Fundamendals of HW and OS Essay


In Fundamentalss of Hardware and Operating System ( FHOS ) , I need to larn tonss of information about system faculties, standard peripheral ports, mistake codifications, pressmans, web overseas telegram, cyberspace connectivity, networking capablenesss of Windows XP, system files of Windows XP, windows tools such as Microsoft Management Console ( MMC ) , Event Viewer and Task Manager, installing of two new devices and Windows XP public-service corporations and tools.

Due to the nature of Fundamentalss of Hardware and Operating system faculty, this assignment must be a largely practical exercising, though some undertakings contain theoretical research. To imitate little IT environment with this demands ;

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  1. Two to three standard Desktop systems

  2. Appropriate Network accoutrements

  3. Appropriate Internet Connectivity

  4. Two different types of Printers ( Inkjet, Laser, Dot-matrix )

  5. Windows XP and other required minimal package including device drivers, tools and Utilities

  6. Any other extra Hardware and Software

There have five undertakings to make in this assignment with both practical and theoretical construct.

Undertaking 1

To go a good Personal computer Support Technician you need o learn tonss of inside informations about the many pieces of hardware in a typical Personal computer. Even the most basic Personal computer contains 100s of distinct hardware constituents. You need to make the undermentioned activities by opening a Personal computer and so executing the undermentioned actions:

  1. Indentify and describe the names, intents and features of system faculties such as motherboard, power supply, CPU, memory faculties, storage devices, show devices, adapter cards, ports and instances in the given machine.

  2. Identify the names, intents and public presentation features of the standardised peripheral ports in the machine such as Serial, Parallel, USB, Firewire, DB, RJ, Din, Mini-DIN, Centronics, Associated cabling and their connections.

  3. Recognise and list common jobs associated with each system faculty and their symptoms. Closely study the CMOS/BIOS scenes and propose how to trouble-shoot jobs such as POST Error codifications, and infer the most likely causes.

Undertaking 2

  1. List the most popular types of motherboards, their constituents and their architecture.

  2. Get a screen shooting of your Personal computer ‘s CMOS scene. Identify the intent of CMOS memory in your Personal computer and list what it contains. Describe how and when is it necessary to alter the CMOS parametric quantities.

  3. You are required to utilize two different types of pressmans and name the undermentioned information derived from each pressman

    1. What are the pressman engineerings, interfaces and options for ascents available for your pressmans

    2. What are the common pressman jobs which you can anticipate from your pressmans? List redresss for the jobs utilizing appropriate mentions.

Undertaking 3

For this undertaking and subsequent undertakings you need to put up a little Window XP web utilizing at least 3 computing machines. Produce a study with appropriate screen gaining control attesting your practical work and change overing the undermentioned information.

  1. Indentify the types of web overseas telegrams, their features and the connection which you will utilize for the web.

  2. Research and list five different engineerings available for internet connectivity for your web and name their strengths and failing.

  3. List the 5 Networking capablenesss of Windows XP.

Undertaking 4

For this undertaking you need to make a fresh install of Windows XP on a computing machine. Fix a study attesting your practical work covering the undermentioned inquiries:

  1. List out the names, locations, intents and contents of any 10 Windows XP system files.

  2. Use tools in Windows such as Microsoft Management Console ( MMC ) , Event Viewer and Task Manager on the system. List the practical utilizations of these tools.

  3. Install two new devices after you have installed the Operating system and name the processs which you used for adding and constellation the device drivers.

Undertaking 5

Research your hardware and OS package and fix a study

  1. Listing the significance of common mistake codifications and startup messages from boot sequence and

  2. List the common Windows XP diagnostic public-service corporations and tools, depicting the usageof each of these.

Undertaking 1


Name -Intel Desktop Board D945GCZL

Purpose -To correspond all the constituents and peripherals to each other in Personal computer, form computing machine system.

Characteristics-It contains CPU, memory slot, enlargement slot, ports and

chipset which defines the capablenesss of the motherboard.

It uses BIOS and enlargement coachs and supported by


Power supply

Name -SteathXStream Power Supply

Purpose -To provide electromotive forces ( AC to DC ) to the circuit and manage

capacity of the circuit, deliver electrical power.

Characteristics-It has 4 pin connection and 4 Molex music directors.

Power supply

Central processing unit

Name -Intel Celeron

Purpose -To accomplish plans, advancement informations from one topographic point to another, put to death mathematical operations and chief informations.

Characteristics-It has 36 bandwidth, 1.6GHz clock velocity and infinite for

64 GB.

Intel Celeron CPU

Memory faculties


Purpose -To save computing machine information

Characteristics- DIMM has 168-pin, 32 or 64-bit coach broad

Memory faculties

Secondtorage devices

Name -Pen thrust, CD-ROM

Purpose -To shop and carry informations on disc

Characteristics-They are removable discs. CD-ROM has approximately 680 Megabits

storage infinite. Pen thrust has variable storage infinite such as 1GB, 2GB, 4GB and 8GB.

Storage devices

Display devices

Name -Monitor, projector

Purpose -To show picture and images

Characteristics-Monitors contain electron gun for PELs. Now, people

were used LCD widely. Power supply of LCD is really low

and LCD is light, thin and level.

Adapter cards

Name -PCI card, Sound card

Purpose -To connect enlargement devices to enlargement slot through it.

Characteristics-PCI card has 264MBps, 64-bit coach and 66 MHz clock velocity

PCI card


Name -Serial, Parallel, USB ports

Purpose -To connect criterion hardware

Characteristics-Serial port has 9-pin, 3 rows.

Parallel port has 25-pin, 2 rows

Pen thrust and mouse can link to USB ports now.



Name -Spedo, Tempest shell

Purpose -For hold the motherboard and other peripherals.

Characteristics- Have a USB front panel so you can link web-cam and other devices to easy-to-reach ports on the forepart of your Personal computer.

It made from steel, aluminium, plastic and other stuffs.


    Consecutive port

    Name-RS 232

    Purpose-To provide expressive information

    Characteristics-9 pin, 2 rows

    Cabling-Celestron RS-232 consecutive overseas telegram maximal length is 50 pess

    Connector-DB9, DB25 connection

    Consecutive port

    Parallel port

    Name-printer port

    Purpose-To provide pressman for system

    Characteristics- 25-pin, 2 rows

    Cabling- STP overseas telegram less than 10 pess

    Connector-DB-25F D-shell analogue connection

    Parallel port

    USB port

    Name-pen thrust, webcam

    Purpose-Joins USB devices to the USB host accountant

    Characteristics-480 Mbps full-speed devices, maximal length of overseas telegram is

    limited to 5 metres

    Cabling- 90-ohm twisted-pair overseas telegram

    Connector-plug connections

    USB port

    Fire wire port

    Name- Audio-visual equipment

    Purpose- Gives power to the peripheral devices

    Characteristics- It has 800Mbps and greater velocity

    Cabling-IEEE-1394 overseas telegram

    Connector-4-pin 1394 connection

    Fire wire port

    DB port

    Name- VGA port, game port

    Purpose- To interface system ‘s web in the enlargement slots

    Characteristics-3rows, 15 pin in VGA port and 2rows, 15 pin in game port

    Cabling-Ribbon overseas telegram

    Connector-DB-15F connection

    RJ port

    Name – Repeater MT-RJ Port

    Purpose – To interface system ‘s web in the enlargement slots

    Features – Entire end product DC 12V/3A to provide the devices

    Optional 12VDC arranger power supply

    Cabling -fiber-optic overseas telegram

    Connections – 9 pin bilingual connection, MT-RJ type connection

    Unibrain Glass Optical Fiber FireWire 800 IEEE1394b Repeater MT-RJ Port

    Din port

    Name -Keyboard port in AT motherboard

    Purpose -Connect keyboard to the system

    Features -It is 5-pin female ports.

    Cabling -Coiled overseas telegram

    Connections -5-pin Din connection

    Din port

    Mini-DIN port

    Name -mouse port

    Purpose -Connect mouse to the system

    Features -It is 6-pin female ports

    Cabling -Coiled overseas telegram

    Connections -6-pin PS/2 connection

    Mini-DIN port

    Centronics port

    Name -SCSI port

    Purpose -Connect SCSI adapter card to the system

    Features -50 pin

    Cabling -Shielded overseas telegram

    Connections -Centonics connection

    Common Problems

    Problem of power supply- Receive power at one device and non another.

    For illustration, the difficult thrust may have power, but the

    CD-ROM thrust has nil at all.

    Problem of CPU -slow bleep from the talker

    CPU fan does n’t run if the power is on

    Cache in CPU has disabled

    100 % CPU use jobs

    Problem of keyboard -It produces old fount on the screen

    Keyboard with a bad signal overseas telegram mistake message

    Incorrect characters formed when you wrote

    Problem of soundcard – Can non put in driver

    Configure incorrect driver

    Incorrect plugged into the talker or MIC port

    Problem of motherboard-A CMOS Battery Low message show

    DMA accountant failed

    Date and clip incorrect

    Boot-up mistakes

    Problem of proctors -Display blank screen

    Poor or losing colourss or one colour

    Become seeable raster

    Fictional characters are ill-defined

    2 Short Beeps Your computing machine has memory jobs. First cheque picture. If picture is working, you ‘ll see an mistake message. If non, you have a para mistake in memory. First look into your SIMM ‘s. Reseat them and bring up. If this does n’t make it, the memory french friess may be bad. You can seek exchanging the first and Bankss memory french friess. If all your memory trials good, you may necessitate to purchase another motherboard.

    Low 1-1-3 this is an Drawn-out CMOS RAM job, look into your motherboard battery, and motherboard.

    4-3-4 Time of twenty-four hours clock failure. Run the apparatus plan in the computing machine. Check the day of the month and clip. If that does n’t work, replace the battery. If that does n’t work, replace the power supply.

    3-3-4 Your computing machine ca n’t happen the picture card. Try to interchange it with another one and see if it works.

    4-4-1 Your series ports are misconduct. Replace, the I/O card. If the I/O is on the motherboard itself, disenable it with a jumper and so add an I/O card.

    1 Long, 3 Short Beeps you have merely added memory to the motherboard since this is an drawn-out memory failure. By and large this is caused by a memory bit that is non seated decently. Reseat the memory french friess.

    7 Short Beeps Your CPU broke overnight. If it ‘s non good by replacing the CPU, you may purchase another motherboard.

    9 Short Beeps Your BIOS is bad. Replace the BIOS.

    Undertaking 2

    I. ( a ) Popular type of motherboard – MSI

    Components – CPU socket, Memory unit, Ports etc

    Architecture – ATX motherboard

    MSI motherboard

    ( B ) Popular type of motherboard – HP micro

    Components – BIOS bit, CMOS battery, Slots etc

    Architecture – ATX motherboard

    HP micro motherboard

    ( degree Celsius ) Popular type of motherboard –ASUS M2NPVVM Micro

    Components – Sockets, Power connection, CPU fan etc

    Architecture – ATX motherboard

    ASUS M2NPVVM Micro motherboard

    Screen shooting of CMOS puting

    Purpose of CMOS memory

    To cognize disk-drive parametric quantities.

    To acknowledge mistakes.

    Set watchword for security.


    Standard CMOS Features

    Advanced CMOS Features

    Advanced Chipset Features

    Integrated Peripherals

    Power Management Setup

    PnP/PCI Configurations

    Personal computer Health Status

    When user wants to rectify day of the month and clip, user clicks Standard CMOS Features and adjusts day of the month and clip.

    If user does n’t desire to let other USB pen thrust in computing machine, user can enable Legacy USB support which is in PnP/PCI Configurations.


    1. Technology – Impact e.g. Dot-Matrix pressmans

      Interfaces – RS-232 consecutive port

      Upgrade – Facsimiles

      TVS Proton Dot Matrix pressman

      Technology – Non-Impact e.g. Laser pressmans

      Interfaces – USB port

      Upgrade – Random-access memory faculties

      Hp optical maser jet pressman

      Printer ‘s Problem – Dark musca volitanss in publishing paper

      Redresss – Replace the aureole by altering the toner.

      Clean the extra toner by running many documents.

      Printer ‘s Problem – Printer did non progress paper

      Redresss – Check in control panel that the pressman is on-line.

      If pressman is on-line but paper still non take, you may look into motor and cogwheel in pressman and thickness of paper.

    Undertaking 3

    Types of web overseas telegrams

    Coaxial overseas telegram

    Twisted-Pair overseas telegram

    Fiber-optic overseas telegram

    Coaxial overseas telegram

    Coaxial overseas telegram is a overseas telegram which consists of a individual music director. It carries broadbrand signals for CATV in houses.

    Characteristics- It is composed of a centre Cu music director wire, an dielectric and shielded with braided metal.

    Connections – UHF connections, N connections, BNC connections, TNC connections

    Coaxial overseas telegram

    Twisted-Pair overseas telegram

    It can cut down noise signals and used in informations transit and telecommunications. Good for transportation different signals.

    Characteristics-Consists of two or more braces of Cu wires twisted one another.

    They have maximal 100m length and their bandwidth is up to 1000mbps.

    Connections -RJ 45 modular connection

    Twisted-Pair overseas telegram

    Fiber-optic overseas telegram

    It is a plastic or glass overseas telegram that brings informations as light pulsations for their ocular equivalent

    Characteristics-Consists of sheath, Kevlar, interior sheath, optical fibre and nucleus.

    It has a maximal length of 2km to 100 kilometers.

    Their bandwidth is 10gbps and up.

    Connections -ST, LC connections

    Fiber-optic overseas telegram

    Five different engineerings for Internet Connectivity

    1. Digital Subscriber Line ( DSL )

    2. Local Area Network ( LAN )

    3. ISDN

    4. Satellite

    5. Radio

    1. Digital subscriber line

      Strengths -High-bandwidth connexion

      -High velocity communicating links

      -Used for both telephone and informations communicating

      -Connection can open while the phone line is used

      -Do non necessitate to link with ISP if they want to travel online

      Weakness -Limited distance and conditions of line-quality

      -Filters prevent the stretch of informations so users do non hear sound of digital communicating traveling on

      -Its service is non available in all location

      -It plants better when user is near supplier ‘s office

    2. Local area network

      Strengths -Enable to portion resources

      -A really common portion of the computing machine system

      -LAN installing can use connexion devices

      -Perform several connexion maps and all routing services

      -Faster communicating

      Weakness -Security is accessible by computing machine that straight connected to LAN

      -Requests for services that it can non carry through to an appropriate waiter

      -May act as ain ISP for big organisations

      -Only connect in a individual edifice. It is a little site.

    3. ISDN

      Strengths – ISDN is much faster than a dialup line

      – Get 2 phone lines from it.

      – It going more widespread

      Weakness -It is non available everyplace going more widespread.

      -An ISDN line costs somewhat more than a regular telephone line,

    4. Satellite

      Strengths -Fine download velocities ( up to 1.5Mbps )

      -It is the sender for cyberspace signals.

      -No need to content on the overseas telegram allotment company

      Weakness -Have highly high cost

      -Expensive land station to run

      -If there is really low power, there has weak signal

      -Latency is typically high

      -Some connexions require an bing Internet service history.

    5. Radio

      Strengths -Available in PCMICA cards or USB devices

      – Radio Internet provides an always-on connexion which can be accessed from anyplace

      -Can usage in cell phone and tablet Personal computers and usage for high velocity informations, broadcast Television and radio telephone service.

      -Provide a shared transmittal rate of 54Mbps

      Weakness -If there is no wireless connexion near, radio ca n’t available to utilize

      -Expensive to utilize

      -Need to protect with tools

    6. 5 Networking capablenesss of Windows XP

      Electronic mail

      Windows XP Home Edition includes Microsoft Outlook Express, which gives you entree to the e-mail inbox provided by your Internet service supplier.

      Web browse

      Windows XP Home Edition besides includes Internet Explorer for shoping the Web.

      Instantaneous messaging

      For instant messaging, you can utilize Windows Messenger to chew the fat with friends utilizing your keyboard, voice, or a webcam.

      Distant Aid

      Everyone needs computing machine aid at some point. When you have a job, you can utilize Distant Assistance to ask for a friend or proficient support applied scientist to link to your computing machine and aid you fix it. Remote Assistance allows you to portion control of your computing machine over the Internet.

      Windows Firewall

      Using the Internet can expose your computing machine to many menaces, including worms, viruses, and hackers. Fortunately, Windows XP Home Edition

      Remote Desktop

      Remote Desktop enables you to entree your Windows XP Professional computing machine from another computing machine on your place web or by utilizing the Internet. Remote Desktop requires a user name and watchword, and besides encrypts all communications, to protect you from most web onslaughts.

    Undertaking 4

    I.10 Window XP system files

    1 Name – intelppm.sys

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose-To configure device driver

    Content – Processor Device Driver

    2 Name – Defrag.EXE

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32

    Purpose-Defragment the volumes for computing machine to run quicker

    Contented – Disk Defragmenter Module

    3 Name – beep.sys

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose-To know mistake by short bleep

    Content – Beep Driver

    4 Name – scsidisk.sys

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose-To know PnP disc

    Content – PnP Disk Driver

    5 Name – cdfs.sys

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose-To know CD-ROM

    Contented – CD-ROM File System Driver

    6 Name – ipconfig.exe

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32

    Purpose-To configure IP reference for cyberspace

    Content – IP Configuration Utility

    7 Name – usbd.sys

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose-To recognize USB in computing machine

    Content – Universal Serial Bus Driver

    8 Name – BootCfg.exe

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32

    Purpose-To unfastened boot procedure for gazing window usually

    Content – Boot configure tools

    9 Name – CHKDSK.EXE

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32

    Purpose –Service to demo disk mistake.

    Content – Check Disk Utility

    10 Name – SHUTDOWN.EXE

    Location- C: WINDOWSsystem32drivers

    Purpose -Tools for shuting your computing machine.

    Content- Windows Remote Shutdown Tools

    two.Microsoft Management Console ( MMC )

    To open tools such as event spectator and it can make new consoles.

    Event Viewer

    To look system mistakes, application mistakes, security mistakes

    Undertaking Manager

    To see the current running applications, undertaking procedure, CPU use, Memory, Network scope and users.

    three.Installing Laser Jet Printer

    Attach parallel overseas telegram to the USB port.

    Connect other side of overseas telegram to the pressman.

    Pay power to the pressman.

    Open your computing machine and click start button.

    Then chink pressmans and facsimiles.

    In pressmans and facsimiles, chinks add a pressman and you can put in pressman.

    You may take local or web pressman.

    And take what type of port and pressman.

    If your computing machine does n’t cognize printer type, you may configure pressman type by infixing Cadmium and configuring type of pressman.

    Installing webcam

    Connect webcam ‘s overseas telegram to USB port.

    To configure it, click scanners and cameras.

    If your computing machine does n’t hold this, put in with Cadmium.

    Undertaking 5

    1. Common mistake codifications

      1. mistake codification = 0xc000026C

      Meaning – Can non lade device.

      Message-STOP: 0xc000026”Unable to Load Device Deriver”

      1. mistake codification =0xA0

      Meaning-There is a job in internal power

      Message- ” Stop 0xA0 ” Mistake

      1. mistake code=998

      Meaning – Invalid entree to memory location.

      Message- STOP: 998“ERROR_NOACCESS”

      1. mistake code= 10062 ( 0x274E )

      Meaning – Can non interpret name.


      1. mistake code=C0000221

      Meaning – A corrupted file or an wrong driver that is installed on your computing machine

      Message-STOP: C0000221” Unknown Hard Error”

    2. Common Window XP diagnostic public-service corporations and tools


    Use – To maintain from information doomed.

    Disk Killing

    Usage- To clear disc of unneeded files

    Disk Defragmenter

    Use – It is for running computing machine faster and more expeditiously. It can cognize whether the thrust requires defragmentation. Can choose to defragment the thrust, shut the position window, or see a study on atomization.

    Scheduled Undertakings

    Usage – Agenda computing machine undertakings to run automatically

    System Information

    Usage – Display current System information

    System Restore

    Use – Restore system to take restore point

    Disk Error Utility

    Usage – It can demo jobs copying files or notice file corruptness. To run the plan, unfastened My Computer and right-click the difficult disc you want to look into for mistakes.


    Web Reference

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    Book Reference

    ISDN 0-9543071-4-3

    ISDN 0-9543071-5-1


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