Fundamental definitions

Term Definition
photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product.
stoma any of the minute pores in the epidermis of the leaf or stem of a plant, forming a slit of variable width which allows movement of gases in and out of the intercellular spaces
stomata Plural for stoma
xylem primarily involved in transporting water and nutrient (from the roots to the shoot and leaves) and providing structural support.
phloem the vascular tissue in plants which conducts sugars and other metabolic products downwards from the leaves.
chloroplast a plastid in green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
autotroph an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
germination the process by which a plant grows from a seed.
trace elements a chemical element required only in minute amounts by living organisms for normal growth.
macrominerals referred to as trace minerals, meaning they are present at low levels
macronutrients Nutrients needed in large amounts by the plant for its growth
trace elements Nutrients needed in very small amounts for plant growth
seed coat he protective outer coat of a seed.
cotyledon an embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first leaves to appear from a germinating seed.
embryo the part of a seed which develops into a plant, consisting (in the mature embryo of a higher plant) of a plumule, a radicle, and one or two cotyledons.

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