A hands-off director and a concern visionary, he saw chance in the rapid deregulating of energy markets in the United States and around the universe. He attracted subsidiaries who wanted to prehend these chances, the two most influential were Rebecca Mark and Jeff Skilling.
President of Enron.
He had worked under Lay at Houston Natural Gas.
A tough, prudent man of affairs who kept a tight grip on disbursals.
the perfect individual to supervise the cash-generating grapevine system and bit by bit pay down the house ‘s debt.
Mark VS Skilling
Mark was globetrotting around the universe, geting or constructing power workss and related undertakings. Skilling was patterning ECT as an investing bank of kinds for the energy industries. Their competing visions came to be known as “ plus heavy ” and “ plus visible radiation. ” Mark promoted the acquisition of physical assets. Skilling promoted the usage of Enron ‘s balance sheet for interceding trades.
Rebecca Mark[ 1 ]
She had come to Enron from Houston Natural Gas.
During the late eightiess, she worked in the electric power division, larning how to negociate international power coevals undertakings in a market that was merely get downing to pull investors
After taking two old ages off to gain a Harvard MBA, Mark convinced Lay to allow her organize an international division that would prosecute more energy undertakings around the universe.
Enron Development Corporation was formed in 1991 with Mark as CEO. In 1993, this would go Enron International.
Spots and pieces of Mark:
For old ages, Mark seemed to be successful. She and her squad of trade shapers fashioned themselves as missionaries of denationalization. They were shuting trades, but the existent profitableness of those trades would non be known for old ages. Employees-and particularly Mark-stood to gain tremendous fillips merely for shuting trades. Many of those trades would subsequently come back to stalk Enron.
By far, Mark ‘s biggest trade was a two-stage power undertaking that she built in Dabhol India. The first phase burned oil. The 2nd, larger phase burned liquified natural gas ( LNG ) . LNG is an expensive fuel, so end product from the works would be four times every bit expensive as other electricity available in India. India had widespread poorness. Much of the electricity produced in India was stolen. The authorities ne’er cracked down on larceny for fright of a popular recoil. The World Bank refused to back up the Dabhol undertaking, claiming that it made no economic sense. There was widespread popular resistance to the undertaking, so Mark had her political work cut out for her. When Indian protestors were forcefully dispersed from the edifice site, Enron was accused of human rights maltreatments. With tantrums and starts, the undertaking moved frontward, merely to prostration in 1996, when India ‘s Congress Party was voted out of office.
Mark worked indefatigably to re-start the undertaking, winging back and Forth between Houston and India. Lay recruited the engagement of the Clinton disposal, which actively pressured the new Indian Government to re-start the undertaking. After some renegotiation, the undertaking was relaunched. Enron ‘s trade with the Indian authorities required the state-owned electric public-service corporation to purchase power from the Dabhol works whether it was needed or non. By some estimations, the public-service corporation would hold to do payments numbering USD 30 billion over the life of the undertaking.
For Mark, the undertaking was a arresting success, bring forthing celebrity and tremendous fillips. In 1998, she made the screen of Forbes magazine. She was appointed to the Board of Overseers of Harvard Business School and the Advisory Board of Yale ‘s School of Management. Enron proxy statements indicate that her combines compensation for 1996 to 1998 was USD 25.7MM.
Enron had been dallying with the thought of developing a H2O trading market, and she perceived this as her chance. she purchased Wessex Water, one of England ‘s most profitable H2O public-service corporations. She paid USD 2.2 billion, a 30 % premium over the public-service corporations market capitalisation. Her new H2O venture was called Azurix.
To maintain its debt off Enron ‘s books, a figure of outside investors were found to organize an SPE, Marlin Water Trust, to take a 50 % interest. Mark started geting more assets. The biggest, after Wessex Water, was a 30 twelvemonth grant to supply H2O and sewerage services to 2 million occupants of Argentina ‘s Buenos Aires state. The grant was awarded in a command procedure in which Mark paid USD 439MM, three times the 2nd highest command.
Mark was determined to take Azurix public. This would give her an independent company far removed from Jeff Skilling. In June 1999, she floated a 3rd of the company at USD 19 per portion, raising USD 695MM.
Water could ne’er be traded the same manner. Water is a localised concern that lacks the continent-spanning grapevines and transmittal systems that allow natural gas, oil and power to be moved and traded between locations. Utilities made money by cutting disbursals to the bone, but Mark was unmindful to this difficult world. She ran Azurix as if money was ne’er an issue. She overpaid for acquisitions and exhausted extravagantly on office infinite, wages and travel.
At the same clip, her acquisitions were turning rancid. In Argentina, Azurix discovered that its new acquisition did non include the place office, staff or charge system of the bing public-service corporation. Thousands of charge records were cryptically losing, which meant people would be having H2O, but Azurix would hold no thought who they were or where to direct measures.
In November 1999, UK regulators ordered a 12 % cut in the monetary values Wessex could bear down clients. That same month, Azurix cut its staff by a 3rd, incurring a erstwhile hit to net incomes of USD 30MM. In August 2000, Mark resigned as Chairman and CEO of Azurix and left Enron for good. She sold her Enron stock, sacking an estimated USD 82MM. Enron would subsequently purchase back outstanding Azurix stock at USD 7 per portion. The Argentina investing would be written off. In 2002, Wessex Water would be sold to a Malayan company for a fraction of the monetary value Enron had paid.
He earned a Harvard MBA in 1979.
He became a adviser for McKinsey[ 2 ]where he advised Enron on how to pull off its gas grapevine in the quickly deregulating US natural gas market.
He came up with the thought of organizing a “ gas bank ” that, much as a fiscal bank does with capital, would intercede between short-run and long-run purchasers and Sellerss of natural gas.
The gas bank would be named Enron Gas Services, and subsequently, Enron Capital and Trade Resources ( ECT ) .
In August 1990, Enron Finance Corp was formed and Skilling was hired off from McKinsey to be its CEO.
Spots and Pieces of Skilling
While Mark was establishing the Dabhol undertaking, Skilling was back in the United States prosecuting his “ plus lite ” scheme. Following on the heals of his success of the gas bank, he launched ECT into natural gas trading, making an active market where none had existed. Deregulation in the United States opened the door for electricity trading, and ECT jumped in. By the mid 1990s, it had 200 power sellers working out of two trading floors in Houston. In 1995, Enron hopped the Atlantic to open a London office to merchandise power and natural gas. The house would shortly go a dominant force in European energy markets. Skilling started researching new markets in which to use the “ Enron theoretical account. ” These would come to include: conditions, paper mush, plastics, and metals.
Skilling besides set his sights on retail electricity markets in the United States. These were deregulating more easy than the sweeping markets, but the vision was for abodes to some twenty-four hours choose an electricity supplier in the same manner they chose a phone supplier. This vision ne’er panned out, but, for a clip, Enron devoted considerable resources to constructing trade name consciousness. Television ads ran in several markets exposing the Enron company logo and advancing Enron ‘s advanced spirit.
Skilling was besides working to outmanoeuvre Mark. He arranged things so that ECT would supply funding to other divisions of Enron, including Mark ‘s Enron International. If Skilling tried to barricade Mark ‘s funding, Mark could ever travel straight to Lay or raise funding outside Enron. Still, Skilling ‘s scheme enabled him to decelerate Enron International and give him a context to knock Mark ‘s heavy disbursement on undertakings.
Mark-to-market accounting to ECT ‘s trading books
Skilling ‘s vision was to merchandise energies and other trade goods the manner Wall Street trades capital. In 1991, he convinced Enron ‘s Audit Committee to let him to use mark-to-market accounting to ECT ‘s trading books. For liquid trading activities, mark-to-market accounting is appropriate and far superior to accrual accounting. It is widely used in the capital markets. In Enron ‘s instance, it was n’t ever allow.
Many of the markets ECT was merchandising in were non liquid. Enron was establishing those markets. ECT was come ining into long-dated gas and power trades for which no liquid markets existed. In this context, mark-to-market accounting became mark-to-model accounting. Traders who were executing trades had considerable influence in how the trades were marked to pattern. With their fillips depending upon the profitableness of trades, there was an unaddressed struggle of involvement. Skilling ‘s trading concerns were bring forthing considerable net incomes, but much of these were doubtful mark-to-model net incomes on long-dated trades.
That twelvemonth, Kinder had a falling out with Lay over a state of affairs affecting Lay ‘s helper, Nancy McNeil. Kinder and McNeil left Enron and were married shortly after. Lay tapped Skilling to replace Kinder as President and COO. Now Skilling was in line to finally replace Lay as CEO. Mark remained a important force within Enron, but Skilling was consolidating his place, advancing a circle of buddies into senior places. In Ken Lay and Jeff Skilling, Enron now had two concern visionaries at its helm, but there was no 1 to replace Richard Kinder ‘s prudence.
Performance Review Committee ( PRC )
Skilling established a rough corporate civilization that pitted employees against each other, invariably weeding out non-performers or the politically stray and replacing them with new hires. Central to his strategy was the public presentation reappraisal commission ( PRC ) , besides known as “ rank and Yankee. ” Skilling had long employed PRC in ECT, but now he implemented it company-wide.
Every six months, every employee ‘s public presentation was reviewed by a commission of directors. Employees were rated on a graduated table of 1 to 5, with 5 being the worst. It was required that 15 % of the full work force be rated a 5 in each PRC. These employees were “ redeployed. ” They were moved to a separate country of the company, given a desk, phone and computing machine and granted several hebdomads to happen another occupation within Enron. After that, they were let travel.
But, directors on the PRC often would n’t cognize the employees they were reexamining, so other employees would subject written feedback. Each employee could inquire five associates to subject letters noticing on his public presentation, but anyone else could subject unasked remarks as good. The procedure was highly political. Employees could sabotage each other by subjecting negative remarks. Employees would come in into trades with one another to subject good reappraisals. Directors would horse trade. If one wanted to extinguish more than 15 % of his staff and another wanted to maintain most of hers, they might conspire. Directors used the PRC to honor friends, and all employees were under force per unit area to enlist a senior director as a defender.
The PRC undermined hazard direction within Enron. Complex trades and mark-to-model ratings had to be approved by hazard direction. Hazard directors knew that they would endure in the PRC if they blocked trades or did non back up favourable mark-to-model ratings. Risk direction became little more than a gum elastic cast and a stepping rock for employees traveling around the company.
Andrew Fastow, Fall Guy
He was a 1986 MBA from Northwestern University.
He worked at Continental Bank making plus securitization trades before fall ining Enron in 1990.
There, he worked on Enron ‘s enterprise to come in retail electricity markets.
He befriended Skilling, and was appointed Enron ‘s CFO in 1996 at the age of 37.
Enron had formed a limited partnership with the California Public Employees ‘ Retirement System ( Calpers ) , an tremendous and extremely influential pension fund. Called the Joint Energy Development Investment Limited Partnership ( JEDI ) , the partnership invested in natural gas undertakings. Engagement of Calpers meant that JEDI was an independent entity from Enron. Enron earned net incomes from the partnership, but none of JEDI ‘s debt appeared on Enron ‘s balance sheet.
Enron wanted to establish a new and larger limited partnership called JEDI II, but it thought that Calpers would be loth to put while it was still invested in JEDI. Enron could n’t merely purchase out Calpers investing in JEDI, which was deserving USD 383MM. This would do Enron the exclusive investor in JEDI. JEDI would no longer be independent, and its debt would hold to look on Enron ‘s balance sheet. Fastow proposed organizing a new venture, called Chewco Investments, to take Calpers place as an investor in JEDI.
P.S. Enron ‘s civilization was to a great extent influenced by the film Star Wars. Employees referred to the corporate central office as the “ Death Star. ” The name JEDI was no happenstance. The new partnership ‘s name was a mention to the Star Wars character Chewbacca.
The Fraud of Chewco
By replacing Calpers as an independent investor, Chewco would let Enron to maintain JEDI ‘s debt off its balance sheet. This would merely work if Chewco were besides independent from Enron. Rather than happen a truly independent investor for Chewco, Fastow decided that one of his subsidiaries, Michael Kopper, would play the function of independent investor in Chewco. This was pathetic. Kopper did n’t hold the personal resources to do such an investing.
Fastow ‘s solution was an luxuriant strategy affecting multiple particular intent entities and a direct investing by JEDI of USD 132MM in Chewco. JEDI was puting in Chewco so that Chewco could put in JEDI. Except for USD 125,000 put up straight by Kopper and his domestic spouse, William Dodson, all of Chewco ‘s support originated either from Enron or as loans guaranteed by Enron. Enron ‘s board approved the Chewco trade without cognizing the inside informations of Kopper ‘s function or particulars of how the trade was financed. Enron treated Chewco as an independent entity for accounting intents, but it was n’t.