Government policy and legislation on social and affordable housing Essay

1.0 What is Social and Affordable Housing?

1.1 Social Housing: Definition

Harmonizing to the Irish Council for Social Housing ( 2010 ) , “ Social Housing can be loosely defined as adjustment provided by a local authorization or approved non-profit lodging organic structure for individuals who are unable to supply adjustment organize their ain resources ” . ( )

1.2 Low-cost Housing: Definition

As defined by Dublin City Council ( 2010 ) , “ Low-cost Housing is a strategy whereby new places are sold at a decreased monetary value to people who can non afford to purchase a belongings on their ain ” . ( )

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1.3 History of Social Housing

Harmonizing to Redmond and Norris ( 2005 ) , the first cases of societal and low-cost lodging can be tracked back to the mid 1800 ‘s. During this clip, Europe was witnessing widespread concern about lodging conditions of the low income population. This agitation led to province subsidized rental lodging to the disadvantaged and low income groups. This signifier of lodging is now known as societal lodging.

Social lodging in Ireland has traditionally been provided through two agencies, these are: Local Governments and Approved Voluntary Housing Associations.

1.3.1 Local Authority Social Housing

In Ireland the Housing of the Working Classes Act ( 1890 ) , was the first such Act to present the construct of the proviso for societal lodging by the local governments. This act introduced small alteration to the lodging state of affairs at the clip. It was non until 1919 when a new lodging Act was introduced. This Act was The Housing Act 1919. This Act obliged the local governments to construct and to supply subsidies in countries where there was a demand for lodging. From the clip of debut of this Act, Ireland saw a significant period of societal lodging programmes and completions. This period continued good up until the 1950 ‘s. In 1966 a new Act was introduced to modernize the states outdated legal model in relation to lodging. This Act was The 1966 Housing Act.

To day of the month Ireland has benefited from the debut of 330,000 places provided by local governments under societal lodging enterprises. Presently local governments manage 108,000 places under the bracket of societal lodging.

1.3.2 Approved Voluntary Housing Association Social Housing

As defined by the Irish Council for Social Housing ( 2010 ) , “ Voluntary lodging associations are non-profit administrations formed for the intent of alleviating lodging demand and the proviso and direction of lodging ” . The largest of the voluntary lodging associations in Ireland at nowadays is the Iveagh Trust. The Iveagh Trust was set up in 1890 by Sir Edward Cecil Guinness, Earl of Iveagh. The intent of this trust was to supply lodging and other comfortss to the working categories in Dublin. This was one of the first strategies of its sort to supply such aid.

The debut of The Capital Assistance Scheme ( 1984 ) has provided much needed aid to these lodging associations. Due to the aid provided by this strategy voluntary lodging associations have been able to turn and supply effectual aid in the function of supplying lodging to those unable to supply lodging for themselves.

During the mid to late 1990 ‘s voluntary lodging associations struggled to supply lodging due to the increasing land and edifice costs. Harmonizing to the National Economic and Social Council ( 2004 ) , during the 1990 ‘s voluntary lodging associations produced their lowest end product of 285 units. At this clip the Numberss of people in demand of lodging was quickly increasing. The Minister for Housing and Urban Renewal, Mr Robert Molloy T.D. , was so prompted to update and better the strategies available to the voluntary lodging bureaus. This allowed them to once more work efficaciously in their function to the communities. In 2003 the voluntary lodging sector has a managed stock of over 16,000 homes. The National Economic Social Council ( 2004 ) .

The Irish Council for Social Housing has recognised the function that the voluntary lodging bureaus provide in Ireland and has ensured that they have been included in the undermentioned current authorities policy paperss: National Development Plan 2007 – 2013 and Towards 2016. Icsh ( 2010 ) .

1.4 History of Affordable Housing

Low-cost lodging is a comparatively recent enterprise in Ireland with the Housing Act 1992 supplying the first policies for low-cost lodging. This Act facilitated entree to full ownership in two or more phases to those who can non afford ownership by their ain agencies. Under this Act the buyer must ab initio buy 40 % of the belongings.

The Low-cost Housing Scheme 1999 brought forward proposals by the societal partnership to supply extra low-cost lodging on land that is already in the ownership of the State and local governments. As defined by the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government ( 2009 ) , the Affordable Housing Scheme 1999 comprises developments built on local authorization land and in some instances purchased turnkey developments.

It was non until the debut of Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 that low-cost lodging could be considered an effectual signifier of supplying lodging to those who can non afford to purchase a belongings on their ain. This Act provided an duty for developers to reassign up to a upper limit of 20 % of land, units, sites, an tantamount fiscal part or other land or units off site to the local authorization for the usage to supply societal and low-cost lodging. Harmonizing to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government ( 2009 ) , in 2007 the proviso set out in Part V for low-cost lodging, accounted for 60 % of the state broad proviso of low-cost lodging.

Today it is through the three steps above that low-cost lodging is chiefly being provided by the local governments.

Prolonging Advancement 2003 – 2005 introduced the Low-cost Housing Initiative ( AHI ) . This enterprise was responsible for supplying 10,000 low-cost places on local authorization and State lands. This mark has been increased in the current societal partnership understanding, Towards 2016, to 17,000 low-cost places.

In 2005 the Irish Government decided to set up the Low-cost Homes Partnership ( AHP ) . The function of the AHP was to organize the bringing of low-cost lodging by the local governments in the Greater Dublin Area. The function of AHP in 2007 was extended in to organize low-cost lodging at a national degree. During the period of 2006 – 2008 the AHP really provided low-cost lodging direct to the applier.

The AHP when it was created was to take the duty of the sites under the AHI. The AHP used this land to present low-cost lodging through land exchanges. Harmonizing to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government 2009, merely two land exchanges have taken topographic point to day of the month through the AHP.


Social Partnership ( 2006 ) , Towards 2016. Dublin, Social Partnership Agreement, The Stationary Office.

Ireland, Planning and Development Act 2000, Part V. Dublin: Stationary Office

Buckley, J. ( 11 May 2009 ) . Water Services and Affordable Housing Delivery Report. Dublin, Comptroller and Auditor General Special Report, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government.

Social Partnership ( 2003 ) , Prolonging Advancement 2003 – 2005. Dublin, Social Partnership Agreement, The Stationary Office.

The Economic Social Council ( 2004 ) Housing in Ireland: Performance and Policy. Dublin, The National and Economic Council.

The Irish Council for Social Housing ( 2010 ) , Development of the Voluntary Housing Sector [ on-line ] , available: hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed 2 January 2010 ] .

Redmond, D. and Norris, M. ( 2005 ) Puting the Scene: Recent transmutations in Irish housing’inHousing Contemporary Ireland: policy, society and shelter, erectile dysfunction ( s ) . , Dublin, Institute of Public Administration.

Irish Council for Social Housing ( 2010 ) , History of Hosing Policy [ online ] , available: hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed 2 January 2010 ] .

2.0 Government Policy and Legislation

2.1 Introduction

Harmonizing to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government ( 2009 ) , the purpose of the Irish Housing Policy is to “ enable every family to hold available an low-cost home of good quality, suited to its demands, in a good environment and every bit far as possible at the term of office of its pick ” .

The undermentioned reappraisal provides information on the legislative background of the societal and low-cost lodging in Ireland. It examines the Acts of the Apostless, enterprises and studies in relation to societal and low-cost lodging and inside informations the fortunes that gave rise to the execution of Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000. It besides examines the authorities policies that affect lodging affordability and analyses Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 and the amendments made in 2002.

2.2 Government Policies that Influence Home Ownership and Monetary values

During the last two decennaries house monetary values have been increasing mostly due to the demand by the immature turning population that were looking to acquire into the belongings market. During this period involvement rates on belongings and revenue enhancement rates on belongings were peculiarly suited to home ownership.

April 1997 saw the abolition of the revenue enhancement of residential belongings. After April 1997 cast responsibility was the exclusive revenue enhancement that 1 had to pay when covering with the sale or purchase of a residential belongings.

The Government introduced mortgage involvement alleviation as an inducement to promote place ownership. Mortgage involvement alleviation is available from the loaner to the buyer, one time the proprietor can turn out that the money has been entirely applied for the intent to buy a belongings. The decrease in mortgage refunds is catered for by the decrease of revenue enhancement that the applier is entitled to.

2.4 Fortunes That Gave Rise to Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000

The undermentioned subdivisions of this thesis are a reappraisal of the lending factors that gave rise to Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000. The undermentioned subdivisions include a reappraisal of the Bacon Reports and other of import factors.

2.4.1 Bacon Report 1: An Economic Appraisal of Recent House Price Developments

During the lead up to the publication of the first Bacon study, Ireland was sing rapid addition in house monetary values. During this period investors began to flex their musculuss in the belongings market. As a consequence the first clip purchaser ‘s suffered and began to happen it progressively hard to come in the lodging market. Traditionally first clip purchasers bought belongingss towards the lower terminal of the belongings ladder. It was these belongingss that the investors were driven to procure with the purpose to lease. The demand for these rental belongingss was fuelled by the addition in Numberss of immigrants come ining the state that were non looking to purchase belongingss but to lease belongingss. This addition in demand for belongings led to a figure of lodging bureaus to publish warnings that demand for lodging would go on to increase and go on to blow up lodging monetary values in the market in Ireland.

The first Bacon study proposed intercessions by the authorities to assist first clip purchasers who were at this phase, fighting to acquire into the hyperbolic belongings market. The study recommended that the authorities should endeavor for a more acceptable rate of house monetary value development and suggested four chief countries to concentrate on for a policy response. These countries are as follows ; “ Achieve better balance between demand and supply in the short term, better the possible supply of the lodging, engage in substructure developments and to better medium and long term planning of the development of the east part ” .

The Bacon study goes on to propose a rebalancing of bing inducements in favor of the proviso of lodging at the lower terminal of the belongings market. The study high spots that the gross has overlooked the proviso of inducements for supplying low-cost lodging. The study suggests gross inducements, as a method to increase handiness and pick to first clip purchasers who were fighting to come in the belongings market.

The remotion of what was defined as Section 23 inducements for investors and the remotion of mortgage involvement alleviation against belongingss were suggested. A decrease of cast responsibility on 2nd manus places was proposed to increase the range of available low-cost places in the 2nd manus market.

The study suggested a reappraisal of residential densenesss and investing in substructure as necessary to assist maximize lodging supply.

The study went on to propose the thought of presenting an administrative control on lodging monetary values. This thought was subsequently discarded as it was thought that the control of house monetary values would hold the possible to falsify the belongings market.

2.4.2 Government Response to Bacon 1

The authorities responded to Bacon 1 by diminishing stamp responsibility rates on 2nd manus houses and besides by puting in the betterment of the substructure to assist gain the potency of development land. The authorities imposed stamp responsibility on new houses bought by non proprietor residents. Tax alleviation for belongings investors on Section 23 belongingss was reviewed and the suitableness of each belongings for alleviation is to be separately assessed topic to the Local Area Plan. Deductibility of involvement on adoptions undertaken for investing in belongings was removed after April 23rd 1998. Action was besides taken in the attempt to convey down income bounds for the shared ownership strategy to a degree that was more relevant to the incomes at the clip.

2.4.3 Bacon Report 2: The Housing Market, an Economic Review and Assessment

The Bacon Report 2 was published after the Government responded to the first Bacon study. This study centres mostly on the period straight after the first Bacon Report and observes the impact of the study by measuring the belongings market during this clip.

The Report finds that house rising prices had slowed since the Governments actions following the first Bacon Report. This slow down was peculiarly evident in the market for new lodging.

Following the first study, the Government removed the deductibility of involvement on adoptions for investors while advancing liquidness in the 2nd manus market by altering the construction of the cast responsibility system. This Report found that the decrease in involvement rates at the clip and the moderation house monetary value rising prices should hold made lodging more low-cost, but in fact affordability remained a serious job. The Report did warn that a decrease in lodging monetary values may work out the issue of affordability but negative equity would be serious bye-product. The Report made it clear to the Government that they had to center on make fulling the nothingness between the monetary value of new houses and the monetary value that was low-cost for those who could non afford to purchase a new house at the normal asking monetary value.

The Report suggested once more as it did in the first Bacon Report, that the issue of lodging densenesss should be reviewed, with the possible integrating of terraced lodging in new developments as a method of supplying lodging at a lower cost to the developer. The Report did raise the issue of societal isolation due to this signifier of lodging.

The Bacon Report 2 introduced a construct to develop a strategy for the proviso of low-cost lodging by local governments and developers. This was the first case that laid the foundations of the low-cost places strategy.

The demand to beef up the bing Planning Acts was highlighted with the aim of modernizing the Governments lodging policy.

The construct of doing lodging more low-cost and bettering handiness to mortgage support would farther increase demand for lodging and hence increase lodging monetary values. As a consequence the Report suggested to the Minister for the Environment and Local Government to ask for proposals from bureaus within the voluntary sector as how they could be helped to develop and besides how their resources could be applied in a more effectual mode with the purpose of supplying excess lodging for the sectors of the community most in demand.

2.4.4 Government Response to Bacon 2

On the 9th of March 1999 issued a study titled, “ Action on the Housing Market ” . This study contained the Governments response to the 2nd Bacon Report. This study contained enterprises which aimed to “ maximize and hasten lodging supply, secure house monetary value stabilization, address affordability issues and guarantee balanced growing of the belongings market in the hereafter ” , ( Action on the Housing Market, 1999 ) . Their actions included puting impermanent sewage installations on land in Dublin to enable the early release of 16000 lodging sites. Agreements were made to place infrastructural restraints in countries of growing which would cut down hold in lodging proviso. Draft guidelines for new lodging densenesss were published. These included action on increasing the mix of low-cost lodging in new developments. An low-cost lodging strategy was launched shortly before the release of the authorities response. Through this scheme Local Authorities would supply extra new houses on land available to them which would assist lower income families to buy their ain places. It was stated that the Department of the Environment and Local Government would ask for proposals from the voluntary lodging sector as to how to spread out on the voluntary lodging programme.

2.4.5 Bacon Report 3: The Housing Market in Ireland: An Economic Evaluation of Trends & A ; Prospects

The 3rd Bacon Report was released on the 6th of June 2000. The first point of Bacon 3 ‘s executive sum-up stated that “ the rate of addition in lodging monetary values, since the release of the first Bacon Report in 1998 had slowed down significantly ” . The beef uping economic system at the clip was blamed for the increased trouble in procuring stableness in the lodging market. House monetary value completions had increased in each consecutive one-fourth in 1999. The mean monetary value of new houses was still beyond the range of many mean workers. The rate of economic growing at the clip meant possible demand for extra 8.000 to 10,000 residential units per annum. The demand for increased supply in Dublin and the Middle East parts was stressed as progressively of import to command house monetary values due to the predicted addition in demand in that country.

2.4.6 Government Response to Bacon3

The Government released a study detailing steps which it would take to turn to lodging demands and demands, as outlined in the 3rd Bacon Report. With respect to Social and Affordable lodging, the Government stated that they would increase end product of local authorization lodging that would get down at 1,000 units per annum between 2001 and 2006. The Government besides proposed steps that would take to ease Local Authorities and Voluntary Bodies to get sufficient land that they could supply societal and low-cost lodging.

2.5 Demands for Irish Housing

Harmonizing to Norris and Redmond ( 2005 ) , there have been important additions in the demand for lodging in Ireland during the economic roar, caused by a combination of economic, demographic and societal factors. As mentioned in 2.4.1, the Governments revenue enhancement policy was favorable to belongings investors, peculiarly during the period following the 1986 Urban Renewal Act which initiated Section 23 Tax Relief. The one-year lodging rising prices rate in 1998 was at 22.5 % . At the clip this rate of rising prices showed no marks of decelerating down. The First Bacon Report summarised in 2.4.1, estimated high degrees of future demand for Irish lodging. The Second Bacon Report pointed to lifting rents in the private rented sector. Social rented lodging end product was non increasing and in 1999 the local authorization appraisal of lodging demand showed that 39,716 families were registered on local authorization waiting lists, this was an addition of 43 % on the old appraisal of lodging demand which was complied in 1996, Brooke ( 2006 ) . The first low-cost lodging strategy was introduced in March 1999. This strategy provided merely 40 low-cost houses that twelvemonth.

Part V of the Planning and Development Bill 1999 was structured to turn to these issues. The Minister for the Environment, Mr Noel Dempsey stated that Part V addressed two major issues in the Irish Housing Policy that allowed people to buy their ain places and besides of the proviso of societal rented lodging. Harmonizing Mr Noel Dempsey ( 2000 ) , Part V of the Bill, “ introduces a major new dimension to be aftering statute law and contains the most extremist and likely the most combative commissariats of the Bill ” .

2.6 Most Noteworthy Legislation in Relation to Irish Housing Provision

The followers is an history of some of the Legislation that is considered most of import in relation to Social and Affordable Housing.

2.6.1 Housing Act 1966

This Act modernised the legal model for societal lodging in Ireland. Is besides included the proviso for the tenant purchase strategy which allowed local authorization renters to buy their houses form the local authorization. Section 55 of this act relates to a house edifice programme which each local authorization must adhere to in relation to the proviso of lodging.

2.6.2 Housing Act 1988

This act defined how homelessness would be interpreted in relation to the proviso of lodging. It allowed the proviso of a subsidy to eligible individuals against the loans which they had obtained for the purchase or building of their house. It required local governments to do an appraisal of lodging demands within their functional country both at the present clip and over a designated period of clip.

2.6.3 Housing Act 1992

This act introduced the Shared Ownership Scheme which allowed a lodging authorization to allow a shared ownership rental for a term of more than 20 old ages but non less than 100 old ages.

2.6.4 The Planning and Development Bill 1999

Harmonizing to the House of the Oireachtas, the Planning and Development Bill 1999 is “ to revise and consolidate the jurisprudence associating to be aftering and development by revoking and re-enacting with amendments the local authorities ( be aftering and development ) Acts of the Apostless, 1963 to 1999 ; to supply, in the involvements of the common good, for proper planning and sustainable development including the proviso of lodging ” .

2.6.5 Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000

Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 dealt with lodging supply and it came into consequence on 1 November 2000. The primary aim behind the debut of Part V was to obtain land for lodging intents, nevertheless the statute law besides aimed to better integrating between different societal groups by presenting societal and low-cost lodging into private lodging estates. The statute law has been the topic of contention since its origin. Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 was resisted by the Construction Industry Federation and the Home Builders Association. These two groups were the primary dissenters of the statute law and claimed that “ Part V would ensue in a decrease in supply of new private lodging, that will increase 2nd manus monetary values and the purchasers of new houses will subsidize the low-cost and societal lodging being expropriated from the industry ” Norris, M ( 1999 ) . Part V of the Act did hold protagonists that described the Act as “ a landmark measure that would modernize the planning system in Ireland, better lodging bringing and aid cut down undue societal segregation in new lodging developments. It represents a community and planning addition or return against the windfall net incomes originating from the development of land ” Brooke ( 2006 ) .

Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 requires that “ lodging schemes be drawn up by be aftering governments and integrated into their development programs. Each lodging scheme should hold respect to the proper planning and sustainable development of an country and should be concerned with the overall supply of lodging within the planning authorization. In add-on, the Act makes communities ‘ demands for societal and low-cost lodging a stuff planning consideration which must be taken history of in explicating development program policies, fixing a lodging scheme and make up one’s minding on be aftering applications or entreaties. The Act places a statutory duty on be aftering governments to guarantee that sufficient land is zoned for lodging in their development programs to run into the projected lodging demands over the program period and to guarantee that an undue deficit will non originate ” , The Planning and Development Act ( 2000 p.1. ) .

Most significantly the Act empowers a local authorization to attach a status on a planning permission on land zoned as residential, a demand for developers to provide up to 20 % of the land for societal and low-cost lodging. This demand was set down in the act with the aim to make all new residential developments that will hold a proportion of societal and low-cost lodging contained in within it. The proviso of societal and low-cost lodging under Part V merely applied to developments that were over 0.1 Hectares in size and contained more than 5 units.

Part V merely applied to be aftering applications for permission on land zoned as residential usage. This demand was considered a major defect as it allowed developers to avail of a “ loop hole ” of which they could utilize to avoid the societal and low-cost lodging demands set out in Part V. This was peculiarly evident on Co. Leithrim, where the town of Carrick-On-Shannon was the lone country in the county where zoning commissariats where nowadays.

Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 was commenced on the 1st of November 2000. By the 31st of July 2001 all of the local governments had amended their development programs and had completed new lodging schemes that allowed for the new demands contained in the Act.

2.6.6 The Planning and Development Amendment Act 2002

This Act allowed developers a greater pick with the proviso of societal and low-cost lodging. The Act enabled developers to supply land, sites or lodging as an option to supplying societal and low-cost lodging in each development. The options did nevertheless hold to be contained within the remit of that be aftering authorization. The developer was allowed another option to this demand under the Act, the developer is allowed to pay the local authorization a amount of money equivalent in value to the transportation of the land.

This amendment of the Planning and Development Act 2000 is considered by many as a weakening or a bull out to the developers. One of the primary purposes of the original Act was to antagonize societal segregation but now this duty is efficaciously left in the custodies of the developer.

2.7 Government Intervention in Irish Housing Provision

The followers are the most of import illustrations of Government intercessions in relation to the Irish lodging market.

2.7.1 Local Authority House Building Scheme

The 1966 Housing Act places an duty on local governments to supply lodging for those who can non afford appropriate lodging for themselves.

Redmond, D. and Norris, M. ( 2005 ) province that 300,000 lodging units have been provided to day of the month, since the debut of the Local Authority House Building Scheme.

2.7.2 House Purchase Loan Scheme

The House Purchase Loan Scheme was introduced for those who have had an unsuccessful loan application with a edifice society, bank or any other lending establishment to construct or to purchase a residential belongings. This strategy gave a individual an alternate option as to avail of a local authorization loan. To have this loan the applier must non transcend an income of a‚¬40,000 as a individual income family or a‚¬100,000 as a double income family and must hold been refused a loan by a bank or edifice society.

2.7.3 Tenant Purchase Scheme

The Tenant Purchase Scheme was introduced under Section 90 of the 1966 Housing Act. Section 90 allowed a local authorization to sell on a societal house to the renter. The Act besides allowed a local authorization to sell a vacant house to whomever they deemed suited, one time the prospective buyer is in demand of lodging.

2.7.4 1999 Low-cost Housing Scheme

The low-cost lodging strategy was introduce in March 1999. Under this strategy a individual can buy a house from a local authorization at a decreased rate to the normal market monetary value. The monetary value of the house is subsidised by the Department of the Environment at a‚¬50,000 per house in the Dublin local governments and all metropolis councils and at a‚¬31800 for all other local governments.

2.7.5 Low-cost Housing Provided Under Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000

As summarised in item above in subdivision 2.6.5, Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 empowers a local authorization to obtain up to 20 % of land zoned for residential usage at a decreased rate from a developer to supply societal and low-cost lodging.

2.7.6 Capital Assistance Scheme

Harmonizing to the Department of the Environment ( 2010 ) , the Capital Assistance Scheme enables voluntary lodging organic structures to supply adjustment to run into lodging demands in particular countries, such as of people with disablements, elderly, homelessness, emigres or little households.

2.7.7 Capital Loan and Subsidy Scheme

The Capital Loan and Subsidy Schemes enable voluntary organic structures with the agencies to supply rental lodging for low income households.

2.8 Decision

Government policy has led to both a high proprietor occupier rate of lodging in Ireland and besides high house monetary values. The purposes of the Irish Housing Policy has been greatly affected by authorities constabularies. Housing had become less low-cost due to old inducements which encouraged investing and guess in the market. It was non until the 1990 ‘s when the issue of lodging affordability arose. This led to the committee of the Bacon Reports on lodging in Ireland.

The issue of Social and Affordable lodging proviso in Ireland became more of import during the belongings roar due to lifting monetary values. This looked to hold been on its manner to rectification in the Planning and Development Act 2000 which brought about a sense of coordination in lodging proviso. However the potency of Part V of the Planning and Development Act 2000 as a mechanism for guaranting sustainable proviso of Social and Affordable Housing without societal segregation was greatly depleted with the debut of the Amendment Act in 2002, which provided excessively many options for conformity by developers. In the current market downswing, low-cost lodging in its current pretense has arguably lost importance in comparing to societal lodging due to values of all belongings falling. Therefore updated statute law in relation to Part V is necessary to rectify the current weakening lodging policy.


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