RYAN CHRISTIAN LAYACAN Schindler’s List IV-RIZAL The relocation of Polish Jews from surrounding areas to Krakow in late 1939, shortly after the beginning of World War II. Oskar Schindler (Liam Neeson), a successful businessman, arrives from Czechoslovakia in hopes of using the abundant cheap labour force of Jews to manufacture goods for the German military. Schindler, an opportunistic member of the Nazi party, lavishes bribes upon the army and SS officials in charge of procurement. Sponsored by the military, Schindler acquires a factory for the production of army mess kits.
Not knowing much about how to roperly run such an enterprise, he gains a contact in Itzhak Stern (Ben Kingsley), a functionary in the local Judenrat Oewish Council) who has contacts with the now underground Jewish business community in the ghetto. They loan him the money for the factory in return for a small share of products produced (for trade on the black market). Opening the factory, Schindler pleases the Nazis and enjoys his new-found wealth and status as “Herr Direktor,” while Stern handles all administration.
Stern suggests Schindler hire Jews instead of Poles because they cost less (the Jews themselves get nothing; the wages are paid to the Reich). Workers in Schindler’s factory are allowed outside the ghetto, and Stern falsifies documents to ensure that as many people as possible are deemed “essential” by the Nazi bureaucracy, which saves them from being transported to concentration camps, or even being killed. Amon G?¶th (Ralph Fiennes) arrives in Krakow to initiate construction of a labor camp nearby, Pasz?¶w.
The SS soon clears the Krakow ghetto, sending in hundreds of troops to empty the cramped rooms and shoot anyone who protests, is uncooperative, elderly, or infirm, or for no reason at all. Schindler watches the massacre from the ills overlooking the area, and is profoundly affected. He nevertheless is careful to befriend G?¶th and, through Stern’s attention to bribery, he continues to enjoy the SS’s support and protection. The camp is built outside the city at Pasz?¶w.
During this time, Schindler bribes G?¶th into allowing him to build a sub-camp for his workers, with the motive of keeping them safe from the depredations of the guards. Eventually, an order arrives from Berlin commanding G?¶th to exhume and destroy all bodies of those killed in the Krakow ghetto, dismantle Pasz?¶w, and to ship the remaining Jews to Auschwitz. Schindler prevails upon G?¶th to let him keep “his” workers so that he can move them to a factory in his old home of Zwittau-Brinnlitz, in Moravia away from the “final solution” now fully under way in occupied Poland.
G?¶th acquiesces, charging a certain amount for each worker. Schindler and Stern assemble a list of workers that should keep them off the trains to Auschwitz. “Schindler’s List” comprises these “skilled” inmates, and for many of those in Pasz?¶w camp, being included means the difference between life and death. Almost all of the people on Schindler’s list arrive safely at the new site, with the exception to the train There, the women are directed to what they believe is a gas chamber; but they see only water falling from the showers. The day after, the women are shown waiting in line for work.
In the meantime, Schindler had rushed immediately to Auschwitz to solve the problem and to get the women off from Auschwitz; to this end he bribes the camp commander, Rudolf H?¶?? (Hans-Michael Rehberg), with a cache of diamonds so that he is able to spare all the women and the children. However, a last problem arises Just when all the women are boarding the train because several SS officers attempt to hold some children back and prevent them from leaving. So Schindler, who is there to personally oversee the boarding, steps in and is successful in obtaining from the officers the release of the children.
Once the Schindler women arrive in Zwittau-Brinnlitz, Schindler institutes firm controls on the Nazi guards assigned to the factory, permits the Jews to observe the Sabbath, and spends much of his fortune bribing Nazi officials. In his home town, he surprises his wife while she’s in church during mass, and tells her that she is the only woman in his life (despite having been shown previously to be a womanizer). She goes with him to the actory to assist him. He runs out of money Just as the German army surrenders, ending the war in Europe.
As a German Nazi and self-described “profiteer of slave labor,” Schindler must flee the oncoming Soviet Red Army. After dismissing the Nazi guards to return to their families, he packs a car in the night, and bids farewell to his workers. They give him a letter explaining he is not a criminal to them, together with a ring engraved with the Talmudic quotation, “He who saves the life of one man, saves the world entire. ” Schindler is touched but deeply distraught, feeling he could’ve done more to save any more lives. He leaves with his wife during the night.
The Schindler Jews, having slept outside the factory gates through the night, are awakened by sunlight the next morning. A Soviet dragoon arrives and announces to the Jews that they have been liberated by the Red Army. The Jews walk to a nearby town in search of food. As they walk abreast, the frame changes to another of the Schindler Jews in the present day at the grave of Oskar Schindler in Israel. The film ends by showing a procession of now-aged Jews who worked in Schindler’s factory, each of whom reverently sets a tone on his grave.
The actors portraying the major characters walk hand-in-hand with the people they portrayed, also placing stones on Schindler’s grave as they pass. The audience learns that the survivors and descendants of the approximately 1 , 100 Jews sheltered by Schindler now number over 6,000. The Jewish population of Poland, once numbering in the millions, was at the time of the film’s release approximately 4,000. In the final scene, a man (Neeson himself, though his face is not visible) places a pair of roses on the grave, and stands contemplatively over it. ADOLF HITLER
Baptized a Catholic, Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was born on April 20, 1889, in the Upper Austrian border town Braunau am Inn, located approximately 65 miles east of Munich and nearly 30 miles north of Salzburg. His father, Alois Hitler (1837-1903), was a mid-level customs official. Born out of wedlock to Maria Anna Schickelgruber in 1837, Alois Schickelgruber changed his name in 1876 to Hitler, the Christian name of would cause speculation as early as the 1920s and still present in popular culture today that Hitler’s grandfather was Jewish. Credible evidence to support the notion f Hitler’s Jewish descent has never turned up.
The two most likely candidates to have been Hitler’s grandfather are the man who married his grandmother and that man’s brother. LINZ In 1898, the Hitler family moved to Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. Seeking a career in the visual arts, Hitler fought bitterly with his father, who wanted him to enter the Habsburg civil service. After his father’s death, Hitler eventually persuaded his mother, Klara Hitler, n?©e P?¶lzl, to permit him to pursue his dream to become an artist. As she lay dying of breast cancer in the autumn of 1907, Hitler took the ntrance exam to the Vienna Academy of the Arts and failed to gain acceptance.
In early 1908, some weeks after Klara’s death in December 1907, Hitler moved to Vienna, ostensibly in the hope of renewing efforts to win acceptance in the Academy of Arts. VIENNA Hitler lived in Vienna between February 1908 and May 1913. He had grown up in a middle-class family, with relatively few contacts with Jewish people, in a region of the Habsburg state in which many German nationalists had been disappointed that the German Empire founded in 1871 had not included the German-speaking regions of the Habsburg Monarchy. Yet the legacy of the Vienna years is not as clear as Hitler depicted it in his political autobiography.
His impoverishment and residence in homeless shelters began only a year after his arrival and after he had frittered away a generous inheritance left by his parents and rejected all arguments of surviving relatives and family friends that he embark upon a career in the civil service. By the end of 1909, Hitler knew real poverty as his sources of income dried up. That winter, however, helped briefly by a last gift from his aunt, he began to paint watercolor scenes of Vienna for a business partner and made enough to live on until he eparted for Munich in 1913.
It is likely that Hitler experienced and possible that he shared the general antisemitism common among middle-class German nationalists. Nevertheless, he had personal and business relationships with Jews in Vienna and was, at times, dependent in part on Jews for his living. This may have been a cause for discretion about his actual feelings about Jews. It was not until after World War I that Hitler can be demonstrated to have adopted an “antisemitic” ideology. INFLUENCES UPON HITLER IN VIENNA Hitler was genuinely influenced in Vienna by two political movements.
The first was he German racist nationalism propagated by the Upper Austrian Pan-German politician Georg von Sch?¶nerer. The second key influence was that of Karl Lueger, Mayor of Vienna from 1897 to his death in 1910. Still in power when Hitler arrived in Vienna, Lueger promoted an antisemitism that was more practical and organizational than ideological. Nevertheless, it reinforced anti-Jewish stereotypes and cast Jews as enemies of the German middle and lower classes. Finally, unlike Sch?¶nerer, who was always more comfortable with the elitist nationalism of the student fraternities, into political gain.
Hitler drew his ideology in large part from Sch?¶nerer, but his strategy and tactics from Lueger. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau- am-Inn on the Austrian-German border. His father was a customs official. Hitler left school at 16 with no qualifications and struggled to make a living as a painter in Vienna. This was where many of his extreme political and racial ideas originated. In 1913, he moved to Munich and, on the outbreak of World War One, enlisted in the German army, where he was wounded and decorated. In 1919, he Joined the fascist German Workers’ Party (DAP).
He played to the resentments of right-wingers, promising extremist ‘remedies’ to Germany’s post-war problems which he and many others blamed on Jews and Bolsheviks. By 1921 he was the unquestioned leader of what was now the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party). In 1923, Hitler attempted an unsuccessful armed uprising in Munich and was imprisoned for nine months, during which time he dictated his book ‘Mein Kampf’ outlining his political ideology. On his release he began to rebuild the Nazi Party and used new techniques of mass communication, backed up with violence, to get his essage across.
Against a background of economic depression and political turmoil, the Nazis grew stronger and in the 1932 elections became the largest party in the German parliament. In January 1933, Hitler became chancellor of a coalition government. He quickly took dictatorial powers and began to institute anti-Jewish laws. He also began the process of German militarisation and territorial expansion that would eventually lead to World War Two. He allied with Italy and later Japan to create the Axis. Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 began World War Two.
After military successes in Denmark, Norway and Western Europe, but after failing to subdue Britain in 1941, Hitler ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Jewish populations of the countries conquered by the Nazis were rounded up and killed. Millions of others whom the Nazis considered racially inferior were also killed or worked to death. In December 1941, Hitler declared war on the United States. The war on the eastern front drained Germany’s resources and in June 1944, the British and Americans landed in France. With Soviet troops poised to take the German capital, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker in Berlin on 30 April 1945.