# GEOG 205 Final!

Perturbation
The impact of Mount Pinatubo on Arctic Sea Ice is an example of
Change is inevitable
Remember the poem Ozymandias from Module 1:
This poem suggests that:
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The warming of arctic waters with a loss of sea ice is an example of
ability to withstand permanent change
Resilience is the
The more it changes
The longer you watch an environmental system
one-way interaction between systems, two-way interaction between systems
A coupling is a __________ and a feedback is a __________
Negative
If a system responds to a change in input by moving towards its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?
Numerous variations around the mean or base level
mean and deviation
Change in an environmental system can involve a change in:
the time required for an environmental system to recover from a disturbance
Relaxation time is:
slow reaction
The difference in time (or lag) between peak in solar radiation on June 21 (in the northern hemisphere) and the warmest summer temperatures in late July and early August is an example of:
-Global air temperature = Forcing
-Change in sea ice = Response
-Change in water temperature = Internal coupling
-Further change in sea ice = Positive feedback
Consider the relationship between sea ice and water temperature:
(matching)
El Nino
If there are wildfires in Australia and heavy rains in Peru it is an _________ year
the world is a sphere
A uniform global temperature can never be achieved because:
True
If the world was a flat disc (and either all water or all land) facing the sun there would be no wind? T/F
Negative NAO
If it is a cold wet (and possibly snowy) winter in Texas, it is a result of:
high to low pressure
Winds blow from
sinks, rises
In a high pressure air…….while in a low pressure air……..
-Solar variation globally = Forcing
-Low at Equator, High at Poles = Response
-Wind moving from High to Low = Internal coupling
-Uniform temperature across the globe = Equilibrium
Considering the global wind pattern as an environmental system, match the terms:
(matching)
6
As a result of earth’s rotation, there are ______ global circulation cells
La Nina
If the headlines in Australia are warning of flooding it is an ______ year.
fewer, more enter the Gulf of Mexico
During an El Nino year there are ………… hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean but ……………
El Nino, warm water off the coast of California
We get wet weather in Texas during ……. as a result of ………
Negatie NAO
If punxsutawney Phil (the groundhog in Pennsylvania) sees his shadow and predicts 6 more weeks of winter it is most likely a ________ year
right, left
As a result of the Coriolis force winds in the northern hemisphere turn to the _______ while winds in the southern hemisphere turn to the ________:
El Nino
The Indian Monsoon is weak (ie. less rain) during
a high pressure over the Indian Ocean, a low pressure over China
During the wet monsoon in India, the wind blows from …… to ……..
Azores high, icelandic low
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is dependent on the strength of the wind between the:
La Nina, tropical storms
A strong high pressure over Texas is forced by ________ and keeps us protected from ___________
redistribute heat
The purpose of the wind is to:
an El Nino year
The collapse of the Mayan Empire is believed to have occurred during….
the jet stream is able to extend further south
We tend to experience a cold winter in Texas during a negative phase of the NAO because:
Subtropical low, polar high
Shear between the ___________ and the ___________ is responsible for undulations in the polar jet stream
La Nina, tropical storms
A strong high pressure over Texas is forced by _______ and keeps us protected from ____________
Negatie NAO
If punxsutawney Phil sees his shadow and predicts 6 more weeks of winter it is most likely a _______ year
La Nina
If the headlines in Australia are warning of flooding it is an __________ year.
increase, friction, shear
Wind __________ away from the surface due to __________. This causes __________ that is responsible for turbulence (ie. gusts)
South, north
Storm systems move _________ in the winter and ________ in the summer
dew point temperature
The base of the cloud is at the:
ratio of the amount of water in the atmosphere to the amount that that the atmosphere can hold
Relative humidity is
average decrease in temperature with altitude
The normal lapse rate is:
cloud condensation nuclei
The formation of raindrops requires
under low pressure systems
Globally, wet areas tend to be found
cooling of dry air due to change in pressure
The dry adiabatic lapse rate is:
Relative humidity reaches 100%
Saturation occurs when
unstable conditions
Cloud formation and rain require
-Rise of air at the center of a low pressure system= Convergent
-Local heating and air rising= convection
-Air forced over a mountain = orographic
-warm or cold air being forced to rise over cold or warm air respectively = frontal
Match the following definitions:
cooling of moist air due to change in pressure
The moist adiabatic lapse rate is:
unstable
If the Environmental Lapse Rate is greater than the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate and the Moist Adiabatic Lapse rate the air is:
pressure systems, geology
The north-south variation in rainfall in the United States (see image below) is a result of ……., while the east-west variation in rainfall is a result of……..
Wet on the windward side of the mountain and dry on the leeward side
actual decrease in temperature with altitude
The environmental lapse rate is:
the equator
Globally, rainfall is greatest at:
at the high pressure systems of the tropics of cancer and capricorn
The driest areas of the world are found
decrease temperatures
Assuming the amount of water in the atmosphere is constant, the way to increase humidity and cause it to rain is to:
La Nina
Drought in Texas tends to be associated with
-Global pressure systems = large scale
-Teleconnections = variations in large scale patterns
-Regional systems = seasonal to monthly variation in weather
-Convection = Local small-scale variations in weather
-Geology = Background control on weather
Match the following controls on rainfall with their scale
(matching)
stable
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic and moist adiabatic lapse rates the air is considered:
warm water, Northern Europe
The Gulf Stream brings …… to……..
get smaller due to more rainfall
Critical Thinking Question: If the oceans of the world warm there is a potential for the deserts to:
Ekman spiral
The turning of the current at depth is called the:
mid-latitude deserts at the semi-permanent high pressure systems
The Sahara Desert (Africa) and the Simpson Desert (Australia) are example of:
temperature and salinity
The thermohaline circulation is driven by:
potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation
The definition of a desert is
frictional drag
The wind moves ocean water as a result of
Gulf Stream
The western boundary along the eastern seaboard of the United States is called
a western boundary current
The circulation along the eastern coast of the United States is:
warm water from the equator to the poles
Western boundary currents bring
deserts
By definition the north and south poles are:
wet
During El Nino the Atacama desert (Chile) is
constant forcing caused by the variation in solar radiation
The global distribution of rainfall is a result of a
right, Coriolis force
With depth the water turns to the ……. (in the northern hemisphere) due to …….
Global winds
Ocean gyres develop in response to:
gyres
The circulation systems in the ocean basins are called
Positive coupling
Waves on the water create drag to make it easier for the wind to move the water. This is an example of:
continental deserts far from water
The Gobi Desert (China) is an example of:
rainshadow deserts on the leeward side of mountains
The US Deserts are an example of:
cold ocean current deserts near eastern boundary currents
The Atacama Desert (Chile) is an example of:
1930s
The dust bowl era occured during the
Decrease in Ethiopian monsoon
Warmer water in the southern Atlantic has resulted in
a) less rainfall
b)vegetation loss
c)land has higher albedo
d)Reduced energy absorption leads to cooler ground
e)cooler ground reduced convection that promotes rainfall
f)less rainfall means drier, cooler, more desiccated land
g)topsoil dries and turns to dust-blows away
h)accelerated soil erosion by wind and water
i)higher evaporation rates increases salinity of soils
j)further reduction in plant biomass
Put the following steps in desertification in order:
both climatically driven and culturally primed
Desertificaton is
Grapes of Wrath
Conditions during the dust bowl are chronicled in the book
China
A country that is experiencing rapid desertification is
Loss of metabolic reserve
False
Human activity is required for desertification
All of these responses
An unusually wet period
The dust bowl era was preceded by
False
Drought is required for desertification
cold ocean temperatures
The drought that occurred during the ice age was a result of
Better land management
Despite drought conditions in recent years in the US we have not experienced desertification due to
Uncertainty in the change of deserts due to the importance of human activity in the region
Based on our understanding of drought dependency on ocean temperatures we would expect
A&B El nino conditions and la nina conditions in the preceding decades
The devastating drought of the 1980s was partly driven by
Transformation of arable land to desert
Desertification is the
Exposure of topsoil
Massive farming destroys grasses leading to
La nina
The drought of the dust bowl era was triggered by
Block the sun and reduce evapotranspiration needed for rain
Dust clouds:
El nino
Dry conditions in the nile valley occur during
true
It is easier to evaporate 016 versus 018
false
Glacial ice has more 018 relative to 016 in cold conditions
Historically accurate but imprecise
climate reconstruction from historical documents are
018 versus 016
When the world was covered by glaciers (a cold period) coral will have more
Time since object last saw the sun
Thermoluminesence dating is based on
Relative dating
Stratigraphy (sediment cores) is an example of
A&B-Dust in ice and o16 concentrations in ice
Cold periods globally can be identified by an increase in
Tree rings
The O16 to O18 ratio in ice is similar to the same ratio in
two of the above-trees and coral
Annual growth rings are found in
Pollen and organic microfossils
Palynology is the study of
1. Sediment cores
2. Oxygen isotopes
3. Pollen
4. Historical documents
Order the following proxy measures from longest record to shortest record
016 vs 018
When the world was covered by glaciers (A cold period) ice cores had more:
Cold 016 versus 018
When the world was covered by deserts the world was in a _____ period and tree rings had more:
Two of the above-growth conditions and age
Tree rings provide
Decay of c14 in organic material
Carbon dating is based on
Settles to the bottom when plankton die
The carbon trapped in plankton
true
It is easier to evaporate 016 versus 018
Absolute dating is a geologic time represented by evidence
Relative dating is differential time compared to other points in time
Tree rings are relative dating
Carbon 14 is absolute dating
Match the following terms
Climate changes were abrupt
Proxy data suggests that
More O16 relative to O18 in ice
Cold periods globally can be identified by
Holocene maximum
The birth of the Egyptian civilization occurred during
Medieval warm period
Greenland got its name during the
Phosphorus-rich sediment from the exposed continental shelf increased Plankton populations
The broecker shelf hypothesis suggests that
Blocking the sun
Volcanoes can lean to global cooling by
Wobble of the earth on its axis
Precession is a
Abrupt changes between glacial and interglacial periods
Over the past 650000 years (the late pleisocene) the world has experienced
Gulf stream
The ____ keeps northern Europe warm normally
Change in the shape of the earth’s orbit
Eccentricity is a
Two of these
Global cooling during the Maunder minimum is most likely a result of
A&B Renaissance period and collapse of the mayan
Historically, the medieval warm period was associated with
Amplified by CO2 concentrations
To cause the ice ages of Milankovith cycle had to be:
Change in the tilt of the earth
Obliquity is a
Cold temperatures in summer
The key to the ice age is
Melting of land and sea ice
The younger dryas even was triggered by
Medieval warm period
The renaissance (in art and science) coincided with the
Decrease in sunspot activity
The maunder minimum is associated with
Decrease in CO2 concentrations
the black plague is suggested to be a driver of the little ice age due to
Decrease in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere
An increase in biomes would lead to a:
Landforms
The evidence that Canada and parts of the US were covered by glaciers are
More 016 versus O18 in ice and tree rings
During the little ice age you would expect
At the equator
During the Pangaea Texas was
Increase in CO2 concentrations
Decrease in CO2 through plankton growth and weathering
North and South America connected and changed ocean currents
The Andes mountains began building when
Emergence of life in the oceans
The modern atmosphere that we depend on is a result of
All the continents are at the south pole
A snowball earth can develop when
CO2 from volcanoes
To get out of a snowball earth you need
Slower
Compared to land, water heats and cools down:
Pangaea
The supercontinents about 225 million years ago is called:
Athenosphere
The crust (where we live) floats on the
Distribution of continental land masses, changing continental elevations, changes to CO2 concentrations (all of these)
Shifting of the continents affected world climate through
Decrease
If all of the continents were concentrated at the poles global temperatures would:
1. Crust
2. Athenosphere
3. Upper mantle
4. Lower mantle
5. Outer core
6. Inner core
Put the following layers of the earth’s interior from the surface to the center of the earth:
A&B collision of continents and erosion by water and ice
Mountain building requires
Snowball and hothouse earth
Over the last billion years earth has altered between
6 cm/year
On average the contients move about
Decrease in global temperatures
Collision of the continents results in
When the Indian continent connected to Asia
A decrease in global temperatures occurred
All of these-Amplifier, persistence, trigger
Abrupt climate change is the result of a
Positive feedback
The impact of ice on global temperatures is an example of
Culture
Today environmental decisions tend to be made as a result of
Mississippi Delta
The area of the Gulf of Mexico most vulnerable to sea level rise is
False
Stasis is possible in environmental systems
All of these-more co2 in northern hemisphere, ration of c13 to c12 and timing relative to fossil fuel burning
Evidence that current CO2 concentrations are the result of human activity
Over 120 m lower than today
When glaciers covered the world, global sea levels were:
Glacier and sea ice melting
The modern increase in sea level is a result of
Decrease in CO2 concentrations
The emergence of terrestrial vegetation around 300000000 years ago resulted in
Amplifier
CO2 is a
No change in atmospheric CO2
The net result of Carbonate weathering and precipitation is
Interaction of biophysical and human environments
Vulnerability results from
True
Our social system is no longer scaled with ecological systems and no longer in tune
Uncertainty
Conflict is a result of
True
Only certainty is that the environment will continue to change
Rising
Global sea levels are:
All of these: iron, phosphorus and nitrogen
The limiting nutrients of plankton is/are
Up to 1000000 years
To reduce CO2 through silicate weathering would require
True
the coast is an example of a landscape that is climatically driven, culturally primed:
Abruptly changed between high and low levels
Over the last 200,000 years global sea levels have
uncertainty
Is is difficult to make decisions about the environment due to
All of these: Predatory mackerel and herring, warmer ocean temperatures, parasitic cod worm, increase in seal predation
Despite a moratorium on fishing the cod population in Newfoundland collapsed due to

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