# Fluids Test

What is a fluid? Any substances that flows
Identify three specific reasons why fluids are important. Fluids can transport solids, can hold other materials, fluids are easy to move and take the shape of their container
Give examples of how fluids can transport solids Hydroseeding, paper production, mining
Give examples of how fluids can hold other materials A cell organelles are held in place by the cell’s watery cytoplasm, fluids can hold other abrasive particles for the purpose of cleaning surfaces such as marble, metal and teeth
Give examples of how fluids are easy to move and take the shape of their container for cement Water and cement are easy to transport, cement can also be shaped and leveled before it hardens. Steel is made from a melted mixture of iron, carbon and other substances in small quantities.
Give examples of how fluids are easy to move and take the shape of their container for making steel After this mixture is melted, it is allowed to cool into specific, desired shapes
What is a slurry A mixture of water and solids
What is slurry technology? The transportation of solids in water
Examples: hydroseeding, paper production, mining
Where is slurry technology useful? Hydroseeding –
Paper production
Mining
What is density? Is the ratio of mass to volume
What is the formula for calculating density? Density (d) =m/V (divided by)
What is buoyancy? The tendency of an object in a fluid to rise or sink due to density differences with it’s surroundings
What is buoyant force? The upward force exerted by a fluid to rise or sink. It is the opposite force to gravity, that attracts matter downwards to the centre of the Earth
When will an object sink in a fluid? If the density of the object is greater than the density of the fluid. If the buoyant force on an object of less than the force of gravity on an object
When will an object rise in a fluid? If the density of an object is less than the density of the fluid. If the buoyant force on an object is greater than the force of gravity on the object
When will an object float in a fluid? The density of the object is the same as the density of the fluid. The buoyant force on an object is equal to the force of gravity on the object
What is Archimedes Principle? The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
What is pressure? The amount of force applied to a given area
What are two effects of change in air pressure? 1. It causes your ears to pop when we change altitudes quickly
2. Causes a weather balloon to pop in upper atmosphere because there is less air pressure acting on the outside of the balloon
How is pressure affected by the depth of water and an increase in temperature? The greater the depth of water, the greater the water pressure
What is compression? A decrease in volume as a result of a force
Why do gases compress easily? Gases compress easily because there is a lots of spaces between particles (therefore, there is more room to move closer together)
E.g when kicking a soccer ball, the shape of the ball changes because the air particles inside the ball are compressed
Why are liquids hard to compress? Liquids are very difficult to compress because there isn’t as much space between liquid particles (therefore, there is much less room for the particles to move closer together). For this reason, liquids are called incompressible.
What is Pascal’s Law? A scientific law that states that when the force is applied to an enclosed fluid, the increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
E.g demonstrations – squeezing toothpaste out of a container, or squeezing air out of a mattress
What is a hydraulic system? A system that uses a liquid under pressure to transmit a force. Since liquids can’t be compressed easily, pressure applied to liquid in pipe or tube causes force to transmit over a distance
Give two real life examples of hydraulic systems. E.g. of systems that use hydraulics
-plumbing system, heavy earth moving equipment, Jaws of life, car hoist – uses pistons as a disk to move liquid inside
What is a pneumatic system? A system that uses a gas, usually air, under pressure to transmit a force
Give two real life examples of pneumatic systems. E.g of systems that use pneumatic systems
-scuba diving equipment, dentist drill, nail gun, bus ramps and doors, a trucks’ air brakes
What is a pump? A device that moves a fluid through or into something.
Examples of pumps. Aquarium pump, bike pump, heart
What is a valve? A device that controls the flow of fluids
Examples of valves. Overflow valve, shut-off valve, ball valve, heart valve
What is mass? A measure of how much matter there is in a substance
What is volume? A measure of how much space a substance takes up
How does pressure affect fluid flow? Give an example. Fluid flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
Examples: Juice into a juice box though the straw into your mouth
How does a change in temperature affect pressure? At a constant volume, an increase in temperature results in an increase in pressure. If the volume of the container cannot increase, an increasing fluid pressure will occur and possibly result in an explosion
Give an example of how a change in temperature affects pressure. E.g. bursting bike tube if you pump too much air
How is hydroseeding an application of slurry technology? Paper was once a slurry of wood paper and water
How is paper production an application of slurry technology? The process of spraying seeds, fertilizer and sawdust to plant difficult-to-reach areas
How does mining use slurry technology? Some mineral ores are converted to liquids so that they can be transported more easily. This method is called froth floatation

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