Pakistan has diverse geographics with Northern alpines covered with glaciers and Southern Plains surrounding the Arabian Sea. There are five large rivers fluxing through the state from north to south viz. the mighty Indus and its feeders. that is. Jhelum. Chenab. Ravi and Sutlej. There is a good marked monsoon season from July to mid September in which most of the state receives rainfall. Riverine implosion therapy is common in the low lying countries along the rivers during monsoon season while brassy implosion therapy is besides experienced in hilly and semi hilly countries. Since its creative activity. Pakistan has faced terrible inundations in 1950. 1956. 1957. 1973. 1976. 1978. 1988. 1992 and now in 2010. These inundations affected the basins of the rivers in Punjab and Sindh. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ( KPK ) . Balochistan. Federally Administrated Tribal Areas ( FATA ) . Gilgit Baltistan ( G-B ) . Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( AJK ) and in some countries of Punjab. amendss are caused chiefly due to blink inundations in secondary and third rivers including hill downpours.
Pakistan has suffered from the worst inundation of its history in monsoon season of 2010. As per Damage Need Assessment ( DNA ) study of ADB /World Bank. the inundations affected an country of 2 about 160. 000 kilometer ( one fifth of the state ) . claiming about 1. 985 lives. damaging about 1. 5 million houses. pass overing out cropped country of more than 17 million estates. displacing a population of about 20 million and ensuing in economic loss of PKR 10 Billion. Pakistan needs to make all it can to halt conditions catastrophes going calamities and to protect people from future ruinous inundation catastrophes and increase the resiliency of substructure. economic systems and communities including better exigency warning and emptying systems. better inundation protection for cardinal substructure and programs to assist communities retrieve one time the Waterss recede. There is huge demand for effectual proficient planning for inundation harm extenuation in the state. This paper critically discusses in item the causes and mechanism of 2010 inundation on state broad footing. To forestall future ruinous inundation catastrophes. the precedence betterments have been identified and recommendations have been made for effectual inundation hazard direction in the state. Cardinal words: Flood direction. inundation harm extenuation. 2010 Pakistan inundation.
INTRODUCTION Floods due to inundations have the possible to do human deaths. supplanting of people. and harm to the environment and therefore badly compromise economic development. Deluging histories for 40 % of all the natural jeopardies worldwide and half of all the deceases caused by natural catastrophes ( Ohl and Tapsell. 2000 ; Jonkman and Vrijling. 2008 ) . Floods are natural phenomena which can non be prevented ; however. some human activities contribute to an addition in the likeliness and inauspicious impacts of ?ood events ( European Parliament Council. 2007 ) . First. the decrease of the natural H2O keeping by inappropriate land usage and river direction ( e. g. uninterrupted embankments ) increases the graduated table and the frequence of ?oods. Recent analyses investigated such effects on ?ood jeopardy ( Wooldridge et al. . 2001 ; Camorani et Al. . 2006 ) . Second. there has been an increasing exposure of ?ood-prone countries because of the turning figure of people and economic assets located in ?ood hazard zones ( ?ood-prone countries are traditionally zones ofspecial importance as they offer favorable conditions for human colonies and economic development ) .
Finally. ?ood hazard. that may be defined as the merchandise of chance of ?ood and associated harm that is the harm outlook ( Merz et al. . 2007 ) . additions with economic development given that possible harm additions. Resistance schemes of inundation hazard direction are based on the building of levees ( Vis et al. . 2003 ) . The design of levees and other water-retaining constructions is normally based on an acceptable chance of dominating and the part of hazard that remains is called residuary hazard ( van Manen and Brinkhuis. 2005 ) . Residual ?ood hazard behind levees is mostly unaccounted. Levees are normally characterised by a unvarying safety degree ( e. g. return period equal to 200 old ages ) . It implies that stream?ows above the design discharge which may do ?ooding anyplace and even at several locations at the same clip. and hence the development of the ?ood event is unpredictable. It is obvious that this status is unwanted ( e. g. . in instance of exceeding events a big country must be evacuated as all countries adjacent to the river theoretically have the same chance of ?ooding ) . The alleged resiliency scheme is a different attack to ?ood hazard direction.
The construct of resiliency originates from ecology ( Holling. 1973 ) and was subsequently on introduced. in the context of ?ood hazard direction ( De Bruijn and Klijn. 2001 ) . The thought behind the resiliency attack is populating with ?oods alternatively of contending ?oods. In this attack. ?ooding is allowed in certain countries. whereas the impact of ?ooding is minimised through policies of land-use planning and direction ( Vis et al. . 2003 ) . There is demand for incorporate inundation hazard direction in Pakistan. This probe was taken up to place assorted failings. spreads and defects in the bing inundation control machinery in the state that experienced the worst of all time inundations of its history. The survey was based on the study of available records with the concerned organisations as good interview with the seasoned inundation professionals with particular focal point on 2010 inundations. The major purpose of the survey was to forestall future inundation catastrophes through designation of the precedence betterments and doing proficient recommendations for effectual inundation hazard direction in the state.
Causes of inundations in Pakistan The major cause of inundations in Pakistan is heavy concentrated rainfall in the river catchments. which sometimes augmented by snowmelt flows. by and large result into inundations in rivers during the monsoon season. Occasionally. Monsoon currents arising in the Bay of Bengal and attendant depressions frequently result in heavy cloudburst in the Himalayan foothills to boot affected by the conditions systems from the Arabian Sea ( Seasonal Low ) and from the Mediterranean Sea ( Westerly Wave ) cause destructive inundations in either or all of the chief rivers of the Indus System. There are big seasonal fluctuations in about all the river discharges. which farther aggravate the river class and morphology. There are five large rivers fluxing through the state from north to south viz. the mighty Indus and its feeders that is Jhelum. Chenab. Ravi and Sutlej. The major storage reservoirs include Tarbela ( bing Live Storage Capacity = 6. 625 MAF against original 9. 70 MAF ) . Chashma ( bing Live Storage Capacity = 0. 263 MAF against original 0. 70 MAF ) on River Indus and Mangla ( bing Live Storage Capacity = 4. 542 MAF against original 5. 30 MAF ) on River Jhelum. The Schematic inside informations of Indus Basin river web are shown in Figure 1.
The major rivers cause inundation losingss by flood of countries along their Bankss. by damaging irrigation and communicating installations across or next to the rivers. and by eroding of land along the riversides. In the upper portion of the Indus Basin System. floodwater sloping over the riversides by and large returns to the river. However. in the lower portion of Indus River ( Sindh Province ) . which is chiefly fluxing at a higher lift than bordering lands. the spill flows do non return to the river. This phenomenon mostly extends the period of flood ensuing in even greater amendss. Although inundation protection by embankments have been provided along about the full length in the Sindh Province and at many locations in the upper countries. the bund breaches can still happen. Such breaches frequently cause greater harm than would hold occurred without the bunds because of their unexpected nature and intensification of land usage following the proviso of inundation protection.
The unequal bing discharge capacity of some of the of import constructions ( Barrages and Rail or Road Bridges ) on Rivers Indus. Chenab and Ravi are another major ground of implosion therapy. The exceptionally high inundations therefore result in afflux on the upstream side. which sometimes consequences in breaches in the inundation embankments. Some times. the inundation embankments have to be intentionally breached at pre-selected locations to salvage the chief bombardment constructions and other critical colonies and installings in the locality. The invasion of small town abadies in riverine countries has besides increased the quantum of inundation amendss and losingss to worlds and farm animal. As there is no proper regulative frame work in the state sing the colony in riverine countries. most of the hapless people have constructed their shelters along the vulnerable river Bankss and go victims to lay waste toing inundations. Some people are doing the most of these countries for concern intent through advancing agribusiness and cattle Ghats/dairies.
All such activities are widening beyond the safe bounds of riverine countries to accomplish more economic benefits but in fact these activities are presenting a great menace to unprecedented and boisterous inundation ; the losingss due to which may be in 100 multiples of such little scale economic net income. The river catchments and inundation fields are to be kept as forbidden country for the riverine community particularly during the inundation season. In recent old ages. exposures of big metropoliss to deluging hold increased. Cities like Karachi. Lahore and Rawalpindi have experienced implosion therapy due to improper storm H2O drainage system to get by with heavy rains. Global warming impact Global Warming is emerging as a major thrust of
catastrophes. with frequent and intense inundations and storms. increasing forced supplanting as an highly likely effect. The universe conditions crisis that is doing inundations in Pakistan. wildfires in Russia and landslides in China is grounds that planetary heating anticipations are right. Harmonizing to climate alteration experts. all these catastrophes happened more or less at the same time as the consequence of a planetary clime form. yet each was reported as a separate event and interpreted as though there was no connexion. Harmonizing to the experts from World Climate Research Programme and the World meteoric Organization ( WMO ) . the clime alteration is a major lending factor in this “unprecedented sequence of utmost conditions in Pakistan” in months of July and August 2010.
Scientists from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) warn that man-caused clime alterations can lend to those catastrophes go oning more often ( Table 1 ) . In 2007 study. a UN scientific organic structure of the IPCC concluded that “it is really likely that hot extremes. heat moving ridges and heavy precipitation events will go on to go more frequent. ” IPCC besides warns: “the inundations of the sort that hit Pakistan may go more frequent and more intense in the hereafter in the same part and other parts of the world” . Earlier. WMO made a likewise qualified appraisal that the conditions related catastrophe of July and August ( 2010 ) tantrum forms predicted by clime scientists.
They besides stated ; “While a longer clip scope is required to set up whether an single event is attributable to climate alteration. the sequence of current events lucifers IPCC projections of more frequent and more intense extreme conditions events due to planetary warming” . In the instance of Pakistan. an tremendous part of the country’s farming area land has been destroyed. along with much of its substructure. and this has taken topographic point in an country that is so hapless that people have small to fall back on. The H2O has flowed south from northwesterly Pakistan. where seasonal monsoon rains lasted for a month without halting. Pakistan is among the states. which will be hit hardest by effects of clime alteration. even though it contributes merely a fraction to planetary heating. The terrible drouths in 1999 and 2000 are the chief illustrations that caused crisp diminutions in H2O tabular arraies and dried up wetlands. badly degrading ecosystems. Precipitation has decreased 10 to 15 % in the costal belt and hyper-arid fields over the last 40 old ages while there is an addition in summer and winter rains in northern Pakistan.
Flood events history in Pakistan Eighteen major inundations in 60 old ages ( about one major inundation event every 3 old ages ) are one of the chief challenges to economic development. Overall. more than 10. 000 people lost their lives and the state suffered a cumulative fiscal loss of US $ 30 billion. Some 127. 375 small towns were reportedly damaged/ destroyed and a entire country of 567. 132 Sq. kilometer was affected due to the 18 major inundation events. Among these utmost inundation events. 2010 inundation was the most destructive inundation in Pakistan. which significantly added to these figures ( Table 1 ) .
Flood direction in Pakistan The bing inundation direction scheme includes flow ordinance by two reservoirs and bombardments. inundation prediction. early warning. emptying. protection of critical substructure. and urban and rural countries by inundation embankments and goads etc along the rivers. The Provincial Irrigation Departments ( PIDs ) maintain about 6. 803 kilometer of inundation protection embankments and over 1400 chief goads along the rivers. Province-wise interruption up of bing inundation protection substructure is as shown in Table 2. The inside informations of inundation protection sector investing are shown in Table 3.
The monsoon of the Year 2010 brought with it the worst implosion therapy in past 80 old ages in Pakistan. The unprecedented inundations began in July 2010 following heavy monsoon rains in the KP. Sindh. lower Punjab and Balochistan parts. These rains over a big country made the rivers rush and flood. Harmonizing to the Met Department. within a short period of three to four yearss. heavy rains fell in the catchment countries of Indus and its tributary rivers doing heavy inundations in River Indus as shown in Figure 2. This comprehensively devastated countries from Gilgit-Baltistan to Kotri Sindh. In the last hebdomad of July. unprecedented rains fell in the catchment countries of Kabul and Swat rivers. Heavy rainfall of more than 200 millimeter ( 7. 9 inches ) was recorded during the four twenty-four hours wet enchantment of July 27 to July 30. 2010 in the states of KP and Punjab ( Table 4 ) . The aforestated mean rainfall in the months of July and August 2010 are described as the worst in the last 80 old ages.
The 2010 inundations started on July 22. 2010. after a few hours of heavy rainfall in Balochistan which caused breaching at Lehri Flood Protection Bund and flood H2O outburst 43 km upstream of Sibi deluging more than 20 small towns along its Bankss. The 2nd enchantment of deluging took topographic point by unprecedented rains across the KP before let go ofing to southern Punjab and Sindh. During 2010 inundation season. flows in western rivers were really high and some of the discharge degrees recorded are comparable to those recorded during the inundations of 1956. 1976. and1992. A comparing of Historic Maximum Flood Peaks Vs 2010 Flood Maximum Flood Peaks is given in Table 5 and keeping of inundation extremums at Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs on July 30. 2010 is presented in Table 6. Figure 3 shows 2010 Flood Peaks of Indus river system. The D. G. Khan and Rajanpur hill downpours besides experienced high flash inundations in the last hebdomad of July and first hebdomad of August City Rainfall ( millimeter ) Risalpur 468. 0* Cherat 384. 0* Saidu Sharif 338. 0* Peshawar 226. 1* Lower Dir 297. 0 Kohat 127. 3 Balakot 208. 7 Upper Dir 309. 0 Dera Ismail Khan 83. 3 Garhi Dopatta 346 Rawalakot 297 Muzaffarabad 292 Pattan 242 Islamabad 394 Murree 373 Kamra 308 Lahore 288 Mianwali *271 Jhelum 269 Sialkot 255 Gujranwala 222 Rawalpindi 219 * Indicates new record Beginning: PMD.
Rainfall ( inch ) 18. 4 15. 1 13. 3 8. 9 11. 7 5. 0 8. 2 12. 1 3. 3 13. 6 11. 7 11. 5 9. 5 15. 5 14. 6 12. 1 11. 3 10. 6 10. 6 10. 0 8. 7 8. 6
Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir Capital Territory Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab
September. Due to the interactions of westerly-easterly moving ridges. few really heavy rainfall events would besides happen over north Pakistan that may do urban/flash implosion therapy during July to September. This is seasonal prognosis with assurance degree of 80 % and meant for the planning intent merely. The normal area-weighted rainfall for July to September of Pakistan is 137. 5 millimeter. The cumulative rainfall for 2010flood season is shown in Figure 4.
Official seasonal monsoon rainfall prognosis Pakistan Meteorological Department predicted Normal monsoon rains during the period from July to September 2010. On 21 June. the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and brassy implosion therapy could happen from July to September in the northern parts of the state. The official anticipation of seasonal monsoon rainfall by Pakistan Meteorological Department. issued in this context. is reproduced hereunder ( PMD. 2010 ) : “Meteorological informations suggests that on all Pakistan footing the monsoon rains during July to September ( 2010 ) in most parts of the state are likely to be normal ( +10 % ) . which means that the over all handiness of H2O in the state from monsoon rains would be sufficient.
Due to high sea-land temperature contrast. the development of some mid-tropospheric circulations are likely in north Arabian Sea that may do heavy rainfall events over southern countries of Pakistan ( Sindh ) during July to Flooding form during inundation season 2010 The 2010-floods were of unprecedented magnitude chiefly triggered by the Indus and its feeders holding affected all the seven units of the state. These are discussed one by one: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ( KPK ) was badly affected. The unprecedented monsoon rains from July 27 to July 30. 2010. followed by historic inundations caused major losingss to life. harvests. houses. substructure. that roads Bridgess. railroad paths. power installings. little dikes. etc which were badly damaged due to flashy inundation flow of secondary ( Kabul. Swat and panjkora Panjkora ) and third rivers including local nullahs. More than 200 millimeter ( 7. 88 inches ) of rain fell within a period of 24-h over a figure of topographic points of KPK. A record-breaking 274 millimeter ( 10. 7 inches ) rain fell in Peshawar during 24 Hs exceling the old 187 millimeter ( 7. 36 inches ) of rain recorded in April 2009. Rivers Swat and Kabul experienced record inundations in excessive of 400. 000 cusecs traversing old historic recorded flows of 1929 ( 250. 000 cusecs ) that caused flood of Charsada. Nowshehra and bordering countries.
Exceptionally high inundations were besides recorded in Panjkora River. Budni/ other nullahs. every bit good as flash inundations in D. I. Khan hill downpours. Areas severely affected include Districts Swat. Shangla. Upper and Lower Dir. Malakand. Mansehra. Charsadda. Mardan. Peshawar. Nowshera. Kohat. Karak. Bannu. Lakki Marwat. D. I. Khan and Tank. Devastation was so monolithic that 278 Bridgess were damaged/ washed off. besides terrible amendss to 6. 511 Kms of roads. Amandra. Munda and Kurram Garhi Headworks. 605 transformers and 5 Grid Stationss. little dikes. irrigation substructure and the other private every bit good as public substructure. Black implosion therapy in 544 small towns of 24 territories in KP badly damaged 257. 294 houses 1. 790 watercourses. 121. 500 hectares of cropped country and affected a population of 3. 8 million ensuing into life loss of 1. 156 individuals with 1. 198 injured. Punjab: Heavy rainfall in Northern parts of the state raised H2O degree in chief rivers and seasonal nullahs doing heavy inundations in River Indus.
Subsequently with the part of River Swat and Kabul to Indus led to unprecedented inundations in countries of Punjab state that is “Jinnah Barrage to Taunsa Barrage Reach” . River Indus experienced exceptionally high inundations between July 30 and August 02. 2010. in Jinnah Barrage to Taunsa Barrage range. At Jinnah Barrage due to high inundation of 937. 453 cusecs recorded on July 30. 2010. four ( 4 ) predetermined transgressing subdivisions were operated in Right Marginal Bund of Jinnah Barrage ensuing in flood of low lying countries and under building Jinnah Hydropower Project. Chashma Barrage recorded historic extremum flow of 10. 36. 673 cusecs ( higher than design capacity ) on August 1. 2010. Deluging occurred in river fields in Districts Mianwali. Bhakhar. and Layyah. Indus at Taunsa Barrage received flood extremum of 960. 000 cusecs on August 2. 2010. traversing historic extremum of 788. 646 cusecs recorded in 1958.
Due to huge force per unit area. Left Marginal Bund ( LMB ) of Barrage breached at RD 32-38 on August 2. 2010. deluging a figure of abadies/villages. agricultural land located on left side of Indus River in District Muzaffargarh. Flood flows go throughing through breached subdivision of Left Marginal Bund ( LMB ) overtopped Taunsa-Punjnad Link at RD 10 and hit Muzaffargarh Canal transgressing it at several locations between RD: 13-14. Consequently. abadies of Kot Addu town. Shaikh Omar. Sinawa. Thatta Gurmani. Gujrat. Mahmood Kot. Ghazi Ghat and bordering cropped countries located between right side of Muzaffargarh Canal and left bank of River Indus in Muzaffargarh District were inundated. A cut was induced at Gattu Flood Bund downstream Ghazighat Bridge to deviate inundation flows back into River Indus through breached subdivision and flight channel at RD: 246 of Muzaffargarh Canal. Power installations/generation were severely affected at Kot Addu Power House. AES Lalpir. AES PakGen. every bit good as oil supplies from PARCO and PSO Depot.
Exceptionally high flash inundations were besides recorded in D. G. Khan and Rajanpur hill downpours. Heavy rains on Suleman Range Mountains and in the fields of Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur resulted in high inundations in hill downpours on the western side of the territories which besides raised inundation flows degree in the Indus. Floodwater entered tonss of colonies bordering the riverine country of Rajanpur territory. The irrigation section warned people in Vahowa that high inundation was expected in the Vahowa hill downpour because of a breach in a dike in Balochistan. Flood in Vidor hill downpour inundated 100s of estates of land in the suburbs of Dera Ghazi Khan. Choti Zarin and Khanpur Munjwala. Comparative discharges of 239. 600 cusecs of H2O from hill downpours outlets in D. G. Khan Rajanpur country added into River Indus on August 8. 2010.
Catastrophic implosion therapy in 1778 small towns of 11 territories in Punjab Province damaged 375. 773 houses. 746. 900 hour angle of cropped country. 2. 598 watercourses and 2. 819 kilometer of route substructure. 2010 inundations in Punjab affected a population of 8. 2 million ensuing into life loss of 110 individuals with 262 injured. Sindh: The Exceptionally High Flood flows in Indus River Thursday entered the upper Sindh at Guddu Barrage on 5 August. 2010. First moving ridge of Exceptionally High Flood extremum of 1. 149. 000 cusecs passed through Guddu Barrage on August 8-9. 2010. and flood extremum of 1. 131. 000 cusecs passed through Sukkur Barrage on August 9 to 11. 2010. Due to huge force per unit area. 16 stat mi long Left Marginal Bund ( LMB ) of Guddu Barrage breached at five ( 5 ) locations ( 1 in Sindh and 4 in Punjab ) . Areas of Bhong. Somiani. Kot Sabzal. Sajanpur. Indus Highway and bordering countries were inundated.
The inundation H2O in Rainee Canal was measured to be 9. 645 cusecs about double the design discharge ensuing in breaches on the left bank of the canal ( 13 Nos ) . Due to heavy force per unit area of st inundation H2O. Tori Bund ( 1 line of defense mechanism ) located on right bank of Indus river 30 kilometer D/S of Guddu Barrage. breached at mile 0/2 on August 06. 2010. deluging huge country. Six ( 6 ) breaches besides occurred in Beghari Sindh ( B. S ) Feeder on August 08. 2010. Flood H2O. which entered the western territories of Sindh after transgressing Tori Bund. hit three Tehsils of territory Dadu that is Mehar. Khairpur Nathan Shah and Johi. Resultantly. inundation H2O entered Ghouspur. Kandhkot and Dari towns further spreading towards Thul town. Shahdad Kot and Usta Muhammad and bordering parts of Balochistan damaging houses. cropped country and irrigation substructures e. g. Saifullah Magsi Branch etc.
Due to exceptionally high inundation flows in Indus River. Old st Ghora Ghat Bund from mile 0/0 to 0/2 ( 1 line of defense mechanism ) and Haibat Loop Bund ( 2 line of defense mechanism ) at mile 12/3 on right bank. D/S of Guddu Barrage were besides breached. The Tori bund inundation H2O after deluging the environing countries of Jacobabad metropolis entered in Balochistan. Furthermore. 2nd moving ridge of Exceptionally High Flood once more passed through Guddu and Sukkur bombardments between August 14 to 17. and state of affairs remained critical. A breach developed M. S Bund ( Mile 18/2 ) on the eastern bank of the Indus River in Thatta territory on August. 26. 2010. Thatta metropolis was evacuated as the Indus breaches its western bank in the South. Exceptionally High Flood Flow of 965. 000 cusecs was recorded at Kotri Barrage on August 27. 2010. Flood and riverine implosion therapy of low lying countries of Districts Hyderabad. Thatta. Badin. particularly Sajawal. Mirpur Bathoro. Mirpur Sakro. Jhang Shahi. Jamshoro. Matiari. Makaro. Keti Bunder. Shah Bunder took topographic point. Whole Katcha country upstream and downstream Kotri Barrage were inundated.
Flood H2O go throughing through the breach in M. S. Bund ( mile 18/2 ) inundated country upto Sajawal Town and spread over Jati and Chohar Jamali and bordering countries of District Thatta. Manchar Lake overtopped on September 16. 2010 at RD: 92 to 97. flooded huge country of District Jamshoro. Eight alleviation cuts were made in Manchar Lake and a breach in the Main Nara Valley ( MNV ) drain could non be plugged. ensuing in inundation Waterss to flux towards the last embankment of Bhan Saeedabad at Indus link canal. As a consequence. the huge country was flooded. This brought the entire figure of small towns inundated to 200. Sehwan airdrome. the railroad path. Pak-Arab refinery station. Indus main road. different telecommunication towers and the chief line of optical fibre were inundated every bit good. wholly paralysing the telecommunications system in the country.
The destructive implosion therapy in 11. 988 small towns of 17 territories in Sindh state extensively damaged 879. 978 houses. 1. 043. 500 hour angle of cropped country. 6. 990 water-courses and 8. 467 kilometer of route substructure. Besides. a population of 7. 185 million was severely affected doing 411 deceases with 1. 235 injured. Balochistan: North-eastern parts of Balochistan were affected by July 2010 rains/ electrical storms which resulted in brassy inundations from hill downpours. Major affected countries include territories Zhob. Kohlu. Sibi. Barkhan. Kachhi. Nasirabad. Jafferabad. Musakhel. Shirani. Harnai and Killa Saifullah. The rains breached Lehri dike in Sibi and affected about 20 small towns. In the first hebdomad of August 2010. due to transgress in Tori Bund in Sindh. inundation H2O entered into Jaffarabad and Nasirabad territories and in some parts of Jhal Magsi territory. Areas of Rojhan Jamali. Usta Muhammad and several other small towns were besides inundated.
Floods affected 12 territories badly affected a population of 0. 7 million ; 54 people were reported dead and 104 injured besides 79. 720 houses damaged. Crops on 132. 500 hectares had been wholly destroyed and 47 No. water-cources and 2. 077 kilometer of route substructure were ruined by the 2010 inundations. Flood H2O besides crossed over Indus Highway. due to which Road between Shikarpur – Jacobabad. Jacobabad – Sibbi and Shikarpur to Kandhkot was closed for several hebdomads for all type of traffic. FATA: Damagess occurred to irrigation substructure and other private every bit good as public belongings of FATA. Harmonizing to DNA study jointly prepared by ADB and World Bank. black flash implosion therapy in FATA damaged 5. 419 houses. 7. 220 hour angle of cropped country and 1. 257 kilometer of route substructure. Gilgit-Baltistan: In Gilgit rains get downing from July 28. 2010 had black effects in Gilgit-Baltistan ( G-B ) as Karakuram Highway ( KKH ) got blocked at assorted subdivisions and land nexus of the state with G-B got suspended.
Thunderstorm resulted in inundations. which caused widespread amendss to route. Bridgess. power houses. H2O channels. etc. Rivers and nullahs inundated low-lying countries impacting 100. 000 individuals in 347 small towns. About 183 deceases were reported. 3. 157 houses damaged and at least 7. 900 hour angle of cropped country was destroyed. 2010 implosion therapy in 7 territories in G-B damaged 960 watercourses and 382 kilometer of route substructure. Azad Jammu and Kashmir: Heavy rains and inundations devastated major parts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir ensuing in 71 deceases. 87 injured and affected a population of about 200. 000 individuals. Some 6. 843 houses and 33. 100 hectare of cropped country were severely affected. Damagess besides occurred to public substructure. e. g. roads. Bridgess. power installings. H2O channels. etc. Catastrophic brassy implosion therapy in AJK damaged 657 watercourses and 3. 575 kilometer of route substructure.
Country-wide losses/Damages due to 2010 inundations The inside informations of country-wide losses/damages caused due to rain/flood 2010 as reported by the Provincial Departments and Federal Line Agencies are given in Table 8. Irrigation Infrastructure amendss: Irrigation system/infrastructure and inundation control works were damaged at several topographic points. Major amendss included Munds. Amendrah and Kuram Garhi Headworks ( KP ) . RMB Jinnah Barrage. LMB of Taunsa and Guddu Barrages. TP Link Canal. Muzaffargarh Canal along with branches/distributaries. Head Regulators. Drains. Mercantile establishments. Flood Embankments. Tori Bund. Ghauspur Bund. M. S Bund etc. Spurs and other
constructions. Damagess to substructure is tentatively estimated at Rs 15. 5 billion. 52 billion. 11. 55 billion. 3. 751 Billion. 461 million and 14. 9 million by Punjab. Sindh. KPK. Balochistan. GB and AJK Governments severally.
Damagess to power sector: Power sector substructures badly damaged in the inundation affected countries. Major amendss recorded in state of KPK. Hydropower workss of Jagran ( 30 MW ) and Malakand-III ( 81 MW ) were flooded. Power houses of about 2000 MW including KAPCO works and Muzzafargarh works were partly shutdown due to expected inundation hits and inaccessibility of fuel as route and railroad substructure was badly damaged. Furthermore. two IPPs of 350 MW each viz. AES Lalpir and AES Pakgen were flooded/ inundated for the last 30 yearss. A figure of grid Stationss. transmittal lines and distribution system substructure were fully/partially damaged. Partial amendss were besides occurred to some under building power workss. Entire cost involved in Restoration is tentatively estimated at Rs. 13 billion.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The 2010-Floods in Pakistan clearly demonstrate incapacity of the Federal. Provincial and Local Government machinery to cover with catastrophes and crisis. peculiarly on such a big graduated table. The inundations have been attributed to heavy rainfall. climatic alterations. monsoon forms. deforestation and damming. There are many lessons to larn from the inundation calamity in Pakistan. Some of the critical decisions include: 1. Pakistan Meteorological Department’s Flood Warning System worked good but it has inherited capableness restraints. which needs capacity edifice in Medium Range Forecasting from bing 2 to 3 yearss to 10 yearss and installing of extra conditions radio detection and rangings at Chitral. Cherat. Sukkur. Thatta/Badin. Quetta. Pasni/Gwadar. and Regional Flood Forecasting/Warning Centres one in each state to cover with flash inundation flows of Hill Torrents. besides inundations in chief rivers ;
2. Lack of attending to watershed direction. Massive deforestation had taken topographic point in KPK. AJK and Gilgit-Baltistan ensuing in increased overflow and siltation in major reservoirs ; 3. Lack of storage dikes ( had Munda Dam and medium/small dikes on Panjkora and Swat Rivers in KP and Akhori Dam d/s Tarbela dike been in topographic point. losingss due to inundations would hold been minimum ) ; 4. Deferred care of inundation embankments ( had these been maintained by states adequately. major losingss would hold been averted ) ; 5. Non-professional inundation direction by states. Machinery. adequate rock modesty stock and sand bags etc. at vulnerable subdivisions of inundation embankments were non available. Emptying paths. exigency shelters. war suites were non decently planned ; 6. Lack of flight channels ( U/S Taunsa. Guddu and Sukkur Barrages ) ; 7. Safety of Barrages ever comes under
inquiry ( none of the bombardments except Taunsa has been remodeled during past 63 old ages ) . Most of these are aged constructions and do non hold the equal capacity to safely go through the inundations of 2010 magnitude ; 8. Lack of capacity of NDMA and PDMAs ( freshly born entities ) ; 9. Inadequate budget allotment for care of bing inundation protection substructures and new inundation plants ; 10. Institutions at Federal and Provincial degrees were non adequately prepared to get by with such an unprecedented inundations in the context of planetary clime alterations. Pakistan needs to make all it can to halt conditions catastrophes going calamities and to protect people from future ruinous inundation catastrophes and increase the resiliency of substructure. economic systems and communities including better exigency warning and emptying systems. better inundation protection for cardinal substructure and programs to assist communities retrieve one time the Waterss recede.
To forestall future ruinous inundation catastrophes. the undermentioned recommendations are made: 1. Improvement and extension of the Flood Forecasting System to include Upper Indus above Tarbela. and Kabul River above Nowshera ( telemetry system on feeders and extra conditions radio detection and rangings ) ; 2. Development of inundation direction guidelines for Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs so as to heighten their inundation extenuation function ; 3. Designation of future reservoirs that would hold high inundation extenuation function in add-on to their agribusiness and hydropower benefits ( Munda. small/medium dike on Panjkora and Swat Rivers and Akhori ) ; 4. Designation of inundation release channels/escape channels to abandon areas/off channel storages that would supply major decrease in inundation extremum discharge in chief rivers ( d/s Taunsa and d/s Guddu and Sukkur )
5. Flood Plain Mapping/Zoning wholly along the Indus river and its feeders for restricting/prohibiting by jurisprudence permanent colonies in high and average inundation hazard countries ( states to ordain Torahs ) ; 6. Resettlement/relocation of small towns in inundation fields to safe countries outside the inundation bunds ; 7. Designation of low inundation hazard countries for future metropoliss. towns and small towns. industrial countries etc ; 8. Rehabilitation and reexamine the design discharge capacity of bombardments on the Indus river system to heighten their safe inundation dispatching capacities ; 9. Review and alteration of the design standards and discharge capacities of bridges/ communicating substructure and inundation protection bunds maintaining in position the bench Markss of 2010-floods ; 10. Upgradation of the inundation protection facilities/bunds that provide protection to of import installings such as power Stationss. oil refineries. industries etc. ; 11. Review of transgressing subdivisions and countries inundated as a effect of breaches ; 12. Hill Torrent Management ( flood scattering constructions ) ; and 13. Common support insurance system on country-wide footing to back up recovery for substructure and affectees.
Abbreviations: ADB. Asian Development Bank ; Cusec. Cubic pess per second ; D/S. downstream ; DNA. harm need appraisal ; FFC. Federal Flood Commission. Pakistan ; FATA. Federally Administrated Tribal Areas ; KPK. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ; NDMA. National Disaster Management Authority ; PDMA. Provincial Disaster Management Authority ; PMD. Pakistan Meteorological Department ; RD. reduced distance ; RMB. right fringy bund ; U/S. upstream ; WAPDA. Water and Power Development Authority. Pakistan.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The support of Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) Pakistan and University of Engineering and Technology. Taxila ( UETT ) Pakistan for this research survey and Federal Flood Commission ( FFC ) Pakistan for supplying the needed records is punctually acknowledged. Particular thanks are besides due for Pakistan Meteorological Department ( PMD ) for supplying entree to data-base.