Geographic information systems Essay


Geographic information systems ( GIS ) confirm every twenty-four hours, and with increasing popularity, that they are some indispensable tools for hive awaying, managing, processing and mapping a big sum of georeferenced informations, which related to a database form a given geographical infinite. The progressively widespread usage of personal computing machines, along with a greater pick by package makers allow an point, antecedently limited to powerful computing machines, can be treated by a big figure of users.

Geographic information systems make possible, among other things, the ability to pull out different beds of thematic information associating to a peculiar spacial country, every bit good as all sorts of analysis and diagnosing in countries every bit diverse as territorial planning, or the environment or direction resources…

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This study aims to analyze the development of a geographic information system within an administration. More specifically it is a H2O company, as might be the instance of Thames Water. This study will travel into the operation of a big H2O company. The nature of the information included into geographic information system is varied. For illustration, informations from web substructure undertakings are used every bit good as a geographical facet, such as hydrologic basin boundaries, H2O organic structures and other… In this company there is besides administrative information such as databases related to public usage of H2O resources in a basin. Another type of information made available is the satellite image.

For the development of the geographic information system it has been necessary to carefully specify its ain substructure of all the constituents involved in the procedure.

These constituents are:

hardware, storage, package, information construction in a waiter ( done in a manner that can be cost effectual ) , tools for accessing and updating. Therefore, it allows system users to entree all information related to utilize them in undertakings of H2O direction. The thought of the execution of a geographic information system in the company aims to supply technological and methodological solutions to the undertakings of H2O direction. The geographic information system is established to react to inquiries that are non predefined in progress.


An initial analysis of the company gives an thought of its size, and in base to this, the sort of substructure is chosen. Besides, an survey of the resources available is needed in order to run into the demands of GIS that the company has. Servicess are put in topographic point sing care of the geo-referenced information: substructure care… Within a H2O company, like Thames Water, several activities related to H2O direction are summarised following in order to give illustrations of demand for a GIS.

– First, there is a demand to pull off H2O resources, the public use of H2O, H2O supply substructure and reservoirs
– Gilbert can assist in the creative activity and execution of H2O policies.
– Carry out the disposal of public H2O use and pull off the usage of H2O.
– Manage the execution of plants and H2O substructure, organize the development and direction of plants and undertakings.
– Manage the enlisting, direction and control of the net incomes in the company
– A nomadic system that reinforce the section ‘s ability to pull off field resources and service orders ( Jacobs, D. et al. , 2007 )

GIS beginnings

As mentioned earlier, the company deals with information from different beginnings, each with its peculiar features:

information from substructure undertakings and other undertakings and other straight related to the natural environment, information from information systems information from orbiter imagination and derived merchandises. Information from substructure undertakings and other undertakings and other straight related to the natural environment The undertakings that the company deals with generate a batch of geographic information: major substructure undertakings ( for illustration, H2O supply ) , environmental monitoring and planning ( like inundation zones and emptying paths map ( Mioc, 2008 ) and mention maps on issues associating straight to the environment ( for illustration maps of rivers or water partings ) .

Once the company receives the information, the decision maker of GIS adds value to information. One illustration is the instance of H2O supply substructure: set uping topology, and enabling questions of what happens at certain point. Information from other systems

The GIS of the company uses informations from other information systems. The GIS package of the company is linked to external databases. Through database connectivity the company have entree to information on Oracle format and Access format that contain administrative information with the records of the actions of the populace with H2O resources ( for illustration consume, discharges, constructing licenses, etc.. ) .

It is besides linked to other information systems with information straight related to the physical environment ( web information system of surface H2O control )

The company databases are based on a relational information theoretical account where information is stored in two dimensions tabular arraies. In this manner theses tabular arraies are related and contain records for one entity. The company databases are besides based in a georelational theoretical account where the tabular arraies are linked and contain informations like topology, attributes etc.

Using SQL linguistic communication the company can question the information from the database and in this manner can bring forth maps and tabular arraies with the information required by the users. The integrating between databases and GIS package allows the terminal user to stand for the elements of the database on a map, in that manner many beds o different maps can be opened and overlaid and geographical dealingss between the elements mapped can be checked.

The company uses Automated Mapping/Facilities Management AM/FM. With this application the non geographic and the geographic information can be integrated in one. The information of the company database is geocoded with the ZIP code reference of their place. The procedure to geocode can be boring, so another company does it. Once the information is geocoded analysis can be undertaken combined with other maps overlaid like a metropolis map for case. Like this the company can set about different undertakings. Information from orbiter images and derived merchandises Another type of information that makes usage of GIS is the distant detection information. Through contracts with other companies H2O company on a regular basis receives processed images from orbiters such as Landsat or SPOT. The images are geometrically and radiometrically corrected, the metadata is completed and is integrated into the GIS.

The images are produced as a merchandise of great ocular involvement. Compositions are created with true coloring material and false coloring material, easy accessible usher maps are made for speedy entree to see the images. This information is besides used to track H2O demands of harvests, monitoring of snow screen and monitoring of H2O quality along the seashore. On merchandises derived from supervising the country are making databases, ab initio simple, hive awaying the information, and are making direction tools to bring forth
studies, graphs and maps to entree rapidly.

On merchandises derived from supervising the country databases are created, that store the information, and direction tools are created to bring forth studies, graphs and maps to entree rapidly. Maps can be created utilizing this information of humidness index, cadastral packages with H2O content, evapotranspiration, etc.. One of the jobs that the company is confronting is the deficiency of cognition of the resources of distant feeling informations.

Infraestructuras del SIG Software y hardware

The GIS and Remote Sensing package used have been chosen harmonizing to the demands of the company: the key points when make up one’s minding which package to utilize in the company are: which benefits the package offer, the profile of users who will utilize it is besides of import, figure of licences needed and the monetary value is besides of import.

The engineering is used by the company is ESRI because offers a high public presentation degree in GIS: for illustration, has the necessary tools for analysis and interfaces hydraulic and hydrologic modeling ( really of import for a H2O company ) and besides offers the possibility of programming extremely customized interfaces that are frequently really friendly welcome by users, but the disadvantage is its high cost that can restrict the figure of licences.


For hardware, the company has chosen to utilize a high-octane waiter as the company is a big size company and the sum of map information generated is really big. It is really of import to take a high public presentation hardware because as a big company, the sum of informations to be processed is really high. When taking the hardware is taken into history the clip factor as the big sum of informations that is received day-to-day makes indispensable a engineering that can supply mid-term capacity. Besides, the hardware has to react to the add-on of new series of maps and the go oning part of distant feeling imagination.

Estructuracion de la informacion en el SIG

It is indispensable to pull off the immense volumes of geographical informations in a efficient and effectual manner if the GIS is to be cost justified. Apart from hardware and package the construction of the information is besides really of import.

The entree to the information has to be easy to the users and besides the care and update. Information must be stored in a manner that is structured in a nonsubjective manner, scalable and easy to add new information.

The construction of the informations have been created harmonizing to the major thematic countries within the company. Here are the large four groups where the information has been divided into:

– Function direction:

maps and databases that include elements of the district straight involved in the direction, control, planning and land ever in relation to the H2O concern. These maps are generated within the company. ( watershed, sewage systems, etc. ) .

– Thematic Function:

mapping non linked to the H2O concern, but that is related to environmental issues that the company is related to like natural militias,

– Function of mention:

map aggregations supplied by the Ordnance Survey ( all kind of maps, from topographic to aerial exposure rectified…

– Other function:

maps and databases of a portion of the district administered by the company, this function may besides come from other entities as a consequence of specific surveies

Actualizacion de la informacion

The company updates the information in two different ways: foremost, the new informations from the munition study is received in difficult transcripts and installed in the system. Second, the information created within the company is made available for all users in the company. Besides, an analysis of impact is carried out, in order to analyze how can the update affect the system.

Asesoramiento y formacion para EL uso del SIG en las tareas habituales de gestion It is really of import non to disregard the terminal users of GIS. All users are informed of any developments in the waiter or in the package used. Some of the users have no preparation in GIS and by and large do non work in GIS full clip to these undertakings, particularly the staff that perform the easier undertaking. For that ground, it is really of import to fix the information and tools and, if necessary, its customization so that it is really easy to entree and can execute everyday undertakings with them. Different users in the company have different profile.

Those who do easier undertakings they do n’t necessitate a full preparation on GIS and Remote Sensing because likely they are non traveling to utilize it, but what it is of import is that these users have a individualized preparation on the undertaking that are traveling to execute usually.

For this ground within the company some individualized preparation is undertaken. Besides measure by measure manuals depicting the procedures and above all the GIS office of the company is carry oning ongoing advice on issues of GIS and Remote Sensing to the full company.


Presently the GIS is an indispensable tool in the in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours in the company. Work of different kinds associating the H2O is undertaken with GIS. The GIS theoretical account of the company has allowed, despite some jobs, enhance in each of the workspaces GIS as a tool for direction, planning and analysis.

El Centro de Competencia SIG ( Service Center ) disenado parity solucionar Las diversas problematicas tanto a nivel de usuario como de institucion, hour angle permitido crear las condiciones de gestion de la informacion georeferenciada parity que esta sea integrada de forma rapida y sencilla en las tareas de tecnicos y administrativos. La tecnologia aplicada ( cliente/servidor ) , WebSIG y aplicaciones personalizadas estan dando un resultado aceptable de acuerdo con los niveles funcionales de la Agencia. Un apartado importante Es La asistencia Y La formacion, tanto a usuarios internos, como externos ( empresas colaboradoras ) .

Esta integracion Se hour angle realizado a nivel perpendicular ( unidades operativas de una misma area ) , y horizontal ( entre Las diversas areas ) . Este ultimo punto adquiere exceptional relevancia ya que requiere la integracion entre los diversos sistemas de informacion: administrativos ( tipo SIEBEL ) , tecnicos ( modelizacion hidrologica, hidraulica Y teledeteccion por ejemplo ) , etc. En algunos de estos apartados hay una importante aportacion de R+D pionera nut Cataluna aplicado Al mundo de la gestion hidrologica. En la actualidad se sigue con tecnologias MiraMon y ESRI, que satisfacen criterios estrategicos, tecnologicos Y economicos.

Jacobs, D. , Souza F. , Ramey R. “GIS to the Rescue” Water & A ; Wastes Digest February 2007 Volume: 47 Number: 2

Darka Mioc, Francois Anton and Gengsheng Liang On-line Street Network Analysis for Flood

Emptying Planning Remote Sensing and Gis Technologies for Monitoring and Prediction of Disasters. Berlin: Springer, 2008. Pages219-242


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