ice caps
D. surface ocean water thermal expansion
E. tectonic uplifting
high-latitude areas
Climate models and observations to date indicate that the oceans will warm the most in _________.
an increase in the amount of water in the ocean from the melting of ice on land
thermal expansion of ocean water as it warms
What are the main factors that contribute to the documented global rise in sea level?
Global warming will likely result in more rainfall.
Global warming will likely result in more prolonged droughts.
Global warming will likely result in more intense tropical storms.
Global warming will likely result in a rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and thermal expansion of warm ocean waters.
Of the following statements about the greenhouse effect and global warming, which is/are true?
absorbing surplus heat energy.
The world’s oceans play a role in reducing global warming by:
reducing the area covered by pavement or structures (houses, garages, pools, decks, etc.) in urban and suburban areas.
Concerned individuals can reduce their personal contribution to greenhouse gas emissions by doing all the following except :
takes carbon from the photic zone and stores it in deep ocean water and seafloor sediments
The oceans’ “biological pump” _________.
removing human-caused greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and disposing of them somewhere else.
reducing the amount of sunlight reaching Earth.
Global engineering (geoengineering) proposals to reduce Earth’s greenhouse effect include
changes in solar energy
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs
process that influences the temperature of Earth’s surface and atmosphere
greenhouse effect
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
study of ancient climates
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
The three Domains of Life are:
Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae
The five Kingdoms of Life are:
Based on mobility, Plankton are defined as
Based on mobility, Nekton are defined as
bottom dwellers
Based on mobility, Benthos are defined as
diversity, habitat variability
Species _________ is strongly related to ______
open, floor
The pelagic division refers to the ________ sea. The
benthic division refers to the sea __________.
In the Euphotic zone there is enough light for
The Disphotic zone is also called the __________ zone
The Aphotic zone is completely
gills, diffusion
Many marine animals use their ________ to extract
dissolved oxygen (O2) and release CO2 . Plankton exchange
gases by __________ through their cell walls.
Some marine organisms are nearly transparent to avoid
Larger marine organisms (like fish) use ___________ to
reduce resistance to fluid flow along their bodies
Primary productivity
___________ ______________ is defined as the rate at which
light energy is stored in organic matter by photosynthesis
The three main types of photosynthetic organisms in the oceans
a. “Sea Weed” (_______________ algae).
b. __________ (microscopic algae).
c. photosynthetic cyano- ___________________
producer, herbivore, carnivores
In a simple food chain, energy is transferred from primary
__________ to an ____________, and then to one or more
In a food web only about _______% of the energy is
transferred from one trophic level to the next.
nutrients, light
The two main factors that control primary productivity are the availability of ________ and _________.
______________ greatly enhances productivity by lifting cold, nutrient rich water to the surface in equatorial and coastal zones.
farm, sewage
The Gulf of Mexico “Dead Zone” off Louisiana: MississippiRiver delivers nutrients from _________runoff and __________treatment.
harmful algal blooms
Red tide is a colloquial term used to refer to one of a
variety of natural phenomena known as __________
_________ ________ or HABs.
polar, tropical, temperate
Productivity is light-limited in _________ regions; nutrient
limited in the _________, and highly seasonal in ________
Bycatch” refers to non-commercial species taken
incidentally by commercial fishers. Bycatch may be as large as ________% of commercial fish.
climate, weather
The long-term (years to decades) atmospheric conditions in a region is
called __________. The “local” condition of the atmosphere on short
time scales (hours to days) is called ________.
heat budget
The balance between inputs and loss of heat energy on Earth is called
the ________ __________.
water vapor
carbon dioxide
__________ __________is the most important greenhouse gas.
__________ shows the greatest increase from fossil fuel burning.
__________is increasing from activities like cattle raising and rice
A __________ feedback loop is when some process enhances the
initial change. A __________ feedback loop is when some process
counteracts the initial change
Milankovitch Cycles
The climate impacts from variations in Earth’s orbit are called
___________ ___________.
To explain the warming since World-War II climate models have to
include _____________ causes for climate change.
Global temperature increases will show the greatest effect at
___________ latitudes because the tropics are already
melting, thermal
Sea level rise is due to ___________ of glacial ice and
___________ expansion of the oceans.
ice water
Melting of polar __________ does not cause sea level rise
carbon dioxide
Some (about 30%) of the __________ __________ we
release dissolves into the oceans and this acidifies the ocean
(lowers pH).
The scientific consensus is greater than ________% that
there is a large human contribution to global climate change
emissions, concentration
We need to reduce Greenhouse Gas __________ and lower the Greenhouse Gas ___________ (via geoengineering?).

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out