# Fluid and Phases of Matter

Term Definition
Viscosity Fluids resistance to flow
Does corn syrup or oil have a higher viscosity? Corn syrup (thicker) has a high viscosity; oil (thinner) has a low viscosity – flows faster
What happens to viscosity if you increase temperature of the fluid? Increasing temperature decreases viscosity because the particles in the fluid move faster and the fluid flows faster

Buoyancy

Buoyancy is the upward fore that a fluid exerts on an object.

Example: Buoyancy is a rubber duck floating in a tub of water.

What is the Archimedes’ Principle? The buoyant force on an object immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaced.
Positive Buoyancy The tendency of an object to float or rise in a fluid because the object weighs less than the fluid it displaces.
Neutral Buoyancy The amount of force pulling down (gravity) equals the amount of force pushing up (buoyancy) – an object will remain at constant level in fluid (neither sink nor rise)
Negative Buoyancy The tendency of an object to sink in a fluid because the object weighs more than the fluid it displaces.
Cohesion The attraction of a particle to one of the same substance
Adhsion The attraction of a particle to another particle of a different substance
Surface Tension Surface tension is a property of liquids where the exposed surface shrinks to the smallest possible area because of unequal forces near the surface.
Force A push or pull that causes movement.
Flow Rate How quickly a fluid flows in a given amount of time.
Dynamic A term used to describe systems that involve movement such as moving liquids
Formula to calculate Viscoscity Viscosity = Mass/Density
Density Mass per volume of a substanc
Formula to calculate density Density = Mass/Volume
Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Formula to calculate Mass Mass = Density X Volume
Formula to calculate volume Volume = Mass/Density
Aerodynamics The motion of GAS moving around solid objects.
Example of aerodynamics Air moving over a car driving down the road
Hydrodynamics The motion of LIQUID moving around solid objects
Example of hydrodynamics Water moving around a boat travelling through the water
Kinetic Molecular Theory (4 Parts) 1. All matter is composed of particles
2. The particles are in constant motion
3. Forces of attraction hold molecules together
4. Adding energy (ie: increase temperature) to a sample of matter will cause the particles to move faster and spread
Melting Process of a substance changing from a solid to a liquid (ie: ice melting into water)
Evaporation Process of changing a substance from a liquid to a gas (ie: water boiling into steam)
Condensation Process of changing a substance from gas to a liquid (ie: moisture on your glasses coming into a warm house after being outside in the cold)
Solidification Process of changing a substance from liquid to a solid (ie: water freezing into ice)
Sublimation Process of changing directly from a gas to a solid or form a solid to a gas (ie: dry ice creates fog)
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
Energy ability to make things move
Atom The smallest unit of matter that maintains the characteristics of an element
Weight Weight is the amount of matter an object has with gravitational force
Formula for calculating weight Weight = gravitational force X Mass (measured in Newton)
Formula to calculate flow rate Volume / Time
(ie: 640 ml: volume, 8 minutes: time = 640/8 = 80 ml per minute)

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