General description of an accounting information system Essay

This is a system which is used to enter the all concern minutess and after treating them provides information to concern stakeholders no affair if they are internal or external. During the clip many little concerns grow to middle-sized companies, expanded nationally and even go larger and get down to merchandise internationally. As a consequence of this development, many of these companies decided to utilize Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) package to incorporate their many concern activities such are production planning, gross revenues and distribution, plus and material direction, and other procedures related to human resources, production, gross revenues and so on.

There are many companies that have successfully resolved many of their jobs by utilizing ERP package, but there are besides few whose execution of the ERP has failed. After bankruptcy of several high profile companies such as World-Com and Global Crossing and as biggest, Enron prostration, in the US, as a consequence, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed. This Act had large deductions on revelation on studies, top direction answerability, hearer independency etc. The Act besides had immense deductions to ERP package developers and suppliers.

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Introduction

Overview of each inquiry

In This article we will, in the first topographic point, talk about categorization in accounting, give some grounds why accounting is classified, explicate what activities are undertaken and in a relation to SAP, What features does MySAP ERP have to run into these demands and discourse these and other characteristics covered by this mini research undertaking.

Second, we will speak about Sarbanes-Oxley Act, give some accounts and the ground for the Act and advert some of the deductions of the Act, and besides depict how MySAP ERP meets these deductions.

Third we will advert some Success and Failure illustrations of SAP ERP executions in good known companies.

Categorization of Accounting 10

In general, there are two points of position to Accounting. The first point is Managerial Accounting focused on “ Numbers and Figures ” for Internal Decision Making and Control and the 2nd point of position is Financial Accounting which is focused on “ Numbers and Figures ” for Stakeholders which are possible future Investors, Lenders, Bankers, Accounting Standards Regulation Boards, and some other External Users.

“ Managerial Accounting is a procedure of fixing direction histories that provide accurate and seasonably cardinal fiscal and statistical information required by directors to do daily and short-run determinations. Management Accounting generates monthly or hebdomadal studies for the house ‘s internal audiences such as section directors and the main executive officer. These studies typically show the sum of available hard currency, gross revenues gross generated, sum of orders in manus, province of histories collectible and histories receivable, outstanding debts, natural stuff and in-process stock list, and may besides include tendency charts, discrepancy analysis, and other statistics ” .[ 1 ]

Fiscal accounting green goodss one-year studies chiefly for external stakeholders such as creditors, investors, and loaners. While Managerial Accounting studies are prepared in conformity of internal demands and are non regulated in any sense, Financial Accounting is a aggregation of basic ( natural ) informations, the same that are used in direction accounting, “ treated in a prescribed and legislative act enforced format which emphasises the historic, tutelary and stewardship facets of the concern ”[ 2 ].

MySAP ERP is organised in package faculties. Each of the faculties screens different countries of concern. The first faculty is FI ( Financial Accounting ) faculty that is largely used to fulfill all the coverage demands. This faculty integrates with other SAP package faculties. Those faculties are portion of Logistics and HR largely utile for managerial accounting – MM faculty for Materials Management, PP faculty for Production Planning, SD faculty for Gross saless and Distribution, PM faculty for Plant Maintenance, PS – Undertaking Systems every bit good as HR faculty for Human Resources.

SAP ABAP is non truly a faculty – it stands for Advanced Business Application Programming and this is the structured scheduling linguistic communication for usage development including studies.

SAP features 15

SAP FI Module

SAP FI – which stands for Financial Accounting – is the SAP Module where regulative or statutory informations is tracked and managed. The SAP FI Module has the capableness of run intoing all the accounting and fiscal demands of an organisation. It is within this SAP FI Module that Financial Managers every bit good as other Managers within your concern can reexamine the fiscal place of the company in existent clip as compared to bequest systems which frequently times require nightlong updates before fiscal statements can be generated and run for direction reappraisal.

SAP FI Module – where FI means Financial Accounting – basically this SAP faculty delivers your regulative ‘books of record ‘ , including General leger, Book near, Tax, Accounts receivable, Accounts collectible, Asset Management, Consolidation, Special legers

SAP SD stands for Gross saless and Distribution and this is the faculty which is used to pull off customer-focused activities, from selling to bringing, including, Request for citation, Gross saless orders, Pricing, Picking ( and other warehouse procedures ) , Packing, Transporting

SAP CO – which stands for Controling – is the SAP Module which allows you to execute your direction accounting. The SAP CO ( Controling ) Module provides back uping information to Management for the intent of planning, coverage, every bit good as supervising the operations of their concern. Management decision-making can be achieved with the degree of information provided by this faculty. Some of the constituents of the CO ( Controling ) Faculty are Cost Element Accounting, Cost Centre Accounting, Internal Orders, Activity-Based Costing ( ABC ) , Product Cost Controlling, Profitability Analysis, Profit Center Accounting.

SAP HR stands for Human Resources and this is the faculty which helps you optimise your HR processes to pull, develop and achieve the right people including Employment history, Payroll, Training, Career direction, Succession planning.

SAP MM stands for Materials Management and this is portion of SAP Logistics which helps you pull off end-to-end procurance and logistics concern procedures, from requisitioning to payment, including, Requisitions, Purchase orders, Goods grosss, Accounts collectible, Inventory direction, BOM ‘s, Master natural stuffs, finished goods etc.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act 15

o Explain the ground for the Act and briefly deductions

o How does MySAP ERP run into these deductions

After bankruptcy of several high profile companies such as World-Com and Global Crossing and as biggest, Enron prostration with its celebrated particular intent entities, in the US, as a consequence, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was created to protect investors from corporate accounting fraud. Named after its patrons, Sarbanes and Oxley, it is diversely referred to as “ SOX ” and “ Sarbox, ” but its official name is the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002. It is considered by many to be the biggest inspection and repair of U.S. securities ordinances since the New Deal.

Here are the major commissariats of the act:

Chief executives and fiscal officers are held responsible for their companies ‘ fiscal studies.

Executive officers and managers may non beg or accept loans from their companies.

Insider trades are reported more rapidly.

Insider trades are prohibited during pension-fund blackout periods.

Disclosure of executive compensation and net incomes is compulsory.

Internal audits and reappraisal and enfranchisement of audits by outside hearers are compulsory.

There will be condemnable and civil punishments for securities misdemeanors.

There will be longer gaol sentences and larger mulcts for executives who deliberately misstate fiscal statements.

Audited account houses may no longer supply actuarial, legal, or confer withing services to houses they audit.

Publicly traded companies must set up internal fiscal controls and have those controls audited yearly.

The undermentioned subdivisions of Sarbanes-Oxley contain the three regulations that affect the direction of electronic records. The first regulation trades with devastation, change, or disproof of records.

Sec. 802 ( a ) “ Whoever wittingly alters, destroys, mutilates, conceals, covers up, falsifies, or makes a false entry in any record, papers, or touchable object with the purpose to hinder, obstruct, or act upon the probe or proper disposal of any affair within the legal power of any section or bureau of the United States or any instance filed under rubric 11, or in relation to or contemplation of any such affair or instance, shall be fined under this rubric, imprisoned non more than 20 old ages, or both. ”

The 2nd regulation defines the keeping period for records storage. Best patterns indicate that corporations firmly store all concern records utilizing the same guidelines set for public comptrollers.

Sec. 802 ( a ) ( 1 ) “ Any comptroller who conducts an audit of an issuer of securities to which subdivision 10A ( a ) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C 78j-1 ( a ) ) applies, shall keep all audit or reappraisal workpapers for a period of 5 old ages from the terminal of the financial period in which the audit or reappraisal was concluded. ”

This 3rd regulation refers to the type of concern records that need to be stored, including all concern records and communications, including electronic communications.

Sec. 802 ( a ) ( 2 ) “ The Securities and Exchange Commission shall proclaim, within 180 yearss, such regulations and ordinances, as are moderately necessary, associating to the keeping of relevant records such as workpapers, paperss that form the footing of an audit or reappraisal, memorandum, correspondence, communications, other paperss, and records ( including electronic records ) which are created, sent, or received in connexion with an audit or reappraisal and contain decisions, sentiments, analyses, or fiscal informations associating to such an audit or reappraisal. ”

Success and Failure of SAP ERP executions 20

Decision 5

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