Financial And Non Financial Information Accounting Essay

Qualitative information is single narrative studies of experiences. It deals with descriptions and it can be observed but non measured like quantitative information. Qualitative information is gathered with methods that are personal, direct, and open-ended, with minimum restraints on what the replies to the inquiries may be. These methods include personal interviews, instance surveies, formal focal point groups, participant observation etc. Qualitative information can enrich and inspire ratings with studies of common single experiences. Qualitative information gives subjective reading and sentiments and personal experiences. ( e.g. a user ‘s study on how easy a dispersed sheet is to utilize, or how user-friendly an operating system is. ) Some things, such as emotions, sentiments, human reactions can non be measured objectively, so qualitative methods such as interviews are used.

Businesss use fiscal and non-financial information to pull off their operations. Directors create studies which portion public presentation information in footings of fiscal informations every bit good as non-financial informations. Directors and concern proprietors must understand the significance of both types of information and the impact each holds on the concern. Fiscal information is informations such as recognition card Numberss, account balances or other pecuniary facts that include in the statement of comprehensive income and balance sheet.

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Non-financial information is information which is relate with non-monetary information about aim, activities of company.

There are differences between fiscal and non-financial information:

Selling Datas

Marketing consists of making new merchandises and happening clients for those merchandises. The selling section in a concern gathers both fiscal and non fiscal information to utilize for be aftering its selling scheme. Financial marketing information involves gross revenues dollars stopped by industry and merchandise. Non-financial selling information consists of purchaser demographics and regional penchants.

Goal Puting

Directors work with employees to put ends for upcoming periods. A good set of ends includes both fiscal and nonfinancial ends for the employee to work toward. Effective ends include ends which are accomplishable by the employee. Fiscal ends for a gross revenues director may include increasing the gross revenues dollars in a peculiar merchandise line or cut downing the travel disbursals incurred by the sales representative. Non-financial ends for a section director may include cut downing the figure of overtime hours or cut downing the figure of machine downtime hours.

The Public Bank journey began in 1966, when its Founder and Chairman, Tan Sri Dato ‘ Sri Dr. Teh Hong Piow established Public Bank and conceived it as a bank for the populace. Public Bank Group is the 3rd largest banking group in Malaysia by plus size, with entire assets of RM249 billion as at the terminal of 2011. Among banking groups in Southeast Asia, the Group ranked figure six by plus size as at the terminal of September 2011.

The nature of concern of Public Bank Berhad is banking and finance services. From supplying retail and commercial banking services at its origin, the Public Bank Group has developed into a full service fiscal services group supplying a broad scope of services covering, amongst others, personal banking, commercial banking, Islamic banking, investing banking, portion broking, legal guardian services, nominee services, gross revenues and direction of unit trust financess, bancassurance and general insurance merchandises.

Last line in income statement is to demo the net income or loss for the period reported and net incomes per portion. Stockholders of Public Bank use earning-per-share ratio to supply information to find the hard currency available for dividend payouts. In 2011, the net income before revenue enhancement of Public Bank Bhd. is RM4.61 billion addition every bit much as RM0.53 billion comparison to 2010. The net income before revenue enhancement addition 11.5 % from twelvemonth 2010 to twelvemonth 2011. Entire assets grew by RM23.08 billion ( 10.2 % ) for the twelvemonth 2011. Investors and loaners of Public Bank require balance sheet for liquidness information to find a company ‘s ability to pay debt. The loan growing is 13.5 % in twelvemonth 2011. The net return on equity ratio diminish 0.3 % from 2010 to 2011.

The mission of Public Bank Berhad is to prolong the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia. The vision of Public Bank is to be ranked among the top 100 Bankss in the universe while the mission of Public Bank is to prolong the place of being the most efficient, profitable and respected premier fiscal establishment in Malaysia. Besides, there are four classs of aims in Public Bank which are aims for clients, aims for employees, aims for stockholders and besides aims for community.

AirAsia Berhad ( AirAsia ) is engaged in supplying air transit services. Asia ‘s prima air hose was established with the dream of doing winging possible for everyone. Since 2001, AirAsia has fleetly broken travel norms around the Earth and has risen to go the universe ‘s best. With a path web that spans through to over 20 states, AirAsia continues to pave the manner for low-priced air power through our advanced solutions, efficient procedures and a passionate attack to concern. Together with our associate companies, AirAsia X, Thai AirAsia, Indonesia AirAsia, Philippines ‘ AirAsia Inc and AirAsia Japan.

In twelvemonth 2011, net income before revenue enhancement had bead to RM 777,017 which lessening about RM330,000 compared to 2010. It about dropped 43 % of net income. The current ratio for the twelvemonth 2011 is 1.7: 1 which do non make the ideal ratio ( 2: 1 ) . However, if comparison to twelvemonth 2010, the current ratio in 2011 is better because the current ratio is 1.6: 1. Although the net income bead 43 % but it does n’t impact the hard currency flow. The net additions in hard currency flow in 2011 non much affected by the net income. The liquidness of company is really stable

The missions of Air Asia Bhd are ( one ) to be the best company for work for ; ( two ) globally recognized ASEAN trade name ; ( three ) attain lowest cost ; ( four ) maintain highest quality, encompassing engineering to cut down cost. The vision is to be largest low cost air hose in Asia and functioning 3 billion people. “ Now Everyone Can Fly ” .AirAsia ‘s vision is to go on to be the lowest cost short-haul air hose in every market we serve, presenting strong organic growing through offering the lowest airfares at a net income.

IJM Corporation Berhad is an internationally competitory Malayan pudding stone with concerns in building, belongingss, industries, plantations and substructure. IJM is one of Malaysia ‘s prima building groups and is listed on the chief market of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. Its nucleus concern activities encompass building, belongings development, fabrication and quarrying, substructure grants and plantations.

The 2012 net income before revenue enhancement for IJM Corporation Bhd. is RM801,591 which addition about RM140,000 compared to 2011. It due to the operating gross of company addition about RM700,000. Therefore, the income revenue enhancement disbursals increase 20 % . The distribution of net income to proprietor addition RM100,000. The net incomes per portion for net net income besides increase about RM7 to RM29.84. The current ratio of IJM Corporation Bhd is 2.2: 1. It reached the ideal ratio which shows that the current assets able to cover all the current liabilities without liquidness job.

The vision of IJM Corporate Bhd is to go a prima Malayan pudding stone in the markets ; Mission is to present sustainable value to stakeholder. There are a set of nucleus values which is unity, passion, efficiency, teamwork, regard for diverseness, invention, client focal point and quality. With proper vision, mission and nucleus value, it able to take company achieve their mark and go successful in the hereafter.

Question 2:

Budgetary slack – The difference between the minimal necessary costs and the costs built into the budget or really incurred. Budgetary slackA is when the people involved in making aA budgetA intentionally under-estimate the sum ofA revenueA to be generated, or over-estimate the sum ofA expensesA during the budget period. This allows them a much better opportunity of “ doing their Numberss, ” which is peculiarly of import for them if public presentation assessments and fillips are tied to the budget.

Goal Congruence – The term end congruity is applied to an organisation to see that all its operations and activities are set up in support of the organisation ‘s ends. This means that the organisation will reexamine all its operations and activities to see that none of them ( those operations and activities ) work in a manner that limits or inhibits the organisation ‘s ability to make its ends, whatever they may be.

Feedback – Describe the procedure of conveying information about existent consequences to the people who are responsible for comparing them against a budget or criterion, and originating control action if required. There are two types of feedback, individual cringle feedback and dual cringle feedback.

Feed frontward -A is a direction and communicating term, which refers to giving aA controlA impact in a downlink to a subsidiary to a individual or an organisation from which you are anticipating an end product. A provender forward is non merely a pre-feedback, as a feedback is ever based on mensurating an end product and directing several feedback. A pre-feedback given without measuring of end product may be understood as a verification or merely an recognition of control bid.

Aspiration degree – relates to the personal end of the budgetee ( the individual who responsible for the budget ) . In other words, it is the degree of public presentation that they hope to achieve.

Through motive and engagement in budgeting, major dysfunctional consequence of budgeting could be avoided.

Motivation defines as the demand to accomplish some selected end and the ensuing thrust that influences action toward that end. Motivation is what makes people behave in the manner that they do.

Engagement in budgeting procedure will better motive and better the quality of budget determinations and the attempts of persons to accomplish their budget marks. When persons participate in determination devising, they will be more satisfied with their occupation and more productive. There are two ways can be set: imposed budget and participatory budget.

Imposed manner of budgeting is top direction fix a budget with small or no input from operating forces which is so imposed upon the employees who have to work to the budgeted figures.

Participative manner of budgeting is developed by lower-level directors, on the footing of what they think is accomplishable and the resources they need, and so submitted for blessing to their higher-ups. Leting persons to take part has several advantages.

First, persons are more likely to accept the mark and be committed to accomplishing them if they involved. This could do end congruity between persons and the mark so achieve end.

Second, engagement can cut down the information spread when criterions are imposed from above. Subordinate have more information than their higher-ups on the relationships between end product and input. When utilizing engagement, feedback control can do superior monitoring end product and taking disciplinary action if necessary.

Last, imposed criterions can promote negative attitudes and consequence in demotivation and disaffection such as budgetary slack behavior.

Categorization of costs is the grouping of costs harmonizing to their common features. There are many categorizations of costs for planning, control, public presentation rating and determination devising. The illustration will be based on a Company WKH Sdn. Bhd. , Furniture Company.

First, there is cost categorization by nature means that an analysis based on the nature of costs. Such costs are classified into direct stuff, direct labor and other disbursals. Direct Material is a necessary to do complete of the finished merchandise. For illustration, forests for doing furniture. Direct labor is work straight involved in doing the merchandise such as labor for production of doing chairs while other disbursals which is indirect stuff, indirect labor and production operating expense such as care of machines, supervisor ‘s wage, depreciation of fixed plus and more.

Definition of categorization by map is when an analysis is based on the map of the event such as production costs, administrative disbursals, selling and distribution costs, finance costs, and research and development costs. The records can supply more relevant information to users, the allotment of costs to work. Administration who chose to pick this method should unwrap extra information on the nature of disbursals include depreciation and staff costs while the endeavor should pick the analysis that provides the fairest presentation of the concern activities.

Third, harmonizing to identifiably costs divided into direct cost and indirect cost. Direct cost is cost that can be traced in full to the merchandise or service that is being cost. For illustration, wages of direct labor, travel of direct labor from and to work, direct stuffs, direct supplies and more. The indirect cost is cost that is non classified as direct such as wages of administrative, office equipment, telephone measure and more.

Harmonizing to behavior is the manner in which costs of end product are affected by fluctuation in the degree of activity such as fixed cost, variable cost and semi-variable cost. Fixed cost is a cost that remains changeless in entire, despite the alteration in degree of activity within relevant scope such as office rent while variable cost is alterations in entire in direct proportion to alter in the degree of activity such as different monetary values of similar merchandises. Semi-variable cost is cost that involves fixed cost and variable cost constituent like public-service corporations.


Figure 1: Fixed cost.


Figure 2: Variable cost.


Figure 3: Semi-variable costs

Next, association with merchandise is besides a categorization of costs which is merchandise costs and period costs. Merchandise costs are the cost of goods manufactured or purchase for resale. They include direct cost, direct labor, mill rewards and more. Time period costs are all the non-product costs in the administration and non maintaining as stock lists but are disbursals as clip base on ballss such as administrative disbursals, selling and distribution.

Furthermore, harmonizing to controllability divided into two classs which are governable costs and unmanageable costs. Controllable costs are costs that are influenced by the determination or actions of a director. For illustration, disbursals for advertisement for furniture of Company WKH. Uncontrollable costs are costs that are non influenced by the determinations or action of a director such as public-service corporation cost for doing the furniture.

Harmonizing to footing of normalcy is divided into two classs which are normal cost and unnatural cost. Normal cost is the cost usually incurred at a given degree of end product such as cost of production in doing the furniture while unnatural cost is the cost which is non usually incurred at a given degree of end product. These costs will non be charged in costs of production but transferred to the costing net income and loss history for the company.

Harmonizing to footing of clip is classified as historical costs and pre-determined cost. Historical costs are the value of a resource given up or a liability incurred to get an plus or service at the clip when the resource was given up. For illustration, 100 units of chairs were purchased one month back for RM10 per unit and monetary value today is RM11 per unit. The stock list balance sheet will enter down at RM1, 000 but non RM1, 100. Another cost categorization for historical cost is done for costs which is costs that have been incurred in the past and can non be changed by future action. Pre-determined costs are estimated costs which are set in progress on a scientific manner. It becomes standard cost and compared with the existent for following commanding steps. For illustration, predetermined operating expense rate which is peers to estimated entire fabrication operating expense cost divided by estimated entire units in the allotment base of the company.

Last, there is relevant cost and irrelevant cost harmonizing to footing of relevancy. Relevant is a future hard currency flow as a direct effect of a determination such as future costs, hard currency flows and incremental costs of the company. Other footings used to depict relevant cost is evitable cost and differential cost. Evitable cost is costs which would non be incurred if the activity to which they relate did non be. For illustration, a company make up one’s minding whether or non to stop a merchandise, merely cost would be saved is evitable cost. Irrelevant cost is they are non future hard currency flows which will be incurred, irrespective of the determination that is taken. For illustration, there are done for cost and historical cost incurred in the company.


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