FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE The Hotel Industry – Introduction Definition and Origin of the Hotel Industry otel is defined as “A place where a bonifide traveller can receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a physically and mentally fit conditioned to be receive, “Hence, a Hotel must provide food and beverage, lodging to travellers on payment and has, in turn, the right to refuse if the traveller is drunk, disorderly, unkept, or not in a position to pay for the services offered. The most important function of a hotel is to provide Food and shelter to prospective guest.
To provide food & shelter, there are number of departments or Ares, who all functions together round-the-clock inside hotel premises. All departments are broadly categorized in two parts: 1. OPERATIONAL DEPARTMENT (CORE DEPARTMENT): • Front office (revenue center) • Food & Beverage service (revenue center) • House keeping (cost center) • Food production (kitchen) (cost center) 2. ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT (NON-CORE DEPARTMENT) • Maintenance department • Account department • Human resource department • Electronic data processing department • Communication department • Security department • Purchase department • Stores Sales & marketing department FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE FRONT OFFICE: The main function of the department is: • To allot the room to the guest, called as check-in. • To maintain the room records for reservation and allocation. • To collect the room charges and other miscellaneous charges for various services used by guest during his/her stay at the hotel, at the time of departure of guest. Back Office • Reservation desk: this section is used for taking booking for rooms. • Telephone operator: this section is used for attending all phone calls land up in the hotel or for providing trunk dial facility to guest. Business center: this section is used for secretarial job of guest. Food & Beverage service department: The main function of this department is: • To provide food & beverage facilities to the guest. • To provide food & beverage for groups, conferences, meetings, theme parties etc. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE HOUSEKEEPING DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • To take care of the cleanliness of rooms, and the hotel building and its furniture and furnishings. • To maintain the linen room for maintenance of room linen, restaurant’s linen etc. To maintain the gardening work of hotel. • To maintain guest laundry facility for room guest staff laundry facility for staff of hotel. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT The main functions of this department are: • To maintain all the equipment s placed inside or related with the hotel. • To be responsible for smooth supply of electricity, water, and smooth function of air conditioning unit. • To be responsible for AMC of important and expensive equipments. • To maintain all the furniture and fixtures of rooms and other area of hotel.
ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • Preparation of budget and allocation of revenue and expenditure for various department • Maintain all account related books as accordance to the government rules and regulations. • Preparation of balance sheet of the company. • Liaising with Govt. offices for tax and revenue related matters. • Collection of revenue from guests, companies etc. • Giving salaries to employees. • To keep check on the food & beverage cost. • To keep check on the purchase and sale of alcoholic beverages for the property. To keep the account orevenue generated and expenditure under various heads for each department. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • Recruitment and selection of employee for hotel as per requirement. • Training and development of employee • Maintenance of attendance records, leave records etc. • Maintenance of personal file for each employee with all details, for the purpose of periodically appraisal. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • Maintenance of telephone connections for each room and other area of hotel. Maintenance of cable connections of televisions of rooms and other places of hotel. • Maintenance of audio-visual equipments for conferences and parties. • Maintenance of audio-visual equipments of the hotel. SECURITY DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • To be responsible for safety and security of guests of hotel. • To be responsible for safety of employee. • To keep check on theft cases of hotel. • To cooperate with staff for fire exit procedure. • To keep record of received materials and dispatched materials of or for the property. To keep record of movement of fixed assets of property. • To keep check on unauthorized entry of people. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT & STORES The main function of this department is: • To purchase materials from the market as per requirement of various department of hotel. • To purchase all types of equipments and materials for hotel. • To liaison with different companies or vendor for supply of perishable or non-perishable goods. • To liaison with different dealers for provision of non- vegetarian items (chicken, mutton, fish, beef, etc. ) • To store all the purchased items properly as per basic rule (F.
I. F. O. ). • To issue the material to the user department of hotel after making proper record. • To maintain the smooth flow of perishable and non-perishable goods for the department. SALES & MARKETING DEPARTMENT The main function of this department is: • To sell the room nights and various conferences facilities to various clientele. • To sell the room nights to individual guest for holiday purpose. • To make the brand image of hotel in the market. • To act as an agent for hotel and provide various information of changes and updating.
FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE The different serviceareas are:- • Restaurant • Room Service department • Banquet department • Bar & lounge. • Restaurants: this is also called as dinning room. Guest come inside the room. Order dishes as per choices and food is served to them.
There are different types of restaurants: Coffee Shop A concept borrowed from the United States, distinguished by its quickservice. Food is pre-plate and the atmosphere informal. Table coverlayouts are less elaborate and have basic essentials only. Continental Restaurant The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service. Specialty Restaurant The entire atmosphere and decor are geared to a particular type of foodor theme. Thus restaurants, which offer Chinese, Japanese, Indian cuisinewould be termed “specialty restaurants”.
The service is based more orless on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates. Fast food joints The entire environment is characterized by high investment, high labor costs and vast customer throughput • Room-Service: the department provides food & beverage service in the guest rooms • Bar: this sub-department is responsible for service of Alcoholic beverage. This place are having special license to serve alcoholic beverage. Banquet: this sub-department is responsible for serving food & drinks to special groups having specific needs and demands. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE The service of food and beverage may be carried out in many ways depending on a number of factors: • The type of establishment • The type of customer to be served • The time available for the meal • The turnover of customer expected • The type of menu presented • The cost of meal served • The site of establishment Food & beverage service can be looked at from the customer’s point of view.
Essentially, the customer enters a food service area, orders or selects his/ her choice and then is served (the customer may pay either at this point or later). Food and beverages are then consumed, following which the area is cleared. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE Broadly we can categorize the service methods in five types: A. Table Service B. Assisted service C. Self- service D.
Single point service specialized or in situ service A. TABLE SERVICE In this category, the guest enters in the area and is seated. Menu lists are given or displayed for orders. The orders are been taken by waiter/ess. Then the service is done a laid cover on the table. Following are the type of service come under this category: English Service: Often referred to as the “Host Service” because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the platters on the tables.
The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve. For replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter. French Services: It is a very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves. Silver Service: The table is set for hors d’oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware.
The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself, which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves each guest using a service spoon and fork. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing. American/Plate Service: The American service is a pre-plated service, which means that the food is erved into the guest’s plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest. The kitchen predetermines the portion and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where service is required to be fast. Russian Service: An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service except that the food is portioned and carved by the waiter at the gueridon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this service.
The principle involved is to have whole joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter. Gueridon Service: This is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or, when a complete meal is cooked at the tableside in the restaurant. The cooking is done on a gueridon trolley, which is a mobile trolley with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part, as he is required to fillet, carve, flambe and prepare the food with showmanship.
The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and skill. Snack-bar Service: Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter itself. In better establishments, the covers are laid out on the counter itself. Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or common black board. B. ASSISTED SERVICE In this type of category, the guest enters in the dining area and assisted himself for getting the food, either from buffet counter or he may get served partly at table by waiter/ess and the extra need to be collected from counter by himself.
Consumption may be done on either at table, standing or in lounge area/ banquet hall. Buffet Service: A self-service, where food is displayed on tables. The guest takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the buffet table to serve him. For sit-down buffet service, tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in a restaurant. The guest may serve himself at the buffet table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. The waiter may serve a few courses like the appetizer and soup at the table. C.
SELF SERVICE In this type of service, the guest enters in the dinning area, selects his own tray or from the food counter and carries food by himself to his seating place. D. SINGLE POINT SERVICE In this category, the guest orders, pay for his orders and get served at single point. There may be may not be any dinning area or seat-outs. The different types are: Take Away: Customer orders and is served from single point, at counter, hatch or snack stand; customer consumes off the premises.
Food Court: series of autonomous counters where customers may either order and eat or buy from a number of counters and eat in separate eating area, or take-away. E. SPECIALISED SERVICE In this category the guest is served at he place, which is not meant or designated for food & beverage service (i. e. guest rooms or any special area). Grill Room Service: In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. The meats may be displayed behind a glass partition or well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat. The food comes pre-plated.
F&B SERVICE PERSONAL & THEIR ATTRIBUTES All types of catering establishments require a variety of staff positions in order to operate effectively and efficiently. The food and beverage service department usually has the largest staff. Able leadership and supervision is required to effectively direct the department and guide the staff. The personnel in the food and beverage service industry require practical knowledge of operations as even a small error can cause displeasure to the guest.
Coordination of activities of all outlets is essential to provide the guest with quality service at all times. Teamwork is the watchword in any food and beverage service department. A dedicated and committed team, with able leadership, under ideal working conditions, helps in fulfilling the establishment’s ultimate goal of guest satisfaction. Food and Beverage Manager The food and beverage manager is the head of the food and beverage service department, and is responsible for its administrative and operational work. Food and Beverage Managers direct, plan and control all aspects of food and beverage services.
Food and Beverage Managers require excellent sales and customer service skills, proven human resource management skills, and good communication and leadership skills. In general, food and beverage manager is responsible for: i) Budgeting The food and beverage manager is responsible for preparing the budget for the department. He should ensure that each outlet in the department achieves the estimated profit margins. ii) Compiling New Menus and Wine Lists In consultation with the chef, and based on the availability of ingredients and prevailing trends, the food and beverage manager should update and if necessary, compile new menus.
New and updated wine lists should also be introduced regularly. iii) Quality Control The food and beverage manager should ensure quality control in terms of efficiency in all service areas, by ascertaining that the staffs are adequately trained in keepingwith the standards of the unit. iv) Manpower Development The food and beverage manager is responsible for recruitment, promotions, transfers and dismissals in the department. He should hold regular meetings with section heads, to ensure that both routine as well as projected activities of the department go on as planned.
He must alsogive training, motivate and effectively control staff. Assistant Food and Beverage Manager The assistant food and beverage manager assists the food and beverage manager in running the department by being more involved in the actual day-to-day operations. This position exists only in large organisations. An assistant food and beverage manager’s job includes: i) Assisting section heads during busy periods. ii) Taking charge of an outlet, when an outlet manager is on leave. iii) Setting duty schedules for all the outlet managers and monitoring their performance. iv) Running the department independently in the absence of he food and beverage manager. Restaurant Manager Therestaurant manager’s job includes: i) Setting and monitoring the standards of service in the outlets. ii) Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave, monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions and handling issues relating to discipline. iii) Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet. iv) Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the outlets and attending to guest complaints, if any. v) Formulating the sales and expenditure budget for the outlet. i) Planning food festivals to increase the revenue and organizing advertisement campaign of the outlet along with the chef and the food and beverage manager. Room Service Manager The room service manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and is responsible for the room service outlet. The room service manager checks that the service rendered to the guests conforms to the standards set by the hotel. He also monitors all operational aspects of the outlet such as service, billing, duty charts, leave and absenteeism, in addition to attending to guest complaints regarding food and service.
The room service manager is also in charge of the sales and expenditure budget. The room service is most liable to have problems. The room service manager should ensure coordination among the room service order taker, the captain and the waiter. Bar Manager Bar Manager organises and controls a bar’s operations. A bar manager arranges the purchase and pricing of beverages according to budget; selects, trains and supervises bar staff; maintains records of stock levels and financial transactions; makes sure bar staff follow liquor laws and regulations; and checks on customer satisfaction and preferences.
Banquet Manager The banquet manager supervises the banquet operations, sets up break-down service according to the standards established by the hotel. He co-ordinates the banquet service in conjunction with other departments involved and prepares weekly schedules for the banquet personnel. He supervises the work of the banquet sales assistants, who do the banquet bookings and the captains and waiters who perform the food and beverage service activities under his guidance. He is responsible for organising everything right down to the finest detail.
The banquet manager projects the budget of the banquets,and works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus. He is responsible for making an inventory of all the banquet equipment and maintaining a balance between revenue and expenditure. Other Staff Designations at Various Levels The following are the various designations with their job specifications in the food and beverage department. i) Senior Captain or Maitre d’ Hotel The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations. He prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet manager. ii) Reception Head Waiter
This staff member is responsible for accepting any booking and for keeping the booking diary up-to-date. He / she will reserve tables and allocate these reservations to particular stations. iii) Captain / Chef de Rang This position exists in large restaurants, as well as in the food and beverage service department of all major hotels. The captain is basically a supervisor and is in charge of a particular section. A restaurant may be divided into sections called Sations, each consisting of 4 to 5 tables or 20 to 24 covers. A captain is responsible for the efficient performance of the staff in his station iv) Waiters / Commis de Rang / Server
The waiters serve the food and beverage ordered by a guest and is part of a team under a station captain. They should be able to perform the duties of a captain to a certain extent and be a substitute for the captain if he is busy or not on duty. They should; also be knowledgeable about all types of food and beverages, so that they can effectively take an order from a guest, execute the order and serve the correct dish with its appropriate garnish and accompaniment v) Trainee / Commis De Barraseur The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in a restaurant. i) Wine Waiter / Sommelier Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the meal vii) Room Service Waiters / Chef D’etage Room service waiters work in the room service outlet, serving food and beverage to guests in their rooms. viii) Carver / Trancheur The carver is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment. ix) Floor Service Staff / Floor Waiter
The floor service staffs are often responsible for an entire floor in an establishment or, depending on the size of the establishment, a number of rooms or suites. Floor service of all meals and breakfast is offered either throughout the day or in a limited time depending on the size of the establishment. The floor service staff would normally work from a floor pantry or from a central kitchen with all food and drink reaching the appropriate floor and the required room by lift and in a heated trolley. x) Lounge staff / Chef de sale Lounge staff may deal with lounge service as a specific duty only in a first class establishment.
The lounge staff is responsible for the service of morning coffee, afternoon teas, aperitifs and liqueurs before and after both lunch and dinner, and any coffee top ups required after meals. They would be responsible for setting up the lounge in the morning and maintaing its cleanliness and presentation throughout the day. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE Hygiene involves care for the health of others and oneself. Waiters are involved in physical work, moving about, lifting trays. So look after your health; guard against leg or feet weakness; maintain good sight; and clean teeth and mouth.
A balanced diet, fresh air, and suitable recreation help all. Service must be done in a clean way to protect guests against foodpoisoning or passages of disease. Dirt and dirty practices make dinning unpleasant as well as unsafe. Points to remember for maintaining of personal hygiene:A shower or bath should be taken daily. * Always use either deodorant or talcum powder. * Sufficient sleep (minimum 06 hours), and adequate healthy intake of food (more vegetable, less oil) and regular exercise will keep body healthy. * Always trim nails and keep hands clean. * Male should be clean-shaven with well-trimmed moustache. Wear clean uniforms. * Daily wash your undergarments. Always wear clean undergarments. * Hair must at all times be clean and well groomed. * Always brush your teeth after eating breakfast, lunch, and dinner. * IF you are directly handling food, then follow these rules * Always wash your hands before touching food, and always after coming from toilet. * If you are suffering from any skin, nose, throat or stomach problem or trouble at work, tell your senior and don’t handle food. * Use waterproof dressings on cuts and sores. And remember to keep those dressings clean. * Be clean in yourself and in the clothes you wear. Don’t smoke in a kitchen or dinning room. And never cough or sneeze over food. * Clean as you go in the kitchen, if anything get spilled, wipe it immediately. See that all utensils are kept clean. * Cover food, keep it clean, and serve it either cold or piping hot. when handling food, rather than your fingers. * Always keep the lid on a dustbin. * In restaurants, remember that clean, fully equipped, well-lit, and airy conditions are required for maintenance of hygiene. SERVICE EQUIPMENTS Food and beverage service equipment may be divided into glassware, chinaware and tableware which are further subdivided into latware, cutlery and hollowware. GLASSWARE Glassware refers to glass and drinkware items besides tableware, such as dishes, cutlery and flatware, used to set a table for eating a meal. The term usually refers to the drinking vessels, unless the dinnerware is also made of glass. The choice of the right qulity glass is a vital element if the cocktail is to be invitingly presented and give satisfaction to the consumer. Well designed glassware combines elegance, strength and stability, and should be fine and smooth rimmed and of clear glass. CHINAWARE China is a term used for crockery whether bone china expensive and fine), earthenware (opaque and cheaper) or vitrified (metallised). Most catering crockery used nowadays tends to be vitrified earthenware, which is very durable and haven been strengthened. Crockery is also usually given rolled edges to make it more chip resistant. Chinaware is made of silica, soda ash, and china clay, glazed to give a fine finish. Chinaware can be found in different colours and designs which are always coated with glaze. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware. ed off carefully. TABLEWARE Tableware includes the dishes, glassware, cutlery, and latware eating utensils (knives, forks, and spoons) used to set a table for eating a meal. The nature, variety, and number of objects varies from culture to culture, and may vary from meal to meal as well. Tableware may be categorised as follows: Flatware Flatware denotes all forms of spoon and fork. Flatware, especially that used by most people when they eat informally, is usually made of stainless steel. Cutlery Cutlery refers to knives and other cutting instruments. Holloware Holloware refers to table service items such as sugar bowls, creamers, coffee pots, teapots, soup tureens,or custard – based and Philadelphia – style.