This major purposes of this survey will be to analyze the major causes of big scale devastation due to inundations in Lagos, Nigeria and to stress the utility of inundation jeopardy maps prepared utilizing GIS under the community based hazard direction model proposed for developing states. I will try to place, describe and analyse jobs at the community degree and suggest dependable methods of developing Community Based Flood Hazard Maps utilizing GIS and their application to the direction of inundation crises in Lagos, Nigeria.
The attack I will follow for this survey will be to lucubrate on the several of import utilizations to which flood jeopardy maps developed utilizing GIS can be put and besides applied in a community based attack. The attack will besides see production of flood jeopardy maps utilizing other bing theoretical accounts with a position to doing comparings between those theoretical accounts and the community based attack.
It is a clear perceptual experience that flood hazard direction can non be isolated. It should instead be portion of community development. As a consequence of this, it is apparently necessary to construct the capacity of the community to come to footings with scheme, exposures and the functions they have to play in inundation hazard direction without resort to external aid. This should travel to demo that the community based flood hazard function technique I propose can be a feasible solution in turn toing the current state of affairs. This attack will non merely see the effectual development and application of inundation jeopardy maps but should besides rectify the abnormalities in the top down attack in catastrophe planning and direction and besides promote stakeholders ‘ engagement in an incorporate and sustainable manner.
Based on the findings, it will be strongly recommended that governments responsible for inundation hazard direction should follow and adhere to the thought in the development of programmes for communities. In add-on to this, the thought is rather easy to hold on and simple to implement.
It is hoped that the thought will be utile and besides act as a accelerator in advancing community ‘s response to deluge catastrophe direction in Lagos, Nigeria and so most parts of the developing world.. At the same clip, it is hoped that the thought will assist governments responsible in coming up with operational schemes in progress.
Floods have fast become the most annihilating and often happening jeopardies the universe over. Lagos, the former capital metropolis of the Nigeria, West Africa, is plagued by inundation incidence badness. This has made it necessary to set in topographic point a good defined planning and warning tool that integrates inputs and engagement from all stakeholders including community members and local occupants.
Cities have become the bosom of a quickly germinating planetary economic system with increasing growing due to urbanisation, most particularly in Asia and Africa ( United Nations, 2005 ) . Deluging is a regular happening in these parts of the universe and as such it goes to demo that inundation catastrophes ‘ victims are largely people that do n’t hold the agencies and resources to get by with inundation jeopardies. They suffer the most are frequently the first casualties of inundation events. The drastic effects of these inundation happenings are exacerbated through self- exited poverty rhythm phenomenon ( Osti, 2004 ) . The high degree of devastation of life and belongings is bound to go on unless there is a echt attempt to put up good established and dependable get bying mechanisms in progress. Furthermore, there is deficiency of consciousness and resources to adequately undertake this job caput on as is the instance in the developed universe. These factors make inundation prone countries vulnerable and underline the pressing demand to set in topographic point fast, technically acceptable, environmentally friendly and socially adaptable structural and non structural countermeasures that should be planned and implemented by all stakeholders including community members harmonizing their peculiar demands.
Flood jeopardy maps produced with different attacks such as GIS based on several variables like inundation frequence, inundation deepness etc have been produced in several parts of the Earth. The major intent for the map is to expose flood extent and harm in a given state of affairs. It can besides be used as footing for river direction, joint hazard appraisal, land usage, inundation instruction etc.
The history of inundation jeopardy function is non good documented but the inundation facet map has been used in Japan since 1947, while the Nipponese function undertaking began in 1994 ( MLIT, 2003 ) . These maps were used in Japan as auxiliary counter steps in state of affairss such as:
Structural counter steps are frequently clip devouring and until they are complete, there is demand to hold an alternate model in topographic point.
In instances where the magnitude of the inundation jeopardy exceeds the strength of the physical barrier, inundation jeopardy maps can be used for safe emptying.
In topographic point to control inundation catastrophes as a consequence of urbanisation as people will travel to river Bankss.
Can be used to promote preparation of local occupants in inundation extenuation planning.
In order to do this possible inundation jeopardy maps were produce in such a manner that they include information on inundation extent, deepness, emptying paths, communicating channels and systems, tips for emptying, mechanisms of jeopardies etc.
The effectivity of these maps was tested in Koriyama City, Japan. The instance survey was the inundation of 1998. It was found that occupants that evacuated earlier than their co-workers as a consequence of provided inundation jeopardy maps were much higher in Numberss. ( MLIT, 2003 ) .
These maps are used as auxiliary tools in developed states. They nevertheless should be encouraged to be used as the major tool in developing states by and large and Africa in peculiar as they are environment friendly, non expensive, less clip consuming and efficient. They are besides utile because the concerned bureaus lack sufficient financess to set up structural steps. Undertakings embarked upon take long periods of clip and they cover merely a little part of inundation prone countries. There several other grounds which will be discussed later.
While this model has obvious advantages and can be said to be the most feasible option for now, there are jobs associated with its development and application in the context of developing states and the survey country is no exclusion. Some of the jobs include:
Fixing inundation jeopardy maps require specific informations sets such as base maps, land usage, hydrological, aerial exposure etc. These sorts of informations are non readily available in developing states and seeking to do them is expensive and clip consuming.
Literacy degree is low and such to do these maps useable by local occupants, practical methods need to be introduced.
Lack of physical, proficient and fiscal resources.
Lack of effectual communicating substructure between the rural and urban public.
Its development and application should be in the context of the peculiar socio economic and environmental conditions of the developing states and/or study country.
For exigency response and long term catastrophe direction, inundation jeopardy maps can supply information on past inundation path records, inundation expectancy, possible emptying paths to governments and community occupants likewise. They besides create easy to read and readily accessible charts and maps that assist decision makers and contrivers in the designation of countries at hazard and to prioritise their extenuation attempts. For this ground, inundation jeopardy maps are really utile to all stakeholders. Since inundations have benefits for the environment and the community at big, flood jeopardy maps can assist develop schemes for co-existence with a move from direct usage of inundations to indirect and controlled usage of the country concerned ( Takeuchi, 2002 ) . Flood jeopardy maps are besides utile for maintaining people off from inundation, maintaining flood off from the people and in accepting inundation incidents and covering with them ( Petry, 2002 ) .
Generating inundation jeopardy maps can be speedy and cheap and as such, they provide the best agencies of developing societal resiliency and aid in get bying with flood jeopardy appendages. In order to be more effectual and applicable, these maps should be developed with the engagement of community members. This is the rule behind the community based flood hazard direction ( CBFHM ) ( Nishikawa, 2003 ) . For this model to be to the full applicable, the undermentioned inquiries need to be investigated.
- How can participatory mapping methods be improved?
- How can participation by governments concerned and community occupants be increased?
- Are community prepared flood jeopardy maps technically sound?
- How can response to crisis be improved utilizing Flood Hazards Maps?
- Who should be held responsible and for what?
The aims of this survey are:
To place the major causes of big scale devastation caused by deluging.
To describe/analyse the identified causes of big scale devastation.
To lucubrate the utility of inundation jeopardy maps developed by utilizing the community based flood hazard direction model and their application to deluge catastrophe direction.
To place community degree jobs moving against effectual usage of inundation jeopardy maps for hazard direction.
To develop flood jeopardy maps for the survey country utilizing other bing theoretical accounts so that consequences can be analysed and compared to the community based attack.
In add-on, the appropriate methods required to integrate Community Based Flood Hazard Management ( CBFHM ) into community based catastrophe direction ( CBDM ) and thereby into the overall community development are yet to be good defined. This paper explores the community degree jobs and recommends dependable methods of developing Community Based Flood Hazard Maps every bit good as their application for pull offing inundation crisis in the context of Lagos, Nigeria.
The rate and volume of harm or devastation to life and belongings as a consequence of inundation jeopardies in Nigeria in general and Lagos in peculiar has assumed dismaying dimensions. This has shown no betterments as response to inundations by local occupants is alarmingly hapless and flood jeopardy happenings are on the addition. To farther understand the current state of affairs, it is pertinent to see cardinal jobs associated with community degree response to deluge hazard direction. There is hence need to suggest solutions that best fit the curious environmental and socio-economic conditions of the community.
Governments concerned with catastrophe direction in inundation prone countries are yet to follow the inundation extenuation model into their national development programmes. Flood extenuation programs largely do non be in inundation prone countries of Nigeria and where they exi.st, they are largely pushed to the background and are non used or implemented. They do non make the rural countries because of political or administrative troubles. Social security systems and monitoring are really weak. Autochthonal beliefs and patterns besides lead to troubles in doing local occupants accept these policies.
Creation of consciousness and public enlightenment are important in contending inundations. It is of import to transport members of the populace along in the effort to place the causes and associated jobs of inundation jeopardies before they occur. Even though some of these countries have antecedently experienced implosion therapy, the needed degree of public consciousness is nonexistent. The bulk of people in these countries are illiterate or partly educated as a consequence if this, it is difficult to educate them on how to react to deluge jeopardies utilizing the maps.
The migration of people to deluge prone countries and set down encroachment lead to immense human force per unit area on inundation fields. Peoples migrate to these countries because they provide fertile land for diversified agribusiness. This leads to the development of slum countries in riversides with improper inundation control measures. As a consequence of this, there is monolithic devastation due to deluging.
Most of these inundation prone countries lack the physical and fiscal resources to get by with inundation catastrophes. There is besides the issue of degrading environment, clime alteration, deficiency of proper drainage channels and poorness.
In order to proffer solutions to these jobs and guarantee a sustainable model, community based catastrophe direction with active communities and stakeholders ‘ engagement is required.
In order to bring forth standard inundation jeopardy maps for any country informations on hydrology, base maps such as lift informations, land usage, population informations and aerial exposures are required. These sorts of informations are non readily available in the underdeveloped universe and developing these maps can be expensive and clip consuming. Since the survey country will non be visited, I will largely utilize secondary informations available from on-line authorized web sites of appropriate bureaus and historical records of local bureaus. Datas required include digital lift informations for the survey country, Global digital lift ( DEM ) etc. Topographic maps, territory degree maps and nose count informations can besides be used if available.
Appropriate maps of the survey country will be geo-referenced utilizing co-ordinates on a map of the survey country of Google Earth. The rectified map will so be defined to the appropriate mention system utilizing ArcCatalog, a constituent of ArcInfo. Development blocks will so be digitized utilizing polygons form files. These polygons will so be assigned alone ID in attribute tabular arraies to enable the composite index to be joined to the GIS database utilizing the alone ID.
This is followed by other informations preparatory stairss which will be discussed later.
Resources I will necessitate include changeless entree to current diary articles and books related to the range of the survey in order to set about elaborate literature reappraisal.
I will besides necessitate to hold changeless entree to online beginnings and web sites of geographical information bureaus and to online historical informations from local bureaus and old surveies carried out where available for informations aggregation and analyses.
Finally, I will necessitate to hold entree to a GIS platform which I intend to utilize for informations integrating, analyses and show of produced inundation jeopardy maps. ArcGIS will be the package and entree to the map room for any needed aid will besides be helpful.
I will concentrate on the proposed methodological attack of community based flood hazard function that can be an built-in portion of inundation hazard extenuation and readiness under the community based inundation hazard direction model.
The community based model has become recognized as a agency of sustainable development in several parts of the Earth. As a consequence of this, it is now clearer that inundation hazard direction can non be treated in isolation but instead should be portion of community based development. Traditional cognition on inundation extenuation can be of import ( Osti, 2005 ) but flood jeopardy maps prepared the local community should be subjected to confirmation as wrong information may do even more harm. I will suggest techniques that can be applied to fixing flood jeopardy maps utilizing GIS within the community based model and ways by which it can be integrated into community development.
I will besides suggest ways in which the spread between cognition of local occupants and the scientific based attack can be bridged. This is because the prepared maps are to be used by community members and governments likewise.
I will suggest holistic attack through which local governments play an active function in the development of the inundation jeopardy maps. There should active engagement from both community members and governments in charge. Since I will non see the survey country personally, I will rely chiefly on secondary informations which can be accessed through the public sphere or from historical records kept by authorities bureaus. This can sometimes be hard to acquire or they can be uncomplete due to low proficient and fiscal resources prevalent in many parts of the underdeveloped universe. The information I hope to utilize for this survey will include flood frequence, population denseness, transit webs, Digital Elevation Model, maximal hazard zones, emptying paths, etc. These variables will be integrated into GIS tool, analysed and used to bring forth flood jeopardy maps utilizing a community based model.
I will do usage of participatory assessment tools like function and modeling, seasonal and historical maps. This is with a position to incorporating community engagement into flood jeopardy function.
I will fix flood jeopardy maps utilizing other theoretical accounts and do comparings. This will nevertheless depend on handiness of informations.
This goes to demo that the community based flood hazard mapping methods can travel a long manner in turn toing the current state of affairs. This is chiefly because the attack does non merely see effectual readying and usage of these maps but it will besides assist in rectifying the up down attack in flood jeopardy planning and it will besides promote engagement by stakeholders ‘ and community members likewise.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There have been several surveies carried out in flood jeopardy mapping particularly in developed states of the universe. Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA ) is a precursor in this respect. These maps are nevertheless developed utilizing a batch of informations and high declaration imagination. This is non the instance with the development universe where there is deficiency of fiscal and technological capablenesss. These sorts of maps are sometimes non executable for these countries. ( Islam et wholly, 2000 ) developed a methodological analysis to fix flood jeopardy maps for Bangladesh, where there is data deficit. Attempts were subsequently made to incorporate population denseness in the inundation jeopardy maps in order to make land development maps ( Islam, 2002 ) .
Other surveies have besides developed the community based flood hazard direction model. As is the instance of the one developed in Japan for the inundation incident of 1998 ( MLIT, 2003 )
At the terminal of this survey, it is expected that the perceptual experience of the fact that inundation hazard direction should non be treated in isolation would hold been projected. This gives rise to the demand to construct the capacity of the community to understand their schemes, exposures and functions they need to play in inundation hazard direction without resort to external aid. The community based flood hazard function technique is proposed as a solution to the current jobs.
This survey approaches the issue of flood jeopardy maps from the position of a community based model utilizing GIS. Available information for the survey country which is Lagos, Nigeria will be integrated and analysed to bring forth flood jeopardy maps based on a community based model. For case, a map with administrative units is really utile for contrivers and decision makers in explicating extenuation schemes. The attack will concentrate on the effectual development of and applications of inundation jeopardy maps. It will besides promote stakeholder engagement in an incorporate and sustainable manner.
There will besides be comparing between maps produced utilizing this attack and other bing theoretical accounts to be agreed with supervisor with a position to analyzing the differences in terminal consequences and in application of these maps to disaster planning.
Destruction caused by inundation jeopardies is a uninterrupted happening in the underdeveloped universe. A big portion of this devastation is caused by deficiency of cognition, resources and absence of get bying mechanisms. There is demand to run a policy that includes public enlightenment and consciousness programmes aimed at community capacity edifice. This will do them better appreciate their functions, exposures and schemes in inundation hazard direction. Previously developed flood jeopardy maps in developed parts of the universe have been found to be really effectual in the emptying of people from flood catastrophe events. A typical illustration is the instance of Japan. This theoretical account can be really utile in developing flood jeopardy maps in developing states and as such for the survey country.
This paper proposes the community based jeopardy development model in developing flood jeopardy maps and will discourse its development and application. It is hoped that this model will rectify the current top down attack presently employed in catastrophe planning in the underdeveloped universe.
It is greatly hoped that governments responsible will follow this thought into planning and policy development.
Finally, it is hoped that this model be adopted in planning by developing states as a primary tool because physical extenuation steps are unequal or missing in many parts of the survey country as a consequence of deficiency of resources and low literacy degrees.
ImageA model for developing floor jeopardy map in developing states
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