The Impact of Fitness Screening and Supportive Education on Student Dancers in a Performing Arts Department.
Dissertation Submitted for
Mentions and Bibliography
Fitness and wellbeing for professional dance pupils is of concern to terpsichoreans, pedagogues and the profession. Fitness has traditionally focused merely on discipline-specific physical activities, because of a fright of impairing the needed organic structure signifier or form. Fitness can heighten public presentation, endurance and capableness. Nutrition can besides heighten dancers’ development and public presentation, but nutrition, peculiarly in classical concert dance terpsichoreans, is debatable in the visible radiation of the changeless thrust for the perfect thin female signifier.
A qualitative survey of the impact of a combined fittingness testing programme an educational input on wellbeing demonstrates some of the positive impacts, some of the barriers, and some of the identified countries for betterment of the programme. Phenomenology and Grounded Theory are used to inform the research methodological analysis, informations aggregation and analysis. Focus groups are used to garner informations from professional dance pupils within one executing humanistic disciplines sections. These show subjects ofScreening in the First Year ; Positive Elementss of the Screening Plan ; Improvements to the Screening Process ; Motivation ; and Autonomy.From these, it was shown that the experience of the showing programme is mediated by a scope of factors, and that the programme experience affects and is affected by constructs of motive and liberty. Information sharing and instruction about the benefits of fittingness and good nutrition is utile, but more influences affect long-run consumption of these behaviors. More research, peculiarly larger, possibly quantitative surveies, is required to farther analyze these issues.
Dance as an art signifier has increased in popularity and diverseness significantly in the last two decennaries ( Koutedakis, 1996b ) . Despite this popularity, in the past small attending has been paid within the related literature to the fittingness and wellness of terpsichoreans, and at that place has been historically small grasp of the physical demands of dance as an activity ( Koutedakis, 1996 ) . As Pacy et Al ( 1996 ) province, “it has long been recognised that many factors influence wellness and all that the term encompasses” ( p 93 ) . With the outgrowth of more research on dance and fittingness has come a focal point on hurt recovery and on other issues such as anorexia nervosa within terpsichoreans, but at that place still appears to be limited research on the demand to supervise and back up overall fittingness in terpsichoreans, in order to better public presentation, staying power and recovery from inevitable hurt.
Health of terpsichoreans is of considerable concern to the terpsichoreans themselves, to their pedagogues and employers, and to the wider universe and society. The World wellness Organisation ( WHO, 2000 ) , defines wellness as a province of complete physical, mental and societal well-being, and this is the construct which underpins impressions of wellness for terpsichoreans within this survey. There are considerable physical and psychological demands placed upon terpsichoreans, throughout their dance preparation and their professional callings and performing artists. However, the literature shows that terpsichoreans do non ever prosecute in activities which support their wellness and fittingness, allow alone their subjective well-being. The demands of the profession for meagerness, along with a historical perceptual experience that other sorts of physical preparation might adversely impact dancers’ aesthetic visual aspect, have limited consciousness of the benefits of proper nutrition and physical instruction programmes which can heighten public presentation, staying power, wellness and recovery from hurt.
This qualitative survey, rooted within phenomenology and pulling from the available qualitative methodological analysiss, explores the effectivity of a fittingness testing programme aboard learning Sessionss aimed at publicity of wellbeing amongst one cohort of pupil terpsichoreans within one establishment. The rating aimed to place the impact of the testing programme on dancers’ apprehension of fittingness and well-being in the wider context of their dance preparation and future callings, and place possible betterments to the programme to better future bringing.Literature Review
The subject of public presentation dance, which includes concert dance and other recognised signifiers of dance, is one in which the terpsichoreans are expected to utilize their organic structures in alone and uniquely demanding ways, necessitating degrees of fittingness and physical capacity which go beyond those of ordinary jocks. “The demands of dance have changd dramatically over the years” ( Keay, 1998 P 196 ) . While this is a comparatively ailing understood field outside of the subject, the fittingness of executing creative persons is of considerable concern to the creative persons themselves, to their employers, and to the profession. It is besides of concern to those who educate the terpsichoreans and fix them for possible callings as executing creative persons.
Acerate leaf to state, the happening of hurts in terpsichoreans is common ( Bowling, 1989 ) . Dance requires velocity, legerity, strength, flexibleness, musculus memory, coordination and staying power. “Dancing involves powerful motions every bit good as flexibleness exercisings, both of which may be related to specific hurts to the musculo-tendinosus tissue ( Askling et al, 2002 P 230 ) . Dancers spend many old ages larning their art and preparing for the asperities of professional dance, and portion of this readying includes readying for bar of and get bying with hurt, though the grade of such readying varies widely between different classs and establishments. Injury is a fact of life for public presentation terpsichoreans ( Bowling, 1989 ) . Miletic et Al ( 2007 ) province “dancers and jocks in aesthetic athleticss continually face the challenge of specific hurts that are likely brought on by their preparation program” ( p110 ) . Miletic et Al ( 2007 ) show that piece at public presentation or professional degree there is a scope of research into hurts which can foreground the challenges and the ways of cut downing hurt rates, or of handling hurts, there are fewer surveies researching hurt in terpsichoreans at university degree, whilst still developing for their profession. Fitness and hurts hence are linked, and possibly even more so in the current province of the public presentation dance professions because of the increasing polish of dance as an art signifier, wherein greater physical demands are placed upon terpsichoreans by the stage dancing and by the sum and continuance of public presentation ( Koutedakis and Jamurtas, 2004 ) . Therefore, while there has ever been an accent on the development of accomplishment and technique within dance, aerophilic and physical fittingness may besides necessitate more accent within dance preparation, because terpsichoreans at nowadays may be losing out on making optimum degrees of public presentation because they have non addressed fittingness and aerophilic power ( Koutedakis and Jamurtas, 2004 ) .
A survey by Ramel et Al ( 1997 ) high spots this country as one in which betterments in public presentation and subjective experience can be achieved through fittingness activities. amel et Al ( 1997 ) carried out a controlled, prospective, randomised survey of a entire population of dances in a professional concert dance company. One-half of these terpsichoreans were asked to transport out excess, self-administered fittingness preparation ; the other half of the terpsichoreans became the control group and did non transport out any excess preparation ( Ramel et al, 1997 ) . With the purpose of analyzing if the terpsichoreans in the preparation or experimental group would be able to maintain up the excess preparation during a regular season, and of analyzing the consequence of this preparation on their maximal O consumption and on their self-estimated musculoskeletal hurting, the survey was implemented efficaciously with good engagement rates ( Ramel et al, 1997 ) . It was found that the preparation group increased their O uptake more than the control group and that the self-estimated functional inability because of hurting ( SEFIP ) scores in the experimental group suggested significantly less pain the hebdomad after the premiere of the production ( Ramel et al, 1997 ) . The preparation group claimed that the fittingness preparation had helped them to get by with the strain during dry runs ( Ramel et al, 1997 ) . There were a figure of methodological issues with this survey, including inquiries about randomization of the sample, and issues because this was non a blind or dual unsighted test, and so the Hawthorne consequence may hold skewed the consequences, because there were lower SEFIP tonss in the control group as good after the survey period. This might propose nevertheless that there is the possible to implement self-regulated fittingness preparation in order to impact non merely the physical fittingness of terpsichoreans, but their psychological and emotional well-being.
Askling et Al ( 2002 ) carried out a survey into the happening of ague and overexploitation hurts to the rear thigh in terpsichoreans. This was a retrospective survey using a questionnaire ( Askling et al, 2002 ) . A entire population sample of the student-dancers ( age 17–25years ) at the Ballet Academy in Stockholm was accessed, with all but one participating ( Askling et al, 2002 ) . The survey findings demonstrated that, during the past 10years, every 3rd terpsichorean ( 34 % ) reported that they had ague hurts and every 6th terpsichorean ( 17 % ) had overuse hurts to the rear thigh ( Askling et al, 2002 ) . Askling et Al ( 2002 ) found that in relation to these specific hurts, the bulk of survey participants ( 88 % ) stated that the acute hurt occurred during slow activities in flexibleness preparation, e.g. , splits, and merely a few ( 12 % ) occurred in the public presentation of powerful motions. This suggests that there is a demand to pay attending to the sort of preparation and flexibleness activities that terpsichoreans carry out. However, more significantly in footings of the survey being carried out by this writer, in Askling et al’s ( 2002 ) survey, go oning jobs were reported by 70 % of the acutely injured terpsichoreans. This is a important determination with deductions for longer-term fittingness. Askling et Al ( 2002 ) found that many of the terpsichoreans who participated neglected or ignored their acute hurt and these terpsichoreans besides greatly underestimated the recovery clip from their hurt. This might show a deficiency of consciousness of fittingness and recovery, or even a peculiar attitude towards industry within the universe of professional dance. Askling et Al ( 2002 ) suggest information about the earnestness and acute intervention of such hurts should be added to the student-dancers ‘ course of study, but this writer would see that because of the manner in which the survey participants ignored such hurts, a more long-run attack is needed, to non merely supply information, but to consolidate, reinforce and support dancers’ cognition of their physical fittingness.
Nutritional position of terpsichoreans is besides of some concern to the profession and to those learning dance at third degree. Pacy et Al ( 1996 ) define nutrition as “what an single chows and the makeup of their organic structure ( organic structure composition.” ( p 93 ) . Nutrition is linked to wellness behaviors. Harmonizing to Browes ( 2006 ) wellness behaviors are those behaviors related to wellness position and wellness and well-being of the person within their societal life, and how wellness psychological science informs the apprehension of these behaviors. Health behavior in this professional group may be affected by complex factors, most significantly by the behaviors they observe in their equals and in others on whom they model themselves as terpsichoreans. This can be viewed in the visible radiation of societal larning theory, which states that this is how people learn, even as grownups, by detecting the behavior of those around us and emulating it ( Ormrod, 1999 ) . Such behavior may be seen as acceptable because others within the context are acting in such a mode.
Harmonizing to the original societal larning theory posited by Bandura ( 1977 and 1997 ) , patterning of behaviors and constructs in certain contexts is reinforced by the societal environment, which so sanctions behaviors either overtly or covertly. Thus it is possible to see how the sorts of behaviors that terpsichoreans engage in, comparative to wellness and fittingness, may be derived from environmental influences, behavioral influences, and their ain cognitive apprehensions ( Bandura, 1997 ) . Therefore advancing good nutrition may be challenged by the societal forces at work.
Koutedakis and Jamurtas ( 2004 ) cite the job of nutrition and diet, as does Bonbright ( 1989 ) , who links fittingness and nutrition to the demand for leaner organic structure forms, peculiarly within concert dance. Miletic et Al ( 2007 ) besides link leaner organic structure build with concert dance and with wind terpsichoreans. Koutedakis ( 1996b ) reviews the issue of nutrition and dietetic consumption for terpsichoreans, associating energy, which is described as “the dancers’ capacity to dance” with consumption and energy demands, such that when energy intake exceeds energy ingestion within the organic structure, organic structure weight increases occur. “This rule is of great importance given that there is concern in the dance-world to conform to specific morphological standards” ( Koutdeakis, 1996 B, P 77. ) This has led to terpsichoreans happening themselves required to lose weight and to keep a thin build, which in bend leads to a restricted thermal consumption and a restricted diet in footings of cardinal foods ( Koutedakis, 1996b ) . Pacy et Al ( 1996 ) besides cite the fact that the low organic structure weight and organic structure fat found in concert dance terpsichoreans is due to cut down dietetic energy or calorie consumption, instead than to excessive energy outgo. This can ensue in anorexia nervosa, amenhorrea, and other nutritionary shortages such as loss of bone denseness ( Koutedakis, 1996 ; Benson et Al, 1989 ; Bonbright, 1989 ) . Pacy et Al ( 1996 ) pull a differentiation between the nutritionary position and organic structure composing of classical or ballet terpsichoreans and those analyzing and executing modern dance, demoing that there may be different nutritionary demands and challenges depending on the forte the pupil is following.
Koutedakis et Al ( 1996a ) relate fittingness to organic structure composing, flexibleness and joint mobility, cardiorespiratory fittingness, muscular endurance, power and strength, and the interactions between these factors and public presentation. In a survey of fittingness and other correlativities in terpsichoreans, Koutedakis et Al ( 1996a ) found that the conventional exercisings used by terpsichoreans were non plenty on their ain to develop the strength and other physical properties considered to be optimum in terpsichoreans. Their survey suggests that ‘training to promote criterions of fittingness, particularly strength, may play a important function in get bying with the increased figure of musculoskeletal injuries’ ( Koutedakis et al,1996a ) .
Thorsson and Wollmer ( 1997 ) discourse a randomised survey of fittingness preparation in terpsichoreans, and found that a self-administered programme of preparation led to the topic group increasing their O consumption during public presentation, and describing less post-performance hurting. The topic group besides made some claims that this preparation besides supported get bying mechanisms for covering with the ‘psychological strain during rehearsals’ ( Thorsson and Wollmer, 1997 ) . This robust, randomized survey suggests, hence, that there are benefits to terpsichoreans in footings of public presentation, from a physiological point of position, and in footings of their header with the serious demands of their profession.
Any programme which can non merely better public presentation but besides heighten the subjective experience for the performing artist, and cut down the ill-famed hurt rate ( McIntyre and Joy, 2000 ) , would hold to be of benefit.
The necessity to rethink the ways in which terpsichoreans and theater performing artists approach their ain wellness and well-being is evident and even pressing, when one considers the health-related concerns of the combination of a physically demanding profession with issues of nutritionary and psychological well-being.
Miletic et Al ( 2007 ) discourse the usage of the Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain ( SEFIP ) questionnaire as a agency by which performing artists in aesthetic athleticss can “define the hurting position in different organic structure regions” ( p 110 ) . In their survey of the usage of this SEFIP, which used a sample of 45 female university terpsichoreans, they analysed differences including the differences found in those with more anterior preparation experience and with different organic structure builds. The SEFIP can be used to supervise hurting position and so forestall the development of hurts ( Miletic et Al, 2007 ) . Their survey found that a six hebdomad aesthetic athletics programme helped to develop muscular structure in these terpsichoreans, peculiarly in relation to functional development “a consequence of the increased biochemical tolerance of the working musculuss and…improved intra-and inter-muscle coordination” ( Miletic et Al, 2007 ; p 114 ) . This survey demonstrates non merely the utility of an rating method for measuring the potency for hurt within terpsichoreans, but the effectivity of developing on developing better public presentation and map within specific muscular structure ( Miletic et Al, 2007 ) . This has deductions for self-monitoring of physical fittingness, and for execution of developing programmes to heighten fittingness, programmes which might lie outside the traditional signifiers of the chosen subject. Supporting pupils to self-monitor fittingness and to research alternate fittingness governments to complement their dance activities might heighten more than merely their physical fittingness, it might besides assist to turn to one of the more ambitious facets of dance, and concert dance in peculiar, that of the demand for utmost meagerness. As Bonbright ( 1989 ) provinces:
“Since care of thin organic structure mass is a necessity and her physiologic demands are chiefly anaerobic, the classical terpsichorean must take between minimising her thermal consumption while devouring a healthful basic diet or increasing thermal outgo by integrating an endurance activity into her preparation program.” ( p 10 ) .
However, it would look that terpsichoreans would instead curtail Calories than see this 2nd option ( Bonbright, 1989 ) . Nutritional beliefs of terpsichoreans are of important concern in relation non merely to their public presentation capacity but to their on-going and longer-term wellness ( Bonbright, 1989 ) . Bonbright’s ( 1989 ) survey, although slightly dated now, shows that terpsichoreans need to better their consumption of vitamins and minerals, and need nutrition instruction and guidance. There is great potency here, hence, to better wellness, wellbeing and fittingness through self-monitoring if such self-monitoring includes support and information around diet, nutrition and more healthy ways of accomplishing thin organic structure mass.
“For optimum public presentation, terpsichoreans must be experts in the aesthetic and proficient side of the art ; they must be psychologically prepared to manage the tremendous emphasis of critical state of affairss, be free from hurt, physically ‘fit ; and they must hold sufficiently maintained energy stores” ( Koutedakis, 1996b, p 90 ) .
This suggests that in debut of self-regulated fittingness monitoring for pupil terpsichoreans might accomplish a figure of benefits, non merely through bettering their public presentation and cut downing hurt rates but through promoting them to develop, early on in their dance callings, a positive attitude towards their ain wellness and fittingness, so that fittingness monitoring and fitness activities such as dietetic direction and fittingness preparation go a accustomed portion of their life style. Pacy et Al ( 1996 ) show that nutritionary and other wellness advice demands to be targeted specifically to any single terpsichorean, because of the broad scope of public presentation activities that may be undertaken. It is besides evident that medical agencies of look intoing fittingness and nutritionary position are clip consuming, invasive and cumbersome, non to advert expensive ( Pacy et al, 1996 ; Hergenroeder et al 1991 ) ) . Therefore, a practical agency by which terpsichoreans can self modulate without holding to entree advanced equipment or disrupt their day-to-day modus operandis excessively much might be a positive measure frontward in this country.
As Ali ( 1998, p 2 ) provinces, “choosing the appropriate research methodological analysis and explicating the research inquiries is non an easy and clear cut procedure as it foremost may appear” . This undertaking, conceived of within the confines of an academic class of survey, placed upon the research worker the demands of dependability and comparative cogency, usefulness ( in order to be ethically sound ) and the development of new apprehension of an country of educational pattern. Harmonizing to Sandelowski ( 2000 ) , the general sentiment of descriptive research is that it is of poorer quality and demonstrates less rigour and usefulness than quantitative research. The repute of quantitative research as the optimum signifier of research attack and inquiry derives from its foundation in and alliance with scientific rules, reductionist attacks, and mensurable, quantifiable information. .
While there is no uncertainty that quantitative methods would bring forth a high-quality and eminently movable survey which would hold significance for the establishment and the wider universe of public presentation dance and dance instruction, a quantitative attack was non practical in this state of affairs. Harmonizing to Avis ( 2003 ) this “positivist, measurement-oriented, and lawful from of scientific method is unsuitable for probes of the emergent and constructional facets of knowing human societal behaviour” ( p 995 ) .
In add-on, with limited resources ( including clip ) , the undertaking was restricted by the abilities of the research worker to procure utile and pertinent informations which would inform pattern and enhance students’ apprehension and experience of their dance instruction. As Kulka ( 1982 ) , suggests, the pick of topic, the preparation of research the research job and the pick of methodological analysis are most frequently significantly influenced by factors such as resources, support, and easiness of entree to informations and to research participants, instead than philosophical, methodological or other considerations. Thus a quantitative attack was rejected, non because of an orientation against positivism ( Silverman, 1998 ) but because of a matter-of-fact grasp of the nature of the survey and the available resources. While there was a defined research inquiry within this survey, it was wide and encompassed more than simple inquiries and replies. One attack to explicating research inquiries within qualitative research surveies is to see the research job more as a broad country of question instead than as a individual, defined and limited research inquiry ( Silverman, 2001 ) .
The pick to integrate a triangulated methodological attack was chiefly concerned with accomplishing cogency of qualitative analysis and development of theory from the information. Triangulation of the methodological analysis in this survey might function to supply a grade of cogency and pertinence which would counterbalance for the fact that it was non a quantitative survey and was limited to one establishment ( Dollard et al, 2003 ) . As stated in the research proposal, Grounded Theory was considered as a frame for the undertaking, and concentrate group informations aggregation within a instance survey construct was decided upon as the overall ‘shape’ of the survey. Troubles in choosing research attacks which can adequately turn to complex human phenomena are common, peculiarly in the field of wellness ( Annels, 2006 ) . Quite frequently, there look to be picks between dominant attacks to qualitative research, and research workers tend to be forced to take between the two giants of the qualitative sphere, Grounded Theory and Phenomenology ( Annels, 2006 ) . Annels ( 2006 ) suggest that research workers tend to “feel a demand to cut down possible picks of research attack to merely one type, with narrowing of the purpose and related research inquiry in order to be consistent with the merchandise that can be obtained through utilizing the approach” ( p 55 ) .
Phenomenology may be peculiarly suited to this survey, because it is so steadfastly grounded within a peculiar field of human experience, that of pupils of dance. Connolly ( 1995 ) suggests that there is a “complementarity” between phenomenology and physical instruction because both are human scientific disciplines, and suggests that this might inform research attacks in this field. Connolly ( 1995 ) suggests that there are three common constructs within the two Fieldss: lived experience, intersubjectivity, andinsidersnarratives. These constructs suggest a nexus between academic enquiry and real-world utility of research, concentrating on the application of the methodological analysis as a agency of non merely researching experiences and the significances which frame them, but conveying about alterations in those experiences ( Connolly, 1995 ) . While Connolly ( 1995 ) is concentrating on physical instruction, and dance instruction is a alone field in many ways, this does aline the research undertaking with a phenomenological attack. However, it was besides realised that ideal phenomenology is carried out through observation methods of informations aggregation, which were non needfully suited in this instance.
Giorgi ( 1997 ) argues that there are certain standards necessary in order for a qualitative method to measure up itself as phenomenological, in that it would include elements of description within the attitude of the phenomenological decrease, and seek out and specify the most invariant significances for a context. This would intend that it would hold to depict and cut down the information, and conclude or derive consistent significance which fits the context of survey. This survey would accomplish this by happening commonalty in significances derived from the focal point group informations, bounded by the insider cognition of the research worker who understands both the context and the contextual vocabulary of the research location and subject, and proving those informations against each other to guarantee merely those significances which are seen to be ‘invariant’ are included in the findings of the research. In this, the researcher’s insider cognition may put them at considerable advantage over an foreigner research worker, and the built-in possible prejudice of the researcher’s senior place is counterbalanced by this alone contextual cognition.
However, it was felt within this research that the Grounded Theory method had something to offer in footings of helping with the informations analysis component of the survey, whilst the entire population sample argued that homogeneousness of sample participants ( within certain boundaries ) would let for other attacks such as instance survey attacks. The restrictions of the Grounded Theory method in footings of the prohibition on a full literature reappraisal and the demand for coincident informations aggregation and analysis ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 ) were felt to be excessively restricting for this survey, but the usage of the staged procedure of literature analysis was felt to be extremely appropriate in researching, developing and consolidating the subjects from the textual information. On a more matter-of-fact degree, mentioning to and pulling from such methodological theoretical accounts as Grounded Theory aids the research worker in adhering to a Constructivist attack throughout the research procedure, and serves as a reminder of some of the rules underlying the research which are a necessity for quality, dependability and the execution of ethical research. Concentrating on the purposes and intent of the survey helps the research worker to place the guiding rules of the survey and guarantee methodological cogency is easy incontrovertible, a cardinal characteristic of qualitative research ( Dawson, 2002 ) .
The chosen method of informations aggregation is that of Focus Groups, and this is one method by which informations derived from participants’ ain experiences can be gathered. Clouston ( 2003 ) describes the usage of narrative methods within qualitative research, wherein the participant tells a ‘story’ which has a beginning, a center and an terminal. Clouston ( 2003 ) further provinces that the “dynamic aspect of narrative is farther heightened by the impact of situational factors, because the narrative alterations in the visible radiation of life events and the cognitive procedures used by the person to make his or her story” ( p 137 ) . Roll uping and entering the narrations of the research participants would hold been a clip consuming, drawn-out and potentially burdensome attack, peculiarly for the participants due to the sum of clip it would take. However, narrative theory can inform how the research worker understands the framing of the talk and discourse of the focal point groups, and can let the research worker to better understand some of the significances that are built-in within the informations. For illustration, Clouston ( 2003 ) discusses the usage of metaphor in narrations, showing how they can repeat in a figure of different single narratives to bespeak commonalty of intending across different topics. Mallinson et Al ( 1996 ) province that metaphor can be described as “consistent repeating images that subjects use to give coherency to and assistance in the reading of the events of their lives” ( p 340 ) . This was taken into history when approaching and engaging in the information analysis section of the survey, because it was a agency by which the invariant significances ( Giorgi, 1997 ) described above could be identified and their commonalties explored. It can moderately be expected that there would be common metaphors and other framing devices for pupils following the same professional dance instruction classs, and possibly commonalty of experience of the wellness and fittingness showing tool, and if this is the instance, an consciousness of this possible would heighten the researcher’s apprehension of the informations and the linguistic communication being used. This would reflect Kolb’s experiential acquisition rhythm ( Gill and Johnson, 1991 ) , wherein inductive logical thinking is achieved through reflecting on old experience. This would, in this instance, incorporate the author’s personal experiences with the informations from the focal point groups and so a more cohesive signifier of inductive concluding took topographic point, in which the author’s ain cognition enhances the research procedure, instead than take awaying from it. Harmonizing to Ghauri et Al ( 1995 ) and Chalmers ( 1982, the difference between initiation and tax write-off is as follows: in initiation or inductive logical thinking, facts and informations acquired through observation and assimilation lead to theories, constructs and hypotheses ; in tax write-off or deductive logical thinking, bing hypotheses or ‘facts’ are either proved and accepted or disproven and rejected, thereby easing account of phenomena or anticipation of events and relationships.
Inductive procedures of informations analysis suited this research survey because the purpose was to research responses to the wellness and fittingness showing before implementing it to the wider pupil population. Inductive logical thinking showed the main responses to the procedure, and besides allowed for the definition of footings and parametric quantities which could, in the hereafter, be tested through deductive attacks.
While the research methodological analysis described above may be viewed as a triangulation of methods, it may besides to some seem a confusion of different attacks. This writer would reason otherwise, as this was a procedure of careful development of a trim attack suited to the phenomena under probe, the chosen informations aggregation method, the sample population and researcher’s position, function and relationship with participants. It is besides good known within the qualitative paradigm that the procedure of informations aggregation, analysis and theory coevals are much more closely linked in qualitative than in quantitative research ( Glaser and Strauss 1967 ; Jorgensen 1989 ) .
The usage of a purposive sample is typical of the bulk of qualitative research ( Corben, 1999 ; Silverman, 2001 ) . Purposive sampling is acceptable within the qualitative paradigm, peculiarly when due to a scope of restrictions or challenges, it is non possible for the research worker to derive entree to and procure informations from ( allow entirely analyze the informations ) from a sample of participants big plenty to be representative of the complex variables impacting human experience in a survey such as this ( Moore, 2006 ) . However, it is of import to include a principle for the usage of this sample and how this sample suits non merely the survey but the method of question ( Corben, 1999 ) . Thompson ( 2000 ) argues that within qualitative research there is non the same demand for trying cogency as within quantitative research, but that nevertheless it is necessary to hold clear inclusion and exclusion standards for the sample. Kearney ( 2001 ) links the value and utility of research findings in peculiar contexts to their tantrum with the specific issues and challenges inherent within that context, guaranting that the sample chosen will bring forth the sort of informations, and findings, which would inform the survey and apprehension of that context.
Data analysis has already been discussed above in an geographic expedition of the methodological analysis. As already shown, there are a scope of specific schemes within the qualitative paradigm to assist research workers to understate prejudice and better utility, dependability and cogency of analysis ( Mays, 1995 ) . Russel and Gregory ( 2003 ) recommend utilizing structured attack to the reading of qualitative informations through inductive logical thinking, because this non merely gives signifier to the procedure but besides makes the processs undertaken transparent. Denzin and Lincoln ( 2004 ) besides recommend the usage of structured attacks to qualitative informations analysis, non merely for transparence but besides to back up auditability, which is a cardinal component of quality and cogency in this sort of survey. The sorts of processs and procedures that might be used include content analysis, which Pope and Mays ( 1995 ) describe as “ systematic scrutiny of text by placing and grouping subjects and cryptography, classifying, and developing categories.”
Contented analysis, nevertheless utile, is a skilled technique and the writer did non hold the clip or capableness to larn such a procedure within the confines of bring forthing this thesis.
Pope and Mays ( 1995 ) depict another signifier of informations analysis, changeless comparing, which is the “iterative method of content analysis where each class is searched for in the full information set and all cases are compared until no new classs can be identified”
This procedure proved less ambitious, although quite clip devouring. The sum of informations, nevertheless, was rather little, and the changeless comparing method, which is derived from Grounded Theory ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 ) proved a agencies of reading, analyzing, comparing and re-reading informations until elaborate apprehension of subjects, significances and constructs emerged.Findingss
The information from the focal point groups was grouped into subjects in order to catalogue and categorize intending derived from what was said, and what was observed within the focal point group in footings of behavior. A note taker was present to enter the focal point group and audio recordings were besides checked to guarantee truth. Each focal point group began with the research worker ( as Head of Department ) explicating the intent of the focal point group treatment, Internet Explorer that this was to analyze and find the impact of a fittingness testing publicity programme within their current class of survey, alongside an educational course of study which includes performer wellbeing. The research worker so explained to the group that this was in the signifier of a pilot survey, because within a short period of clip, all the professional pupils, parents of pupils, and instructors involved in the programmes, would be asked to finish questionnaires on the same topic, but that these focal point groups would supply more item, thoughts and ideas on the showing, in the visible radiation of the section holding carried out testing over a period of clip ( 2 old ages ) .
The research worker besides made it clear that the sort of information wanted would include how pupils feel about the auxiliary surveies and lectures they given about their general good being, nutrition and the similar within their programme of survey. Therefore clear parametric quantities were set for the session. The scene of such clear parametric quantities, and the usage of a smattering of steering inquiries or statements, helped to concentrate the treatment, whilst trying to avoid restricting the treatment excessively much.
The undermentioned subjects were identified from the research informations:
Screening in the First Year.
Implementing testing within the first twelvemonth of the programme meant that pupils were introduced to the construct early plenty to get down to absorb it into their overall attack to their surveies and their public presentation.
“it was a good thought to hold a showing in 1st twelvemonth as they had ends to work on in category and could see how they could better in certain areas.”
The proviso of ends can merely be derived from puting criterions of nutrition and fittingness, and so concentrating on these criterions as portion of the information given to pupils was a positive constituent of their educational programme.
“There were a batch of times that the showing was referred to, and it was merely seen as portion of the programme.”
This shows that presenting testing as a standard portion of the programme minimised opposition to it, as pupils felt it was a demand of their class. However, non all remarks on the first twelvemonth execution of fittingness showing were positive:
“PS8 pupil felt that the showing was a batch to get by with during the
first term of their first year.”
This could be true of a batch of pupils, and might be an issue in pupil well-being and even in pupil keeping, which was something to take into consideration. However, this had been anticipated by the research worker as a possible issue and hence the research worker was able to react to pupils with a future betterment to this procedure.
“IC said that in future this would be covered in INTEGRATED PROFESSIONAL
STUDIES prior to the showing to assist them prepare.”
Positive Elementss of the Screening Plan
The pupils cited many issues about the showing programme which were framed within positive footings. The program seemed to work for pupils, peculiarly when it allowed them to place their ain marks for fittingness and well-being, and so allowed them to mensurate they come on over clip.
“PS7/PS5/PS1 said that they all felt really happy with their fittingness program
and could see advancement in their ain mark areas.”
The pupils besides found that the information giving constituents of the program, where it integrated with the taught class content, was besides utile and rated this in positive footings.
“PS4/PS5 said that the talks they received have helped a batch nevertheless they recognised that it is down to the person as to how much of their fittingness program they carry out and whether they take this through to their hereafter careers.”
The construct of single responses and liberty has emerged here as in other countries of the information, and this liberty is a subject which will be explored below in the treatment subdivision of the research.
The principle for the showing procedure and the practicalities and restrictions were clearly indicated during the treatments.
“IC said that she acknowledged from the clip of the trial to the clip when the consequences were available was excessively drawn-out and would non associate to the p pupils degree of fittingness at the clip of having them.
IC advised pupils that if they are given a benchmark they will see a immense difference when they are screened subsequently.
PHYSIO explained the importance of consecutive proving i.e. the demand to develop the pupils cognition of fittingness and how to pull off it. As terpsichoreans you need to be athletic and this will assist your dance ability.
PS9 pupil who on a regular basis visits the gym said that he likes the fact that you acquire your consequences back instantly from the equipment data.”
Improvements to the Screening Procedure
While it was made clear to pupils that the showing is an germinating procedure, it was made clear during the focal point groups that anything that the pupils could believe of that could better the procedure would be really utile. This led to a figure of remarks on the procedure. Improvements were thought to be necessary in a figure of countries.
“PS3 felt there was excessively large a spread between yr 2 and yr 3 showing, nevertheless they understood there may be increase costs if this grew.”
Implementing more regular showing, or more frequent referral to elements of showing, with possibly student-assessed showing activities which on a regular basis interspersed their programme during twelvemonth two and three, might be a manner of heightening the potency of testing programmes of this sort.
“It was established that all pupils formulate their ain fittingness program and they should be following this between testing times.”
Concentrating on the pupil as the regulator and active agent in relation to fitness testing would authorise the pupils and possibly give them the necessary accomplishments and cognition, non to advert wonts, to turn to this throughout their dance callings. This once more refers to the construct of liberty which will be discussed farther below.
However, pupils besides said that they valued and needed professional support, and felt that more input throughout the programme would better their ability to prosecute with fittingness showing and activities related to advancing overall fittingness and well-being. This was identified by all present as a positive construct, and the Physiotherapist nowadays explained to one group that the budget was one factor restricting the figure of showings, but that if at any clip the pupils needed any advice or aid he would do himself available to them. This construct was met with positive responses as a agency of bettering the showing procedure, and subsequent focal point groups provided similar responses. The pupils within the focal point groups were, nevertheless, reminded that this was a agency of back uping them to accomplish a self-regulated single fittingness regime/plan for the hereafter, mentioning them back to the procedure of independent control and direction of their ain wellness and fittingness.
Another betterment identified from this was that this latter point should possibly be communicated more frequently to the pupils as they all felt in demand to backup advice at times. This points to issues of dependence/independence but it seems appropriate that at this point in their preparation the pupils are likely to be more independent, while earlier on there may be a demand for more contact with the class staff.
Another possible country of betterment might be related to informing the pupils and reenforcing the cognition of the value and principle behind the fittingness showing.
“IC said that in year 1 there was a little opposition to why is this go oning etc and INTEGRATED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES treatments could assist better this.”
It was identified that pupils needed more information about the showing programme itself. However, pupils did non look to wish for any other inputs or measurings as a constituent of the testing itself.
“HOD asked pupils if there was anything else they would wish to see
done in the showing. All pupils did non believe so.”
This reply may be due to pupils non wishing to take on even more activities but it may besides associate to them being satisfied with the testing programme in its current province.
Potential betterments in physical activities and restrictions of some activities were identified by the class Physiotherapist nowadays:
“PHYSIO discussed possible farther nucleus exercisings such as the board and a power home base.
PHYSIO discussed utilizing weights on legs and weaponries and the jobs that can originate from this as people exerting with them on are non working at existent clip as they are of course slower and non firing their musculuss off at the right time.”
This sort of specializer input remains a nucleus component of the fittingness testing programme. However, non all the specializer input received by the pupils was found to be utile or relevant.
“All pupils felt that in peculiar the healthy feeding talk by Sodexho was non helpful. She did non mention to vegetarians at all and did non take into history that a boy’s diet is different from a gir’ls. They besides felt she gave conflicting advice.”
This is an country which the writer can turn to, as Head of Department, and take immediate action on. In add-on, pupils identified the holistic elements of their dance work and wellbeing as something they are acute to larn more about.
“PS2/PS7 asked if they could hold farther talks on the psychological science of dance as they found this really interesting and informative.”
This demonstrates that pupils are acute to develop a more elaborate apprehension of all of the factors impacting their well-being and their public presentation capableness. Other betterments are cited below:
“IC asked the group if they felt they knew plenty about the showing and if they felt it would be utile to hold more preparative lessons to understand it better.
PHYSIO offered to come in for first twelvemonth pupils to give a lecture/s.
PS11 asked if they could hold more testing during their clip at the school.
It was explained that there was a clip factor involved as it was clip devouring both for pupils and Physio. The other factor being that it is dearly-won to the student/parent for this service.
PS14 felt that their parents would non mind if it was twice in the first twelvemonth and so one time for each twelvemonth after that.
PS 13 said that after the showing it would be good to hold single verbal feedback every bit good as a written study.
IC asked the pupils how user friendly they felt the consequence sheets were.
PS13/PS9/PS10 said that they did hold trouble understanding some of the consequences.
IC offered to travel through this during INTEGRATED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES categories
PS14 said that he did non believe some pupils understood how good it would be for them to go to a gym.
PHYSIO asked if it would be possible to hold a little barre, dense bell rack and full length mirror in the fittingness room.
All pupils agreed that the showing was really utile to their hereafter callings nevertheless farther understanding/education was required and on a regular basis reinforced.
All pupils felt the talks re healthy life manner complimented the showing nevertheless information received should be referred to more frequently – once more support is needed.”
All of these findings indicate cardinal countries, some of them practical and wholly accomplishable, which might be targeted to better the showing programme and the students’ experience of undergoing it. This might in bend enhance the other constructs to emerge from the informations, those of motive and liberty.
Motivation to prosecute in the showing activity, and to take a more independent stance towards overall wellness and fittingness, was a construct which emerged from the analysis of the textual information. Close reading of the informations indicated that many of the pupils who participated in the two focal point groups related the showing programme and the information about wellness and fittingness for terpsichoreans to their motive to take action about their ain wellness.
“HOD asked as a pupil organic structure how committed do you experience pupils are to a healthy life manner and do you believe this programme is worthwhile? All pupils agreed they think that most pupils are committed – some more than others but on the whole they had the right attitude.”
Motivation was an implicit in construct in issues of entree to fitness preparation equipment, issues of nutrition, apprehension of constructs of wellness and well-being, and the acquisition associated with the educational experience. Learning about wellness and wellbeing subjects relevant to their professional callings and their dance preparation was an evident motivation factor for pupils to prosecute in health-oriented activities. The testing programme seemed to reenforce some elements of motive. However, there were besides some underlying connexions between pupil motive and their sense of liberty. Information required to do more independent and independent determinations about wellness and fittingness activities, realistic determinations more relevant to the students’ life styles and the demands of their preparation, helped to consolidate liberty and motivate pupils. Elementss of the showing and educational programme which undermined pupil liberty appeared to be a demotivating factor. This issue will be discussed in more item in the treatment below.
Barriers and Challenges
Challenges to the acceptance of the fittingness advice and counsel were identified by pupils. Some pupils found that there were considerable barriers to them prosecuting in fittingness preparation, for illustration.
“PS9 said that as he lives a considerable distance off he does non acquire place until 8.00 p.m. at which clip he is excessively tired to travel to the gym. He said this was the same for a figure of pupils nevertheless he realised that possibly he could utilize the class installations to better advantage.”
Practical issues might be a existent consideration for pupils with such busy lives, transporting a demanding class burden with academic every bit good as practical elements.
Another barrier was student response to the showing procedure.
“The pupils said they felt uncomfortable holding their waist to hip measurings taken. PHYSIO acknowledged it is a sensitive country nevertheless necessary to work out the organic structure composing and what your ideal ratio should be as an jock. He explained that there were other trials but these were far more invasive.”
This may indicate to some of the more psychological elements of the showing procedure and the pupil responses to it, and links to the construct of organic structure size and signifier which is so much a concern with professional terpsichoreans, peculiarly classical terpsichoreans.
More practical barriers related to pupil safety.
“PHYSIO said that at no clip should a pupil be in the class fittingness room if they have non been decently inducted and if there are no members of site on the premises to administrate first aid.”
This could restrict the flexibleness in footings of pupil entree to the fittingness room and pupil battle in fittingness activities. This poses a challenge for the class suppliers and the establishment.
The thought of liberty recurs within the informations, as discussed above. Some concrete illustrations of this are cited here.
“HOD explained that one time they are in a executing calling there will be a certain component of warm up before public presentation nevertheless it will non accommodate or provide for all persons demands in many instances and the experience and preparation they receive on the class will assist them in this regard nevertheless it is about doing good picks for their ain single organic structures.
PHYSIO explained that 80 % of terpsichoreans have some signifier of hurt, nevertheless little, within any given dance twelvemonth of their training.”
This might take pupils to conceive of that when they have independent control over their ain dance and fittingness exercisings, they would be accepting of the inevitableness of hurt but would be able to transport out activities to minimse the hazard and possibly cut down hurt rates or badness.
“PS6 asked if they could hold a graph devised ( non personal ) to see how they measured and could compare their ain fittingness on the graduated table. PHYSIO agreed and will bring forth to travel in INTEGRATED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES files. IC felt that this could be a positive/negative dependant upon the single student’s attitude. They could either utilize the information positively and larn from it or experience excessively heartsick to cover with it.
IC suggested that a session in INTEGRATED PROFESSIONAL STUDIES to explicate the procedure and ground for the showing would be helpful ; the pupils thought this was a good idea.”
Here the thought of liberty is both positive and negative, and while the pupils may experience that they will be able to accomplish a sense of control over their organic structures and fittingness, they may besides experience disempowered if they believe themselves to be less than tantrum. However, holding the cognition might assist them to go more confident and independent.
“PHYSIO said it is cognizing how and when to use the appropriate exercisings and non to exaggerate it.”
“PHYSIO said that once more it is down to how much cognition you have about your fittingness degree as to the right manner of working and how much you should be making at the gym.
PHYSIO said that even if you are traveling to the gym it is advisable that you seek advice from himself and inquire inquiries i.e. I am working hard on a peculiar country nevertheless I am non come oning? ”
Therefore pupils can go more independent in their direction and rating of fittingness and wellness and well-being, but non experience unsupported or wholly independent. This might further behaviors which would heighten their professional callings, promoting them to seek specializer advice on fittingness every bit good as seek intervention for hurt, as the literature reappraisal has identified that terpsichoreans will go on to dance and execute even with hurt, and will non ever seek intervention for such hurts.
Understanding the effects of the showing procedure and its response by pupils ( and staff, it can be seen from the information ) allows for a deeper apprehension of many constructs related to wellness and fittingness for terpsichoreans. One of these is that there may be a broad scope of factors which affect dancers’ fittingness and their ability or disposition to prosecute in fittingness activities and in positive behaviors to heighten wellness and well-being. Some pupils cited troubles in accessing to go toing gym installations due to populating at a distant location from the college and holding a long commute. There may be other factors which would impact upon the lived experience of dance preparation and the battle with fittingness showing, including socio-economic, demographic and other variables such as lodging, household position and populating infinite ( Aldrich et al, 2003 ) . A deficiency of entree to leisure installations and beginnings of economic nutrient shopping can be a serious barrier to prosecuting behaviors which may hold the possible to positively impact life style and wellness ( Harding and Taylor, 2002 ) . Bergman and Scott ( 2001 ) citation non merely socio -economic factors, but gender factors which can act upon wellness behaviors in striplings and immature grownups. This suggests that even when pupils have been informed and have taken on board the message about regular fittingness showing, the demand to prosecute in fitness-oriented activities can be offset by barriers to transporting out those activities. Just how much these barriers can be compensated for within the remit of the dance programme is hard to measure.
Barriers and challenges, and betterments to the showing programme, were clearly identified in the information. Indeed, the largest class of all was that labeled ‘Improvements to the Screening Programme’ . This may hold been due to the sorts of inquiries that were asked and the overall orientation of the focal point group interviews. It may besides be due to the fact that this was one of those rare chances for pupils to hold their say about their experience of some elements of their preparation programme. This provides practical information about he kinds of things that would guarantee the showing programme was relevant and appropriate to all pupils whilst besides run intoing the demands of advancing wellness and safety in fitness activities. These findings were really much surface findings, obvious from the informations and everyday in that they were the sorts of findings expected from the focal point groups
Motivation, liberty and perceived control over elements of organic structure signifier, fittingness and well-being was an issue which emerged through deeper and more intense analysis of the informations, emerging as significances and constructs underlying the statements given ( and the sensed non-verbal behavior of the pupils ) . Autonomy and its antonym, dependance, emerged as a subject throughout the treatments, and the comparative difference between trusting on others ( such as instructors and the physical therapist ) for monitoring of fittingness and trusting on oneself for fittingness activities and rating became evident.
The theoretical literature sheds light on this country, because this relates to the construct of venue of control, which is a agency by which research workers can place how persons perceive control either as something they control themselves, which would be an internal venue of control, or something which is in the custodies of some other force, which would be an external venue of control ( Rotter, 1966 ) . One of the cardinal issues for this programme is guaranting pupils engage with it to the full and efficaciously, therefore the rating herein, and the potency to better the showing programme to run into single demands. But autonomy and internal venue of control would intend that pupils would hold a belief in their ain abilities and capacity to accomplish and to command elements of their experience of dance preparation, which would intend they have positive bureau and may more meaningfully prosecute with the prescribed constructs and activities ( Rotter, 1966 ) . Individual perceptual experiences of wellness and wellness behaviors are described as ‘intrinsic factors’ which affect wellness behaviors ( Browes, 2006 ) , and the relevancy to this programme is that it should assist pupils to develop these positive beliefs and instil in them knowledge, attitudes and beliefs which would function them good throughout their dance callings.
It has been argued by some educational theoreticians that the publicity of liberty within pupils is a cardinal constituent of grownup and post-compulsory instruction ( Winch and Gingell,2005 ) . Winch and Ginell ( 2005 ) besides argue that instruction supports societal development and economic stableness, and serves to perpetuate the dominant civilization ( whether microcosmic or macrocosmic ) , which would take to the decision that instruction serves to guarantee that pupils comply with the criterions set by the educational supplier and by the industry or profession for which they are developing. Harmonizing to Little ( 2004 ) , the ends of acquisition and instruction are merely the development of defined cognition and accomplishments.
Other theoreticians besides show that liberty can be a unsafe thing, because liberty may take to a detachment with authorization which would in bend possibly sabotage the battle with forbidden regimens laid down by authorization figures ( Smetana and Asquith, 1994 ) . However, Little ( 2004 ) relates liberty in instruction to learner liberty, a construct that means that through educational procedures, scholars develop an apprehension of their ain duty for larning and public presentation, and so come to exert more liberty in their acquisition behaviors. If cognition and ability are a end of acquisition, self-regulatory behavior occur through development of liberty ( Little, 2004 ) . But it is of import non to bury that larning occurs within societal infinites, and pupils learn from each other and from other elements of societal life, every bit good as from formal acquisition activities ( Little, 2004 ) . It would look that the showing programme helps pupils to develop liberty by supplying them with the cognition and apprehension to prosecute with the programme and the fittingness activities, and back uping them throughout their preparation to exert incremental grades of liberty through understanding their fittingness accomplishments.
Motivation theory is another country which can inform these findings, because motive to follow is really of import in back uping the development of liberty and self-agency. The pupil may be experiencing independent