Glasgow Caledonian University Caledonian Business Essay

This study will analyze Invigorate Footwear, an American based pes ware company. The aim of this study is to measure the current schemes and happening the key jobs confronting by the company and farther strategic recommendation will be provided as the key for the company to go on competitory advantage.

By utilizing different types of environmental tools such as Porters five force analysis, PEST analysis, SWOT and Stakeholder analysis, we can place the jobs confronting by the house.

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Five Forces analysis shows the high strength of industry competition. Plague analysis shows the consequence that external factors affect Invigorate Footwear in several ways. On the other manus, SWOT analysis is compiled for internal environment analysis. The strategic reappraisals of cardinal participants of invigorate will be identified by stakeholder analysis.

With the aid of above mentioned tools we can place cardinal issues which need to be addressed by Invigorate Footwear for a better hereafter.

The cardinal issues being ; corporate societal duties such as outsourced fabrication, concern moralss like go againsting wellness and safety steps in the spouse company, leading jobs such as traditional hierarchal construction in determination devising, environmental issues like leather tanning procedures, deficiency of implementing new engineering in the leather fabrication procedure due to employee opposition and the rivals are acquiring advantage over the Invigorate by importing tanned leather and outsourcing the fabrication procedure to the cost efficient states like India and China.

The above issues of Invigorate are addressed and the appropriate recommendations are suggested with the aid of academic mentions.


The intent of this paper is to analyze the procedure of alteration that can be bought about in Invigorate footwear with the aid of suited leading.

Invigorate footwear was founded in America in the twelvemonth 1970 by its current CEO, George Lieber. It developed a repute of being the employer of pick in the community. Lieber did non desire to compromise on quality and therefore invested in his ain leather tanneries ; he besides invested to a great extent in the wellness and safety of his employees, employee preparation and development and besides paid them a good wage. He expanded his concern from tanning to shoe retail shops in of import metropoliss in the United States.

However as on day of the month Invigorate footwear is traveling through a tough stage. This was caused due to legion internal and external trials in the company. As Lieber did non desire to compromise on quality and was reliant on traditional procedures of tanning ; the employees of the company were immune to alter and were an aging work force, an internal household job on who would take Invigorate footwear, deficiency of proper leading and a partnership with a company in Vietnam which employed kid labourers contributed to the current province of Invigorate footwear.

An analysis of the current and future deductions of Invigorate footwear will be carried out in the undermentioned paper so as to place the cardinal issues environing the company.


The abbreviated SWOT which shown in above fig. has been formulated with the aid of macro and micro environmental analysis. The tools used for the diagnosing are PEST analysis ( Appendix 1 ) , Porter Five Force theoretical account ( Appendix 2 ) , SWOT Analysis ( Appendix 3 ) and Stakeholder Analysis ( Appendix 4 ) .

Major issues confronting by the Invigorate are explained below.


Corporate Social Responsibility & A ; Business Ethical motives:

Corporate Social Responsibility –

The major job created in the organisation with regard to CSR is outsourcing the tanning procedure which created occupation insecurity and which in bend created deficiency of trust in the local community.

Harmonizing to Epstein, corporate societal duty is discernment of outlooks, specific issues, jobs and claims upon concern organisations and their leaders sing the effects of organisational policies and behaviour on both internal and external stakeholders ( Epstein, 2007. Pp 218 ) .

Harmonizing to CIPD, a successful scheme of corporate societal duty depends on constructing relationships with stakeholders and acquiring bargain in across the organisation. So it means that reexamining bing policies and patterns like, internal communications, enlisting, wellness and safety, diverseness or preparation.

One of the chief decisions given by the CIPD was, the corporate societal duty became an instrument of alteration in an organisation ‘s behaviours ( CIPD, 2009 ) .

As per the above mentioned academic recommendations made by the writers, it is suggested to maintain a healthy relationship with the stakeholders.

Business Ethical motives –

The ethical misdemeanor of wellness and safety steps by the spouse company in Vietnam which created the bad repute to Invigorate.

Many positions have been presented by writers on strategic models for pull offing moralss. Some of them are explained below,

DeGeorge ( 1999 ) vie that people believe concerns are unethical, when in fact they by and large embrace the values of moralss in making concern. He cites several factors that serve to legalize his place ; one such factor is society, which expects ethical behaviour of its concern when it cries out against dishonest labour patterns or environmental policies. He compete that good moralss is good concern ( Joyner et al, 2002. Pp 116 ) .

And the trickier point of position on why concerns follow a more ethical way has its roots in a desire to convert stakeholders that the house is making the right thing. The house ‘s terminal here is either to

Avoid legal effects of its actions or

Convince stakeholders that the house seeks to function stakeholder involvements instead than its ain.

The company goes on to state that it is an organisation where unity and honestness are indispensable to the ways in which it does concern and how it interacts with people. It believes that client satisfaction is the beginning of employee, stockholder, provider and community benefits and it will transcend client outlooks through uninterrupted betterment in quality, service, and productiveness ( Farnham, 2005. Pp 253 ) .

In add-on to seeking betterments and inventions in its concern, the company has to follow certain things such as,

Promoting the wellness and safety of its employees

Protecting the environment

Expecting all employees to transport out their work in conformity with the company ‘s concern criterions of behavior and describing any misdemeanors of the moralss policy to the company

Supplying equal chance and diverseness in all its employment

As per the above deductions, any organisations should follow the concern moralss to be successful.

Strategic Leadership:

Bing a traditional hierarchal organisation determination devising in Invigorate is besides one of the major issues.

A cardinal factor in effectual scheme execution is the quality of strategic leading at the top of the organisation. The ability of leaders to pass on organisational ends clearly and steer employees to concentrate their attending on accomplishing these ends is important to success ( Henry, 2008. Pp 338 ) .

Beer and Nohria argues that all strategic alterations in leading can be compared in several cardinal dimensions they are goals leading, focal point, procedure, wages system and the usage of advisers ( Beer and Nohria, 2000 ) .

Goals – Confront the tenseness between theory E and theory O

Leadership – Set the way from the top and engages people below

Focus – Address the difficult and soft sides of the organisation at the same clip

Process – Plan for spontaneousness

Reward system – Incentives should reenforce alteration

Use of advisers – As adept resources who empower employees

Some of the factors which influence the effectual leading were pass on the organisational ends to the employees and besides honor them for their public presentation.

Competitive Schemes:

In recent old ages local rivals have non merely begun importing tanned leather but have besides outsourced fabrication to states like India and China due to low labor costs and lower cost of production ( Sockalingam, 2011 ) . Successful houses in leather and shoe industries which had either adapted to modern engineering or been able to set up particular niche markets.

Harmonizing to porters there are two types of competitory advantages which are combined with the scope of activities for which a house looks for to accomplish them, which leads to three generic schemes for accomplishing above mean public presentation in an industry ( Porter, 1985, Pp 11 – 15 ) .

Cost Leadership – houses sets out to go the low cost manufacturer in its industry.

Differentiation – house seeks to be alone in its industry along some extent that is widely valued by purchasers.

Focus – the scheme of focal point remainders on the pick of a narrow competitory range within an industry. The focuser selects a section or group of sections in the industry and seamsters its scheme to functioning them to the exclusion of others.

Harmonizing to Collis and Montgomery, the internal potency of the house is chiefly founded on its resources and capablenesss upon which schemes are built taking to bring forth a competitory advantage. Valuable resources and capablenesss can stand for physical and intangible assets and capablenesss that contribute to better efficiency, effectivity, exploit chances or neutralize menaces in the environment ( Collis and Montgomery, 1995 ) .

To get the better of the competition there should be cost leading that means monetary value dialogue with in the industry and distinction, which has to be alone in the industry.


Environmental Problems: ( Related to leather tanning procedure )

There are multiple procedures which are involved in change overing fells and teguments into finished leather holding environmental effects.

During the operation of tanning and leather coating, community wellness and safety impacts which are common to those of most industrial installations ( IFC, 2007 ) .

Environmental issues associated with leather tanning are,


Air emanations

Solid Waste

The bar and control steps of environmental issues associated with leather tanning are described below.

Wastewater – the chief bar of effluent steps,

Through recycling of procedure watercourses, we can cut down the H2O ingestion.

Separation of effluent watercourses.

Use of short floats in the tanning rhythm, which allows for H2O nest eggs of upto 70 % .

Air emanations – For bar of air emanations we have to command the tanning installations include organic dissolvers from tanning and leather finishing operations ; sulphides from the beamhouse and effluent intervention ; ammonia from the tanning and the station tanning operations ; dust particulate from assorted procedure operations ; and olfactory properties.

Solid Waste – solid waste includes salt from natural skin/ fell dusting ; natural skin/ fell fixingss ; hair from the liming ; and fleshing from natural teguments. The bar and control step for solid waste includes

Reduce the inputs of procedure agents

Recycle sludge as compost ( dirt conditioner or anaerobiotic digestions for energy coevals ) .

Missing in Implementing New engineering: ( Related to leather tanning procedure )

Technological dynamism was found to be one of the most important factors finding efficiency and export fight. Invigorate that had failed to overhaul their industrial procedures found themselves unable to increase or keep their export portions ( Sockalingam, 2011 ) .

Technology is most of import drive forces that are increasing the demand for a strategic position and greater engagement throughout the organisation ( Barkema et al, 2002. Pp 916 – 930 ) . Technological alteration and diffusions of new engineerings are traveling at an unbelievable gait. Such development and flow accelerates the importance of invention for houses if they are to stay competitory ( Dess, et. al. , 2005. Pp 22 ) .

Harmonizing to Blackman ‘s five clean engineerings are considered, two associated with dehairing and two associated with chrome tanning ( Blackman, 2005 ) .

High exhaustion – utilizing particular inputs and processs to guarantee that more of the chrome in the tanning bath really affixes to the fell and less ends up in waste watercourses.

Enzymes in the dehairing bath – replacing biodegradable enzymes for calcium hydroxide and Na sulphide.

Precipitation of chrome – utilizing bases to precipitate out the chrome in the tanning bath, so roll uping the end point sludge and treating it with sulphuric acid to retrieve the chrome.

Recycling the dehairing bath – economy and recycling the contents of the dehairing bath alternatively of dispatching it all into the cloaca after a individual usage.

Recycling the chrome tanning bath – recycling contents of the tanning bath alternatively of dispatching them into the cloaca after a individual usage.

As per the above treatment, Using new engineering for tanning procedure like High exhaustion, Enzymes in the dehairing, Precipitation of chrome, Recycling the dehairing bath, Recycling the chrome tanning bath.


This survey has examined the function of corporate societal duty & A ; moralss, engineering development, environmental issues, strategic leading and the competitory advantages in Invigorate Footwear.

As per the analysis on Invigorate, cardinal recommendations listed as follows

CSR – suggested maintaining a healthy relationship with the stakeholders.

Business Ethics – organisations should follow the concern moralss to be successful.

Strategic Leadership – there should be a clear line of communicating in the organisation so as to accomplish organisational ends and besides honor employees suitably.

Competitive Strategies – there should be cost leading that means monetary value dialogue with in the industry and distinction ( which has to be alone in the industry ) .

Environmental Issues – the control measures of environmental issues associated with leather tanning are recycling the waste H2O and cut down the sum of chemical use.

Lack of implementing new engineering – Using new engineering for tanning procedure like High exhaustion, Enzymes in the dehairing, Precipitation of chrome, Recycling the dehairing bath, Recycling the chrome tanning bath.


Barkema, H. G. , Baum, A. C. , and Mannix, E. A. ( 2002 ) . Management challenges in a new clip, Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 45, Pp 916 – 930. [ Online ] .

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Beer, M. and Nohria, N. ( 2000 ) . Cracking the codification of alteration, Harvard Business Review, 78 ( 3 ) , Pp 133. [ Online ] .

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Collis, D. , Montgomery, C. ( 1995 ) . Competing on resources: scheme in the 1990s, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73, Pp 118 – 128.

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PEST Analysis:

An analysis of the undermentioned four ( political, economic, societal, engineering ) constituents of the macro environment can assist to believe how Invigorate Footwear should react to these external influences.



Industrial safety and environmental ordinances

Political stableness

Trade ordinances

Employment Torahs

Economic growing

The seasonality plays an of import function in purchasing behaviour of different shoe sorts

Industries relocate production to low cost production states such as India and China



Manner tendencies are emerging more and more over the universe which gives possibility of standardisation


Corporate societal duty progressively of import for consumers ( willingness to pay higher if company is societal responsible )

Health consciousness

Manner and lifestyle alterations

Competing engineering development

Innovation potency

Research and development budgets high in order to happen advanced new manners and engineerings

( Sockalingam, 2011 )


Porter ‘s Five Forces:

The Porter ‘s five force theoretical account is a tool of analysis to measure the attraction of an industry based on the strengths of five competitory forces ( Henry, 2008. Pp 69 – 80 ) .

Potential New Entrants [ Low ]

Power of Suppliers [ Low ]

Competitive Rivalry [ High ]

Power of Buyers

[ High ]

[ ]

Menace of Substitutes [ Low ]

Potential New Entrants [ Low ] –

It is a capital intensive industry. Even though it would non be hard for a new company to obtain the natural stuffs and the labour needed to bring forth places, there is about no opportunity for them to derive popularity in such a mature industry. Brand trueness is highly strong and it would be really difficult for a new entrant to steal loyal clients from the already existing participants.

Economies of graduated table drama a immense function every bit good and the bigger participants have an advantage of bring forthing the merchandises at a lower monetary value than compared to new entrants. As the end product are bigger and fixed costs of mills, machinery, selling and R & A ; D will be decreased per unit.


Entree to resources

Power of Suppliers [ Low ] –

Suppliers have less power to exercise on purchasers.

Suppliers can non exchange easy the purchaser because the purchasers are acquiring the merchandises in bulk measure.



Power of Buyers [ High ] –

The purchaser does non compromise the low quality of merchandise from the providers as the competition is based on quality.

Emerging markets in by and large are really monetary value medium. The premium sector will turn with clip as the market becomes more sophisticated.

Buyers have authorization to easy exchange off from one provider to the other.


Menace of Substitutes [ Low ] –

Handiness of different types of merchandises ( other type of places )

Changing manner tendencies

Technology development

Competitive Rivalry [ High ] –

Local rivals who are already in the concern and have a cultural advantage in understanding the client.

Location based competition is another factor in the competition for the trade names.

Product distinction is non stable as the manner in footwear industry is besides altering really quickly.

Quality of stuff is the facet that is most important for the trade names to fulfill their clients.


SWOT Analysis:

A SWOT analysis summarizes the cardinal issues from the concern environment and the strategic capableness of an organisation that are most likely to impact on scheme development ( Johnson, et. al. , 2005 ) .



Dedicated work force

Strong presence in the local community

Good design capableness

Corporate Social Responsibility ( Education support )

Invested in his ain leather tanning mill

Comfortable handiness of natural stuffs and other inputs.

Local providers

Quality of merchandise manner

Strong relationship with employees and community

Traditional procedure increases the cost of production

Aging work force

Ethical misdemeanors by the spouse company

Bad repute in the community due to new thoughts.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Environmental jobs

Not using the current endowment

Traditional/ hierarchal construction

Lack of machine-controlled equipment fabrication ability



Adopt to planetary market

Implementing new engineering

Use bing work force or new enlisting due to natural wastage

Opportunity to dicker with local providers

Can be a leader in developing environmentally sustainable concern


Entry of multinationals in domestic market

Decrease in net incomes and market portion

( Sockalingam, 2011 )


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