Abstract- Since the building industry has great impact on the environment, the consideration of sustainable development through sustainable building is needed. Sustainable building is a manner for the edifice industry to travel towards accomplishing sustainable development, taking into history the environmental, socio-economic and cultural issues. Specifically, it involves issues such as design and direction of edifices, stuffs and edifice public presentation, energy and resource ingestion. Therefore, sustainable building provides solutions that require optimisation all kind of environmental impacts since planetary heating is no longer a distant construct but a existent menace to the hereafter of world. This paper is reappraisal of sustainable pattern in building industry. Assorted methods of quantitative research by manner of questionnaire study and qualitative research utilizing semi structured interview will be applied. For the first phase of informations aggregation, the quantitative method will be applied to place the barriers in implementing the sustainable building. On the other manus, qualitative method will be used to bring forth schemes for the Malayan building participants to implement the sustainable building. Interview session will be conducted among experient professionals in building industry in order to bring forth their sentiment towards the execution of sustainable building in Malayan building industry. At the terminal of the research, treatment and recommendation will be covered, summarizing the research content. This research is attempted to develop a model policy of sustainable building in Malaysia. A new schemes and guidelines seem to be portion of the model design. The model derived from this research will be used as the standards to benchmark the spreads in procedure and scheme for sustainable building industry in order to capture good patterns in footings of understating environmental impacts and better Malaysian preparedness towards the sustainable issues.
Keywords- Global heating, sustainable development, sustainable building, environmental impact, policies
The freshly launched National Green Technology Policy in 2009 reflects Malayan Government ‘s earnestness in driving the message that ‘clean and green ‘ is the manner frontward towards sustainable building which will profit current and future issues related to economic, societal and environment and besides quality of life. Such policy showed that authorities were earnestly encouraged the attempts in undertaking all related green issues in the state that complement the planetary vision on sustainable development.
This research will be looking into the sustainable patterns in Malayan building industry and will be concentrating on the sustainable policy in other Asiatic states such as Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Japan which really much active in Green Technology and sustainable undertakings. The ground for this is to demo the ‘gaps ‘ that should be filled in by the policy shapers in order to catch up with the current developments that have been go oning in other states.
The intent of this paper is to unwrap the overall construction of the research that is presently being set abouting by the research worker. Therefore, it is beyond the range of this paper to discourse any findings from any of the research methodological analysis adapted to day of the month.
Nowadays, one of the most urgent concerns for this industry is planetary warming which is an addition in the mean temperature of the Earth ‘s ambiance and oceans as a consequence of the buildup of nursery gases in the ambiance [ 1 ] . Global heating, sometimes called clime alteration, is doing an addition in the Earth ‘s near-surface temperature due to alterations in the atmospheric composing. Many scientists believe late observed planetary heating is partly caused by nursery gas emanations from energy production, transit, industry and agribusiness [ 2 ] ( Oh and Chua, 2010 ; Radhi, 2009 ) . In Malaysia, the major subscriber of the nursery gas is carbon dioxide emanations and the tendency has been increasing every twelvemonth since 1982. The planetary C dioxide emanation has risen significantly from 19,380 million dozenss in 1980 to 31,577 million dozenss in 2008. It is predicted that C dioxide emanation will increase to 40 billion dozenss in twelvemonth 2030 if no enormous attempt are thrown in to extenuate it [ 3-4 ] . In add-on, harmonizing to Dato ‘ Sri Peter Chin Fah Kui Minister Of Energy, Green Technology And Water in his address in the ASEAN Affairs and the Malaysia-Europe Forum, nursery gas emanations in Malaysia has increased well by 13 % and 32 % per GDP and per capita severally between 1994 and 2000. Malayan sum nursery gas emanations increased by 55 % in 2000 when compared with the 1994 degrees. Furthermore, he stated that Malaysia ‘s emanation of CO2 per capita which is about 7.1 metric tons per capita was higher than the norm for Asia Pacific of 2.6 metric tons per capita based on the National Communications Report. Since planetary heating has emerged as the most serious environmental issues of our clip and since sustainability going an of import issue of economic sciences and political arguments worldwide hence, it is critical of import for Malayan building industry to further implement the sustainable building which eliminates the negative impact on the building industry.
At present, Malaysia is a population with about 27.73 million covering country of 329,750 km2 based on the latest nose count in 2008 and the GDP grew at an mean rate over 5.7 % during the last 6 old ages [ 5 ] . As such, being a fast industrializing state, it is expected that an increased demand for more houses, edifices and public substructure. Due to that affair, the authorities introduces the “ Sustainable Concept ” that can be applied to the building industry to keep the ecosystem and reinforced environment every bit good. While standard edifice patterns are guided by short term economic considerations, sustainable building is based on best patterns which emphasize long term affordability, quality and efficiency ( Isover, 2009 ) . Sustainable building, which has necessarily been dubbed ‘green building ‘ , describes the duty of the building industry in achieving sustainability ( Nazirah, 2009 ) . Besides that, sustainable building purposes at cut downing the environmental impact of a edifice over its full life-time, while optimising its economic viability and the comfort and safety of its residents ( Aguilar, 2008 ; Isover, 2009 ; PediaPress, 2009 ) . Furthermore, sustainable building is all about keeping a balance between the human demand for edifices for shelter and concern operations and substructure for higher quality of wellbeing at one manus, and continuing natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future coevals depend at the other manus ( Singh, 2007 ; Nazirah and Aini, 2010 ) . As mentioned antecedently, sustainable building is seen as a manner for the building industry to lend to the attempt to accomplish sustainable development. However, in Malaysia, the green motion is still at low degree where sustainable undertakings in Malaysia are largely at the innovator phase [ 6 ] . She pointed out that the modest figure of sustainable undertakings being built in Malaysia is a mark of the slow consumption of the sustainability construct among building practician. Therefore, this indicates that the concerted attempts by the authorities, non-governmental and instruction establishments have non to the full penetrated into building activities. Looking the above statement, it can be conclude that there is still lack of attempt in the application of the sustainable construct among building practician and this scenario shown that it seems hard for the Malayan building industry to further implement the sustainable building. Therefore, more attempts are needed and should be directed towards gaining the green docket of the industry to heighten the degree of environmental consciousness and civic consciousness among the people to construct sustainably in the hereafter. Therefore, this research will place the barriers in implementing the sustainable building in Malayan Construction Industry.
Government policies have been recognised as of import instruments in driving the market for sustainable edifices [ 7 ] . At recent, the green engineering publicity was farther emphasized in the 9th Malaysia Plan ( 2006-2010 ) . This indicate that authorities were earnestly encouraged the attempts in undertaking all related green issues in the state that complement the planetary vision on sustainable development. The constitution of the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water to replace the Ministry of Energy, Communications and Multimedia in early 2009 reflects Malaysia ‘s earnestness in driving the message that ‘clean and green ‘ is the manner frontward towards making an economic system that is based on sustainable solutions. The launch of the new National Green Technology Policy in April 2009 by the current Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, shall supply counsel and make new chances for concerns and industries to impact on the economic growing positively. The National Green Technology Policy is built on four pillars which are seek to achieve energy independency and advance efficient use, preserve and minimise the impact on the environment, heighten the national economic development through the usage of engineering and better the quality of life for all [ 8 ] . The National Policy on Environment seeks to incorporate environment considerations into development activities to further long-run economic growing and human development and to protect every bit good as heightening the quality of environment. Therefore, the National policy is seen as a major accelerator of the authorities ‘s schemes in order to advance sustainable building since sustainable building is a manner for the edifice industry to travel towards accomplishing sustainable development. More schemes and actions should be pursued actively to rush up the procedure in making sustainable orientated building industry which is overriding towards constructing a sustainable hereafter. Therefore, this research is an effort to turn to the issues of sustainable building and what approaches needs to be implemented for sustainable building in Malaysia.
THE EMERGENCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Sustainability has become an of import issue worldwide. There is a turning concern for sustainability due to terrible negative impacts of human development activities in the Earth. The term “ sustainable development ” is fundamentally emerged from The World Commission on Environment and Development established by the United Nations in 1983 and now known as the Brundtland Commission. The study, Our Common Future in the publication of “ Brundland Report ” provided the most simple and widely used definition for sustainable development as development to guarantee that it meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands [ 9 ] . The construct was given currency at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ) in 1992, and reinforced at the World Summit on Sustainable Development ( WSSD ) in 2002. UNCED saw the first planetary understanding on programmes for action in all countries associating to sustainable development, as documented in Agenda 21 [ 10 ] . During the United Nations Earth Summit held by the United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) in Rio de Janeiro ( 1992 ) , a sustainable development was defined as bettering the quality of human life while populating within the transporting capacity of back uping eco systems. This definition has an impact on the economic, societal and environmental development and was later officially adopted world-wide [ 11 ] . This has lead to a turning concern around the universe to better the manner of our development into a more responsible manner without destructing the universe we lived in.
SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION
Buildings, substructure and the environment are portion of our life environment therefore impacting our life conditions, societal wellbeing and wellness. Hence, it is of import to research environmentally and economically sound design and development techniques for edifices and substructure for them to be sustainable, healthy and low-cost, and besides which encourage invention in building [ 11 ] . Previously, the concern on environment is comparatively a little portion of most of building development. However, with the turning consciousness on environmental protection due to the depletion of non-renewable resources, planetary heating and appendage of devastation to ecology and biodiversity impact, this issue have gain wider attending by the building practicians worldwide. Many attempts are being directed to construct sustainable in building universe. The way of the industry is now switching from developing with environmental concern as a little portion of the procedure into holding the development procedure being integrated within the wider context of environmental docket [ 12 ] . With the execution of sustainable building, the building industry is bound to convey approximately positive and proactive alterations such as less pollution, waste and even constitutes to the well being of future coevalss. Therefore, the building activities must work and follow with the demand to protect and prolong the environment. As a effect, accomplishing sustainability means accomplishing quality of life.
Existing research shows that building activities are a major subscriber to environmental pollution [ 13 ] . Hence, sustainable development is an reply to cut down the major impact on the environment. Sustainable development requires the building industry itself to be sustainable first. There are three elements that are related to sustainable development, which are economic, societal and environment component [ 14 ] . Sustainable in economic includes addition profitableness and fight. Sustainable in societal elements covers facets of the bringing of edifices and substructures that meets the satisfactorily meets the demand of the users and stakeholders. While sustainable in environment would see the concerns on the preservation of natural ecosystems and minimisation of environmental impacts and the ingestion of energy and natural resources [ 10, 14 ] . Apart from that, sustainable building is seems as a manner for the building industry to lend to the attempt to accomplish sustainable development [ 6 ] . In brief, sustainable building is the building that contributes to the sustainable development. Abidin [ 15 ] suggested that the attack of sustainable building will enable the building practicians to be more responsible to the environmental protection demands without pretermiting the societal and economic demands in endeavoring for better life. Therefore, the challenge of the building industry is to happen the balance between three chief pillars ; environmental, economic and societal in order for the building industry to travel towards sustainability.
Since the building industry has a great important impact on the environment, the execution of sustainable building is a must. Harmonizing to Tan, Shen and Yao [ 13 ] sustainable building refers to the integrating of environmental, societal and economic considerations into building concern schemes and patterns. It is the application of the rules of sustainable development to the comprehensive building rhythm from the extraction of natural stuffs, through the planning, design and building of edifices and substructure, until their concluding deconstruction and direction of the attendant waste. However Hamid, Noor, Kamar, Ghani, Zain, and Rahim [ 16 ] farther explained that sustainable building is the creative activity and responsible care of a wellness built environment, based on ecological rules and by agencies of an efficient usage of resources. In add-on, sustainable building is a manner for the edifice industry to travel towards accomplishing sustainable development, taking into history the environmental, socio-economic and cultural issues [ 11, 17 ] . Aguilar [ 18 ] pointed out that the acceptance of sustainable building patterns besides offers environmental protections as good economic advantages for consumers and communities offering significant nest eggs in the edifices life-cycle operating costs. Singh [ 19 ] farther added that sustainability in building is all about following suited patterns in footings of pick of stuffs, their beginnings, building methodological analysiss every bit good as design doctrine so as to be able to better public presentation, diminish the environmental load of the undertaking, minimise waste and be ecologically friendlier. Consequently, sustainable building trades with limited resources particularly energy and how to cut down the impacts on the natural environment.
Previous surveies related to the research
There were assorted research has been conducted in the country of sustainable building and the measure seems to increase over the old ages since environmental issues become more concerning worldwide. The research that has been done in the country of sustainable building can be grouped into four which are research on sustainable patterns, research on chances and consciousness, research on stuffs and research on policy. The research that has been done in sustainable patterns for case is by Tan, Shen and Yao [ 13 ] which conducted a research on sustainable building pattern and contractors ‘ fight which focuses on the relationship between sustainability public presentation and concern fight. The findings showed that there is no alone relationship between the two variables. But utilizing a long-run position, sustainability public presentation will hold greater part to concern fight in the hereafter. Whereas Chen, Okudan, and Riley [ 20 ] conducted a research on sustainable public presentation standards for building method choice in concrete edifices. The survey was based on a qualitative research attack. In her survey, she has identified a list of possible chances and strategic waies for authorities and industry stakeholders ‘ consideration in position of the hereafter development. While Shen, Tam, Leona and Ji [ 21 ] discussed major challenges of carry oning undertaking feasibleness survey to the sustainable building patterns with mention to Mainland China building industry. The survey demonstrated that there is a demand for switching the traditional attack of undertaking feasibleness survey to a new attack for encompassing the rules of sustainable development. Besides, Shafii [ 11 ] has done a research on sustainable Construction in the underdeveloped states of Southeast Asia and found that the position of sustainable building in Southeast Asia is still in its babyhood. Reffat [ 22 ] in his research addressed the indispensable demands for developing sustainable building in developing states including sing sustainability as a necessity, efficient direction of resources, shared duty, quality betterment of building procedures and merchandises, bettering the capacity of building sector, and the demand for incorporate research. The invention of edifice stuffs and engineerings as an chance of sustainable building in developing states is introduced. A tool for sustainable edifice is besides presented. Mohamad [ 23 ] conducted a research on Principles of Sustainable Development in Ibn Khaldun ‘s Economic Thought which focused on the nature of pursuable development in the economic theoretical account of Ibn Khaldun. The research worker quickly examines Ibn Khaldun celebrated work al-Muqadimmah, every bit good as the readings of his work offered by modern-day bookmans. This research reinterprets those positions and concludes that the economic growing theory of Ibn Khaldun suggests sustainable development if one opts for a moderate rate of incorporate development. Ibn KhaldunaˆYs theory of development tallies towards the same way as that of Basic Needs, Dematerialisation, and de-growth in our clip. Overconsumption, corruptness of morality, and the greed for luxury are recognised the indexs of autumn of civilizations which are taken here to be the indexs of unsustainable development. His positions can steer Muslim states in outlining development policy and besides can be used by pedagogues for advancing sustainable development in Muslim Countries. A research done by Destatte [ 24 ] discussed that foresight could be a major tool in undertaking sustainability every bit good as one of the best methods of fixing sustainable schemes and policies since the attempts made to build specific methods dedicated to constructing sustainable schemes seem instead weak. Futurists themselves underestimate the relationship between sustainable development and foresight, even if they are speaking about sustainable planning.
Research on chances and consciousness for case has been done by [ 6, 15 ] on consciousness and application of sustainable building construct by Malayan developers. This survey has been conducted to look into the degree of consciousness, cognition and execution of sustainable patterns based on the perceptual experiences of the undertaking developers in Malaysia. The findings was merely big developers are get downing to take attentiveness towards sustainable execution in their undertakings. Due to limited apprehension and the concern about cost, many developers are still loath and unsure refering chase of sustainability in their undertakings. Whereas in the research, The Way Forward of Sustainable Construction and Green Technology In Malaysia conducted by Hamid, Noor, Kamar, Ghani, Zain, and Rahim [ 10 ] investigated the challenges confronting by the industry in developing sustainable docket and discusses Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) ‘s enterprises in implementing sustainable docket. Furthermore, he highlighted current research on sustainable building and green engineering and provides strategic recommendations as the manner frontward. While Shafii, Ali, and Othman [ 11 ] in their survey focused on the populace & A ; private enterprises, partnerships and international co-operations to back up sustainable edifice development in Malaysia. The determination was there is increasing public consciousness and involvement in how edifices affect the environment, worker productiveness and public wellness. As a consequence, both the populace and private sector are get downing to demand edifices that optimize energy usage ; promote resource efficiency ; and better indoor environmental quality. Developers, proprietors, operators, insurance companies, and the populace at big are get downing to value and market the benefits of sustainable edifice. Despite these responses and demand, the development in sustainable edifice is comparatively slow ; this in portion, might be due to the deficiency of inducements and regulative processs to steer sustainable edifice building. The Green Building Mission launched late by the Malayan Government is an indicant of a promising attempt to guarantee sustainable production and bringing of the building industry merchandises to carry through these demands. The paper besides discussed on the tendencies, challenges and barriers for executions of sustainable edifice with recommendations for set uping clear policy marks.
Research that has been conducted on stuffs fundamentally focused on the sustainable stuff in building industry and based on research lab oriented. For case research conducted by Voo [ 25 ] nowadayss an overview of the material features of a Malaysia blend of ultra-high public presentation ‘ductile ‘ concrete ( UHPdC ) know as DURA. The comparing surveies show that many constructions constructed from UHPdC are by and large more environmentally sustainable than built of the conventional strengthened concrete with regard to the decrease of CO2 emanations and embodied energy.
However, in this paper, the research worker intends to concentrate on sustainable policy. By and large, there is no similar thorough research which has been done by any other research worker in the Malayan building industry sing on policy since Malaysia still do non hold policy on the sustainable building based on the preliminary interview that has been done with Encik Ishamuddin bin Mazlan from the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water ( KeTTHA ) . If any, it simply focuses on the Environmental policy for case a research conducted by Ambali [ 26 ] on Malayan Experience in Policy of Sustainable Environment. The findings of the paper have shown an empirical relationship between environmental debasements and indexs of human development activities in Malaysia and elsewhere in the universe. However, the paper reflects some cardinal issues that need to be addressed by the authorities for future way of its policy attempts towards protection of natural resources and the environment at big. Whereas Zhang and Wen [ 27 ] in her research, reappraisal and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China find how best to organize the relationship between the environment and the economic system by taking a expression at the development of Chinese environmental policy in order to better quality of life and the sustainability of China ‘s resources and environment. Examples of of import steps include the accommodation of economic construction, reform of energy policy, development of environmental industry, pollution bar and ecological preservation, capacity edifice, and international cooperation and public engagement. While a research conducted by Hezri and Hasan [ 28 ] positions the recent history of Malaysia ‘s germinating policy response to development demands and environmental alteration as consisting of four distinguishable phases. Despite an impressive array of policy statements and schemes to implement sustainable development, many challenges remain today. A clear articulation of normative rules of sustainable development is of paramount importance, as is the monumental undertaking of policy execution. The article argues that the flight of Malaysia ‘s policy on natural resources and environmental issues bears the features of way dependent development. At PhD degree, Kumorotomo [ 29 ] discussed the procedure of decision-making on Indonesian financial decentralization policy in order to explicate policy alterations and continuities. It focuses on developments from 1974 to 2004. Based on the reappraisal of the old surveies related to the research that have been discussed above at that place seems no survey that has been done ( yet ) in the country of sustainable building policy and this will be discussed by the research worker in this Master research. Therefore, the spread has been identified and in order to lend to the bing organic structure of cognition.
RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this research is to develop model policy for the Malayan Construction participants to travel towards sustainable building. In order to accomplish this purpose the undermentioned aims were identified:
Objective 1: To find the importance of implementing the sustainable building in Malayan Construction Industry.
Objective 2: To place the barriers in order to implement sustainable building in Malayan Construction Industry.
Objective 3: To develop cardinal schemes in advancing the sustainable building in Malayan building industry.
Research inquiries serves as a usher in fulfill the purpose and aims of the research. In order to decide the research job, the undermentioned research inquiries were applied:
Research inquiry for nonsubjective 1
What and why sustainable building is of import in the Malayan building industry?
How of import of execution of sustainable building in Malaysian?
How sustainable building can cut down the planetary heating or clime alteration in Malaysia?
Research inquiry for nonsubjective 2
What are the barriers in implementing the sustainable building in Malayan Construction Industry?
How to understate the barriers?
Research inquiry for nonsubjective 3
What are the schemes in advancing the sustainable building in Malayan building industry?
What are the functions of assorted sectors in advancing the sustainable building in Malayan Construction Industry?
2.1 What are the functions of the authorities bureaus?
2.2 Private sector? Developers? Contractors?
The research methodological analysis serves as a usher in accomplishing the purpose and aims of the survey. This subdivision would concentrate on the method of survey to be carried out in order to accomplish the aim of this research. In this research, mix method of questionnaire study and instance survey will be applied.
For the first phase of informations aggregation, the quantitative method will be applied in order to place the barriers in implementing sustainable building in Malayan building industry.
On the other manus, qualitative method will be used in order to bring forth schemes to farther implement the sustainable building. Interview session will be conducted among experient professionals who involved straight in building industry. The purpose is to bring forth their sentiment towards the execution of sustainable building in Malayan building industry.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE RESEARCH
This research will add to the organic structure of cognition that with the execution of sustainable building the building industry is bound to convey about positive alterations for case less pollution, waste and even constitutes of good being future coevalss. This research is expected to develop a model policy of sustainable building in Malaysia. A new schemes and guidelines seem to be portion of the model design. This research will stress the importance of execution of sustainable building in Malayan building industry in order to prolong ecological system and heighten the societal well being of all Malayan citizens. Besides that, this research will place the barriers in implementing the sustainable building so that methods can be taken in order to understate those barriers and eventually come out with the schemes so that Malayan participants can farther implement the sustainable building. Apart from that, the findings that meet the aims of this research will open new Fieldss for future research workers and academicians to transport out extended researches on the subjects concerned. In add-on, informations and end product analyzed from the findings can be farther referred or elaborated in any educational rescue or scholarly stuffs. Therefore it is anticipated that this research will bring forth involvements from the populace, academicians and besides practicians. In short, the result of this research will impact assorted parties involved in building industry including authorities and private bureaus, building providers and eventually stop users. Therefore, this research will surely be good to all parties.
This research is attempted to develop a model policy of sustainable building in Malaysia since there is no specific policy on sustainable building. Compared to other developed states such as UK, Sweden and even our vicinity states like Singapore and Thailand have their ain policies on Sustainable building. Therefore, a new schemes and guidelines seem to be portion of the model design. At the terminal of the research it targets to better the pattern of sustainable policy is Malayan building industry and indirectly assists the developers, designers and contractors in bettering the public presentation of our industry towards sustainable issues.